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Full text of "Yearbook of the United States Department of Agriculture"

Historic, archived document 

Do not assume content reflects current 
scientific knowledge, policies, or practices. 



YEAEBOOK 



OF THE 



UNITED STATES 



DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



18 9 4. 




WASHINGTON: 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE. 
1895. 



[Public— No. 15.] 
AN" ACT providing for the public printing and binding and the distribution of public documents. 

# * #■ # * * * 

Section 73, paragraph 2 : 

The Annual Report of the Secretary of Agriculture shall hereafter be submitted 
and printed in two parts, as follows : Part one, which shall contain purely business 
and executive matter which it is necessary for the Secretary to submit to the Presi- 
dent and Congress; part two, which shall contain such reports from the different 
bureaus and divisions, and such papers prepared by their special agents, accom- 
panied by suitable illustrations, as shall, in the opinion of the Secretary, be specially 
suited to interest and instruct the farmers of the country, and to include a general 
report of the operations of the Department for their information. There shall be 
printed of part one, one thousand copies for the Senate, two thousand copies for the 
House, and three thousand copies for the Department of Agriculture ; and of part two, 
one hundred and ten thousand copies for the use of the Senate, three hundred and 
sixty thousand copies for the use of the House of Representatives, and thirty thou- 
sand copies for the use of the Department of Agriculture, the illustrations for the 
same to be executed under the supervision of the Public Printer, in accordance with 
directions of the Joint Committee on Printing, said illustrations to be subject to the 
approval of the Secretary of Agriculture ; and the title of each of the said j>arts shall 
bo such as to show that such part is complete in itBelf. 
2 



PREFACE. 



The Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture for 1894 has been 
prepared in compliance with section 73 of the "act providing for the 
public printing and binding and the distribution of public documents," 
approved January 12, 1895, and in accordance with the instructions of 
the Secretary of Agriculture based thereon. 

The Annual Eeport of the Secretary of Agriculture, which has of late 
years been published in an edition of half a million copies for distribu- 
tion to the farmers of the country, chiefly by Senators, Representa- 
tives, and Delegates in Congress, while comprising the administrative 
reports of the Secretary and the chiefs of bureaus and divisions, had, 
perhaps unavoidably, included discussions of the investigations carried 
on in the Department, and contained matter better suited to scien- 
tific monographs. The report has been chiefly useful on account of 
these papers, and not on account of details of the administrative busi- 
ness of the Department. The separation of the scientific reports and 
other useful information designed tor the instruction of the ordinary 
citizen from the purely executive and business matter lias been accom- 
plished by the publication of the latter, as provided in the act of Janu- 
ary 12, 1895, by itself, as a part of the Message and Documents 
Communicated to the two Houses of Congress, while special reports 
and papers contributed from the several bureaus and divisions, suited 
to interest and instruct the farmers of the country, and including, for 
their information, a general report of the operations of the Department, 
are here presented under the title of "Yearbook of the United States 
Department of Agriculture for 1894." 

The present volume represents but imperfectly the ideal of what such 
a yearbook should be. The matter of the change of character of the 
report was not considered until many of the papers for the usual annual 
report had been prepared and submitted, and the law did not finally 
pass until after the usual time for filing the report. The best that could 
be done under the circumstances, therefore, was to select from the mat- 
ter in hand the most meritorious papers, representing a variety of differ- 
ent lines of work carried on in the Department, and to adapt them to 
the purposes of the new publication. 

This volume is divided into three sections : 

First. The Eeport of the Secretary of Agriculture for 1894, giving a 
general account of the operations of the Department during the year. 

3 



4 PREFACE. 

Second. A series of papers, prepared for the most part by the chiefs 
of bureaus and divisions and their assistants, discussing either the gen- 
eral work of their bureaus or divisions, or particular lines of work with 
special referenced interesting and instructing the farmer. 

Third. An appendix made up of statistical tables and information 
useful for reference, compiled in the various bureaus and divisions. 

It is believed that the character of the volume can be improved from 
year to year until it shall become finally a standard book of reference 
for American farmers. 

Public Printer Benedict has cordially cooperated with this Depart- 
ment in the effort to publish a book which in general appearance and 
mechanical work shall be far superior to any former annual report. 
The object has been to illustrate the book as fully as possible with text 
figures made by the very best methods, to print it on good paper, and 
bind it in a substantial manner. In order to enable him to make these 
improvements it was found necessary to omit all the colored litho- 
graphic plates, the expense of which in the past has far surpassed 
their value to the general reader. 

Since the Government prints half a million copies of this publica- 
tion, at an approximate cost of $300,000 annually, to ~say nothing of 
the expense of distribution, every addition to the practical value of the 
book becomes a matter of the utmost importance. 

It is believed that future numbers of this yearbook will still more 
fully justify the new departure, and it is hoped that in the meantime 
the present volume will be received rather as a promise and an earnest 
of improvement than as a fulfillment of the purpose contemplated by 
the change. 

Chas. W. Dabney, Jr., 

Assistant Secretary. 

Washington, D. Co, June <9, 1895. 



CONTENTS. 



Page. 

Report of the Secretary of Agriculture 9 

The Federal Meat Inspection. By D. E. Salmon 67 

Education and Research in Agriculture in the United States, By A. C. True.. 81 

What Meteorology Can Do for the Farmer. By M. W. Harrington 117 

The Value of Forecasts. By H. H. C. Dunwoody 121 

Soils in Their Relation to Crop Production. By Milton Whitney 129 

Water as a Factor in the Growth of Plants. By B. T. Galloway and A. F. 

AVoods 165 

Mineral Phosphates as Fertilizers. By H. W. Wiley 177 

Fertilization of the Soil as Affecting the Orange in Health and Diseases. By 

H.J. Webber 193 

The Geographic Distribution of Animals and Plants in North America. By 

C. HartMerriam - 203 

Hawks and Owls as Related to the Farmer. By A. K. Fisher 215 

The Crow Blackbirds and Their Food. By F. E. L. Beal 233 

Some Scale Insects of the Orchard. By L. O. Howard 249 

The More Important Insects Injurious to Stored Grain. By F. H. Chittenden.. 277 

The Dairy Herd : Its Formation and Management. By II. E. Alvord 295 

Some Practical Suggestions for the Suppression and Prevention of Bovine 

Tuberculosis. By Theobald Smith 317 

The Pasteurization and Sterilization of Milk. By E. A. do Schweinitz 331 

Food and Diet. By W. O. At water 357 

Pure Seed Investigation. By Gilbert H. Hicks 389 

The Grain Smuts : Their Causes and Prevention. By W. T. Swingle 409 

Grasses as Sand and Soil Binders. By F. Lamson-Scribner 421, 580 

Sketch of the Relationship between American and Eastern Asian Fruits. By 

L. H. Bailey 437 

Facts Concerning Ramie. By Charles R. Dodge 443 

Forestry for Farmers. By B. E. Fernow 461 

Best Roads for Farms and Farming Districts. By Roy Stone 501 

State Highways in Massachusetts. By George A. Perkins 505 

Improvement of Public Roads in North Carolina. By Prof. J. A. Holmes, State 

Geologist 513 

APPENDIX. 

Organization of the Department of Agriculture 523 

Agricultural institutions and experiment stations 526 

List of institutions in the United States having courses in agriculture. .. 526 
The locations, directors, dates of organization and reorganization, and princi- 
pal lines of work of the agricultural experiment stations in the United States. 527 
Weather conditions of the crop of 1894 529 

5 



6 CONTENTS. 

Page. 

Directions for procedure in case of apparent death by lightning 533 

Wholesale prices of principal agricultural products in the leading cities of the 

United States 534 

Exports of the products of domestic agriculture for the years ending June 30, 

1890, 1891, 1892, 1893, and 1894 540 

Imports of agricultural products for the years ending June 30, 1890, 1891, 1892, 

1893, and 1894 543 

Farm prices on December 1, 1890, 1891, 1892, 1893, and 1894 545 

Freight rates in effect January 1, 1891, 1892, 1893, 1894, 1895, in cents per 100 

pounds 546 

Human foods 547 

Composition of different food materials — refuse, water, nutrients — and fuel 

value per pound 547 

Nutrients obtained for 10 cents in different foods at ordinary prices 551 

Prices used in estimating cost of daily dietaries 553 

Daily dietaries — food materials furnishing approximately the 0.28 pound 
of protein and 3,500 calories of energy of the standard for daily dietary 

of uman at moderate muscular work 553 

Standards for daily dietaries for people of different classes 557 

European standards for daily dietaries 557 

American standards for daily dietaries . . . _ 558 

Feeding stuffs for animals 558 

Composition of feeding stuffs 558 

Digestibility of feeding stuffs 562 

Feeding standards 563 

Calculation of rations 564 

Fertilizing constituents of feeding stuffs and farm products 565 

Fertilizers 571 

Amount and value of manure produced by different farm animals 572 

Methods of controlling injurious insects, with formulas for insecticides 572 

Insecticides (directions for their preparation and use) 574 

Paris green and london purple 574 

Poison bait 575 

Hellebore 575 

Pyrethrum 575 

Soaps 575 

Kerosene emulsion ^ 575 

The resin wash 575 

The hydrocyanic-acid gas treatment 576 

Bisulphide of carbon 576 

A cheap orchard-spraying outfit 576 

Treatment for fungous diseases of plants — . 577 

Formulas for fungicides 579 

Grasses as sand and soil binders 421, 580 

Table of one hundred weeds 581 

Farmers' bulletins 587 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 



PLATES. 



Page. 
Plate T. Red-tailed Hawk (JButeo borealis) - 224 
II. Sparrow Hawk (Falco sparverius) . 224 
IH. Barred Owl (Syrrtium nebulosum). 224 
IV. Ramie: Dried stalks, raw fiber, 
deguinmed fiber, and manufac- 
tures 

Y. Ramie in detail: Ramie stalks, 
machine-cleaned fiber, Chinese 
hand-cleaned fiber 456 



444 



Page. 



Plate YI. Section of macadamized road 
near Camden, K. C, showing 
size of loads hauled over it. . . 
VII. Section of shell road, 8 miles 
long, "Wilmington to Wrights- 
ville, Kew Hanover County, 
N.C 



TEXT FIGURES. 



Fig. 1. Mechanical separation of the 
gravel, sand, silt, and clay in 20 

frams of subsoil of the Columb- 
ia formation at Marley, Md., 
adapted to early truck 134 

2. Mechanical separation of the 

gravel, sand, silt, and clay in 20 

frams of subsoil of the Colum- 
ia formation at Marley, Md., 
adapted to cabbage and early 
truck crops — 135 

3. Mechanical separation of the 

gravel, sand, silt, and clay in 20 
grams of the limestone subsoil 
from Frederick, Md., adapted to 
wheat and grass 136 

4. Mechanical separation of the 

gravel, sand, silt, and clay in 20 
grams of subsoil from Poqno- 
nock, Conn., adapted to tobacco. 147 

5. Mechanical separation of the 

gravel, sand, silt, and clay in 20 
grams of subsoil of the Podunk 
district, East Hartford, Conn., 
adapted to tobacco 148 

6. Curves showing the amount of 

moisture in the tobacco soils at 
Poquonock, East. Hartford, and 
Hatfield, in the Connecticut Val- 
ley 149 

7. Average amount of water main- 

tained in 20 grams of tobacco 
soils at Poquonock, East Hart- 
ford, and Hatfield, in the Con- 
necticut Valley 150 

8. Mechanical separation of the 

gravel, sand, silt, and clay in 20 

frams of subsoil from Marietta, 
'a., adapted to tobacco 152 

9. Curves showing the amount of 

moisture in tobacco soils 153 

10. The average amount of water in 20 

grams of tobacco soils of Poquo- 
nock and Marietta 154 

11. Average yield of corn in Imshels per 

acre in Kansas, sixteen years ... 158 

12. Cross section of root — 169 

13. Root hair in the soil, showing ab- 

sorption of moisture — 169 

14. Roothairs 170 

15. Section of leaf 172 

16. Effect of fertilizing vegetable soil 

with phosphates and other sub- 
stances 188 

17. Effect of fertilizing muck soil with 

different phosphates 189 

18. Orange twigs, showing effects of 

die-back 193 

19. Orange fruit, showing effects of die- 

back 200 

20. Map showing life zones of the 

TJnited States 209 



Fig. 21. Swain son's Hawk (Buteo swain- 
soni) 

22. Burrowing Owl (Speotyto cunicu- 

laria hypogeea) 

23. Great Horned Owl {Bubo virgini- 

anus) 

24. Cooper's Hawk (Accipitcr eooperi) . 

25. The Crow Blackbird 

26. MytUaspis pomorum : Female scale 

from below; female scales ; male 
scales on twig 

27. Mytilaspis pomorum: Adult male; 

foot of same; young larva,- an- 
tenna of same; adult femalo 
taken from scale 

28. Ohionaspis furfurus : Female 

29. Ohionaspis furfurus: Adult male 

from above 

30. Aspidiotus camellia: Female scale 

from above; mass of scales as ap- 
pearing on bark ; male scale; male 
scales on twig; female scales on 
twig 

31. Aspidiotus camellia : Young larva; 

adult female removed from scale 
and seen from below 

32. Aspidiotus juglans-regiw : Female 

scale; male chrysalis; male 
scales on twig; female scales on 
twig 

33. Aspidiotus juglans-rtgine : Newly 

hatched larva; antenna of same ; 
foot of same ; femalo just before 
last molt ; full-grown male larva ; 
adult male ; adult female 

34. Diaspis lanatus: Branch covered 

with male and female scales; 
female scale; male scale; group 
of male scales 

35. Diaspis lanatus: Adult female re- 

moved from scale 

36. Diaspis lanatus : Adult male 

37. Diaspis lanatus: Larva, greatly 

enlarged. -, 

38. Aspidiotus perniciosus on pear fruit 

and twig, with enlarged male and 
female scales 

39. Aspidiotus perniciosus: Adult fe- 

male removed from scale, show- 
ing embryonic young; anal 
plate 

40. Aspidiotus perniciosus : Adultmale, 

greatly enlarged 

41. Lecanium persxece : Newly hatched 

larva; unimpregnated female; 
twig with full-grown females; 
femalo form above and below and 
cut longitudinally, all enlarged 
except specimens on twig 

42. Lecanium ptersicce: Full-grown 

male scalo; pupa; adult male; 
leaf with young male scales 



218 

226 

228 
230 
233 

257 

258 
259 

260 

261 
262 

263 



267 
267 



269 



270 
273 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Fig. 43. 
44 

45, 
46, 

47, 
48. 
49. 
50. 



51. 

52. 

53. 

54. 
55. 
66. 

57. 
58. 
59. 

60. 
61. 
62. 
63. 
64. 

65. 

66. 

67. 

68. 
69. 

70. 
71. 

72. 

73. 

74. 

75. 

76. 

77. 

78. 

79. 
80. 
81. 

82. 
83. 



84. 
85. 



87. 
88. 



90. 
91. 



Page. 
Calandra granaria: Ad nit beetle; 
larva; pupa; Calandra oryza: 

Beetle, all enlarged •. 279 

Gelcchia cercalella: Larva; pupa; 
moth ; egg ; kernel of corn opened, 
showing larva feeding; anal seg- 
ment of pupa 282 

Ear of pop-corn, showing work of 

Angoumois grain moth 283 

Ephestia kuehniella : Moth ; moth, 
from side, resting; larva; pupa; 
abdominal joint of larva moro 

enlarged 284 

Plodia interpunctella: Moth ; chrys- 
alis; caterpillar; head and first 
abdominal segment of caterpillar 285 
Pyralis farinalis: Adult moth; 
larva; chrysalis; head of larva; 
anal segment of same ; tip of pupa 286 
Silvanus surinamensis: Adult bee- 
tle; pupa; larva; antenna of 

larva 287 

Tribolium confunum: Adult beetle; 
larva ; pupa ; lateral lobe of abdo- 
men of pupa; head of beetle, 

showing antenna 289 

Echocerusmaxillosus: Larva; pupa; 

adult male 290 

Sterilizing apparatus used in the 

Bureau of Animal Industry 333 

The Koch oven, interior and exte- 
rior views 334 

Koplik's pasteurizer 334 

Fjord's pasteurizing apparatus 336 

German sterilizer stopper 337 

German sterilizing flasks 337 

German sterilizer 338 

Copper holders used in Straus's 

plant 339 

Copper boiler used in Straus's plant 339 

Appleberg's sterilizing box 340 

Milk filter 343 

Theil's pasteurizing apparatus 344 

Hochmuth's pasteurizing appara- 

, tus 345 

Section of Hochmuth's pasteuriz- 
ing apparatus 345 

Hochmuth's pasteurizing appara- 
tus, with parts arranged horizon- 
tally 346 

Hochmuth's compound pasteuriz 

ing apparatus 346 

Ahlborn's pasteurizing apparatus. 347 
Ahlborn's pasteurizing apparatus, 

modified form . 347 

Ahren's pasteurizing apparatus. . . 347 
Dierks & Mollman's pasteurizing 

apparatus 348 

Pasteurizing apparatus, construct- 
ed by Lefeldt & Leutsch 349 

Pasteurizing apparatus — after 

Bitter 350 

Milk cooler— by Schmidt, in Bret- 
ten 351 

Sterilizing apparatus,byNeuhauss- 

Gronwald-Oehlmann 352 

Milk - sterilizing apparatus —after 

Paul Ritter von Hamm 353 

Bottling sterilizing apparatus 354 

Soxhlet's patent sterilizing bottles 

and top 355 

Sterilizing box 355 

Composition of food materials 363 

Pecuniary economy of food 365 

Dietaries and dietary standards.. . 374 
Seed-germinating apparatus used 
by the United States Depart- 
ment of Agriculture 402 

Germinating pan 403 

Nobbe's germinating apparatus. .. 404 
Homemade germinating apparatus 405 

Clover-seed samplers 406 

Samples of sieve meshes 407 

Set of sieves for cleaning seeds 407 

Diagram of seed-cleaning machine 

<after Settegast) 408 

Bottle used in the United States 
National Herbarium for small 
seeds 408 



Fig. 92. 
93. 
94. 
95. 
96. 

97. 



99, 
100. 

101. 

102. 

103. 
104. 



106. 
107. 



108. 



109. 
110. 



111. 
112. 



113. 
114. 



115. 
116. 



117, 
118 
119, 
120, 



121. 
122, 



123. 
124. 



126. 
127. 
128. 

129. 



131. 
132. 
133. 
134. 
135. 
136. 
137. 
138. 



Pago. 
Head of beardless wheat affected 

with smut 410 

Head of bearded wheat affected 

with smut 410 

Head of wheat affected with loose 

smut in the lower half 411 

Head of wheat affected with loose 

smut— harvest time 411 

Head of oats affected with smut, 
but having the chaff only partly 

destroyed 413 

Head of oats affected with smut, 
having the chaff only partially 

destroyed ; decidedly smutty 413 

Final stage of smut, showing con- 
dition of head at harvest time. . . 413 
Diagram showing arrangement for 

treating smut 416 

Marram grass on the sand dunes 
near the mouth of the Kalamazoo 

Hi ver, Michigan 422 

Marram grass {Ammophila arena- 

ria) 423 

Upright sea lyme grass (Elymus 

arenarius) 424 

Rolling spinifex (Spinifcx hirsutus) 425 
St. Augustine grass (Stentaphrum 

americanum) 426 

Louisiana grass (Paspalum com- 

pressum) 427 

Coast couch (Zoysia pungens) 428 

Long-leafed sand grass (Calamo- 

vilfa longifolia) 429 

Redfield's grass (Iiedfieldia fiex- 

uosa) . 430 

Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon) 431 
Fresh-water cord grass (Spartina 

cynosuroides) 432 

Plant showing crown roots 419 

Plant showing roots to be sub- 
divided 449 

Ramie stalks ready for cutting 450 

Stalks of ramie, showing new 

growth of leaves 450 

Seed-bearing racemes 451 

Physiological importance of differ- 
ent parts of the tree ; pathways 
of water and food materials. 

(Schematic) 468 

Bud development of beech 470 

Buds of maple 470 

Dormant bud 471 

Section through a twelve-year-old 
stem of beech, showing manner 

of bud and limb formation 471 

Section through a partly decayed 

knot of oak wood ." 472 

Development in and out of the 

forest 473 

Trees in and out of the forest 474 

Sections of logs, showing the rela- 
tive development of knots 475 

Scheme to illustrate the arrange- 
ment of annual growth 476 

Oak tree grown in the open 477 

Maple tree grown in the forest 477 

Showing plan of group system in 

regenerating a forest crop 490 

Appearance of regeneration by 

group method 493 

Method of layering to produce new 

stocks in coppice wood 495 

Cross section of Canandaigua roads 502 
Underdrain for wet places in roads 502 

Underdrain for porous roads 502 

Drainage for macadam bed 503 

Three-track road 503 

Prepared roadbed 503 

Finished road 503 

Average daily departures of normal 
temperature and weekly depart- 
ures from normal precipitation 
from April 9 to October 1, 1894.. 529 
Average daily departures of nor- 
mal temperature and weekly 
departures from normal precipi- 
tation from April 9 to October 1, 

1894 530 

Orchard-spraying apparatus 576 



YEARBOOK 

OF THE 

U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF AGRICULTURE. 

Mr. President : 

In compliance with law and custom, the Secretary of Agriculture lias 
the honor now to submit the Annual Report for that Department for 
the fiscal year ending June 30, 1894. The data, statements, and sug- 
gestions contained herein show how much work has been performed, 
howmany people have been employed, what expenses have beenincurred, 
what improvements have been made in the service as to efficiency, and 
what economies in disbursements have been effected. 

A critical perusal of the work of each bureau and division, as herein 
narrated, will impress the conclusion that, while six hundred thousand 
dollars ($600,000) have been covered back into the Treasury out of the 
annual appropriation — the same being 23 per cent of the entire sum 
set apart for the use of the Department of Agriculture for that fiscal 
year — economy has not diminished efficiency. 

FOREIGN MARKETS FOR AMERICAN FARM PRODUCTS. 

During the year the labor of finding where the greatest demand for 
the surplus farm products of the United States has developed outside 
of their limits has been persistently and intelligently alert and active. 

There is nothing of greater or more vital importance to the farmers 
of the United States than the widening of the markets for their prod- 
ucts. It is the demand for wheat, the demand for beef, the demand for 
pork, the demand for all the products of human industry which confers 
a money value upon them in markets. Therefore, the relation of sup- 
ply to demand is the creator of prices and the sole regulator of values. 
Holding such views, the Secretary of Agriculture has carefully studied 
and enumerated the demands for American agricultural products in 
the principal markets of the world. 

THE FARMER'S PRINCIPAL BEEF MARKET. 

During the nine months ending September 30, 1894, the farmers and 
stock raisers of the United States have sold, and there have been 
exported, to the United Kingdom of Great Britain three hundred and 

1 A 94- — 1* 9 



10 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

five thousand nine hundred and ten (305,910) live beef cattle, valued 
at twenty-six million five hundred thousand dollars ($26,500,000). 
During the same period of the year 1893 only one hundred and eighty- 
two thousand six hundred and eleven (182,611) live beef cattle from 
the United States were taken by the British markets, at a valuation 
of sixteen million six hundred and thirty-four thousand dollars 
($16,634,000). The small consumption of American beef in England last 
year was due to restrictions imposed by law, and also to the low prices 
of domestic beef in England, because of the scarcity there of feeding 
stuffs, which enforced slaughtering. The increase of the present year 
does not quite restore the average of the cattle trade between the 
United States and England. Canada is practically the only competi- 
tor with the United States for the English live-cattle trade. The regu- 
lations governing the importation into England of live stock are the 
same as to animals from the United States and Canada, no discrimi- 
nation being made for or against either class. All of the animals are, 
under the provisions of English law, slaughtered immediately upon 
arrival at British ports. 

Large proportions of the meat thus taken into England are sold in 
the retail markets of London, Liverpool, and other cities, as " prime 
Scotch" or "English beef." Under that classification the butcher 
demands and secures a better price than he could with the meat 
known and sold as Canadian or American. This method is a splendid 
indorsement of the quality of American beef. It has, however, been the 
occasion of much contention, and at last resulted in a Government inves- 
tigation. The official report of a select committee of the House of Com- 
mons on "the marking of foreign meat" was published in August, 1893. 
It states in the summary, on the evidence taken before the committee, 
that in "large West End of London" establishments which profess to 
sell nothing but English and Scotch meats there is practically no other 
meat than American sold. The committee show that in each case the 
prices charged were such as would be justified only had the meat been 
purchased, wholesale, at the price commanded by the best English 
fattened and killed meat. The conclusions of the committee of the 
British House of Commons were to the effect that it would be a vexatious 
and unworkable scheme to attempt to compel the labeling, as to its 
origin, of each piece of meat offered for sale. The committee suggested 
that butchers dealing in imported meats should be compelled to reg- 
ister themselves as such dealers, and also pay a fee which might 
be applied toward defraying the costs of meat inspection. Nothing, 
however, has been done in pursuance of the recommendations of this 
committee. 

In England it is not believed that legislation can prevent the sale 
of American and other imported fresh beef as Scotch and English beef. 
The beef from the United States is of such excellent quality and so 
very similar to the best English beef that even experts are unable to 



REPORT OP THE SECRETARY OF AGRICULTURE. It 

distinguish between the two. Any law which might be enacted would 
fail to repress the sale of American meat in English markets. The 
statute, however, might curtail the profits of butchers. The lower 
price which they could only obtain for imported meat, sold as such, 
would have a direct tendency to increase its consumption, and thus to 
make more demand for American beef. 

The trade in live cattle between the two countries has been of the 
greatest advantage to the British people. During the six months of 
the year from March to September, when their cattle are fattening on 
the pastures, American steers are arriving in large quantities and of 
superior condition and flavor. Long ago it would have been generally 
admitted in England that American beef is superior, from March to 
September every year, to English beef produced during those six 
months, except for a certain national prejudice which is common to all 
countries. 

During the year regulations have been made which compel the Cana* 
dian cattle to be slaughtered at the port of debarkation. These regu- 
lations interfere somewhat with the United States beef trade. Formerly 
Canadian cattle were put in English pastures and fattened. Now, like 
those from the United States, they must be killed immediately upon 
arrival. Cargoes of Canadian and American cattle arriving siinultane* 
ously at a British port, both being ordered to slaughter at once, would 
naturally at such times momentarily depress prices. As a rule, Canadian 
cattle are not equal in condition to ours. They generally bring smaller 
prices- Canadian distillery-fed cattle, however, are Very fine, and com- 
mand higher figures. At the present moment there are three times as 
many Canadian cattle being fed at distilleries for export as were fed 
last year. American shippers may, therefore, look for that competition 
in the spring. It may not be considered very important, however, as 
the number will not exceed 20,000 at furthest ; but the competition is 
worth noticing. 

The live-beef trade is conducted at different ports with slight differ- 
ences. At Deptforcl sales are private on the hoof. At Liverpool half 
of the animals are sold privately. The other half are slaughtered on 
account of shippers and sold to buyers by the carcass. The Liver- 
pool surplus makes its way to London, and a large part of it, beyond 
question, is so ■" cut up 7? as to simulate ■" prime Scotch joints." At 
Glasgow and Bristol nearly all animals are sold at auction on the hoof. 
The charges do not differ very materially at the various ports. The 
following may be taken as the average costs at each place of debark- 
ation: Dock dues? use of slaughterhouse, etc., $1.20 per head ; subsist- 
ence per day, 24 cents ;. commission of salesman on each animal, 96 
cents ; driving (feeding, attending, etc.), 24 cents* The shipper who 
gets out with British terminal charges of $3.75 per head upon his 
cattle considers himself fortunate. Add to the above charges, freight 
$11, and $1.50 for the feed and attendance of each animal on the 



12 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

voyage, and $1.00 for insurance, and we have a total expense for each 
animal shipped of $17.85. This represents very nearly accurately the 
expense of getting a beef animal from the American port into the hands 
of the British buyer. 

October 25, 1894, good American steers were bringing in the British 
market $85 each. The best weight of cattle for shipment is 1,350 to 
1,400 pounds, making a dead weight of about 750 pounds. In England 
the offal (especially in London and Liverpool, where large numbers of 
poor people purchase it) is considered of great importance. Heads, 
tails, livers, kidneys, lights, and hoofs go to one buyer, and the hides 
and inside fat to another. Parliament disinclines toward the encourage- 
ment of a trade in dressed meat, because that would shut out the offal ; 
but if the American cattle are killed at home, properly dressed, and 
sent to Europe in a state of refrigeration, the cost of American beef 
will be reduced in all those markets. By killing at home and shipping 
only the dressed carcasses, bulk is compacted, value is enhanced, and 
the cost of transportation is reduced, so that the poor, who heretofore 
have bought offal, may be able to buy good meat instead. 

During the first six months of the year 1894 there were exported to 
the United Kingdom of Great Britain one hundred and twelve million 
(112,000,000) pounds of dressed beef, valued at nearly ten millions of 
dollars. This trade in dressed beef is almost entirely in the hands 
of American citizens. Their principal competitors are found in Aus- 
tralasia. The question whether more profit remains with the producer 
from shipping live beef cattle or carcasses to European markets is 
one which requires thorough investigation. At the present writing 
it is deemed probable that more advantage and profit will result to 
the American farmer from the shipment of dressed beef than from the 
exportation of live cattle. 

European governments are constantly declaring live animals from 
the United States diseased. These declarations are sometimes made 
for fear of infection of their own herds, and at other times, it is 
believed, for economic reasons. If all American beef going abroad 
is shipped in carcasses, and it is all stamped u inspected" as wholesome 
and edible, by authority of the Government of the United States, it 
certainly can not be shut out afterwards on account of alleged Texas 
fever, pleuropneumonia, tuberculosis, or any other disease. But if 
certain European nations continue to demand legally authorized micro- 
scopic inspection of American pork and require also veterinary inspec- 
tion for beef with Government certification to each, then why ought 
not the Government of the United States to demand that all imports 
from foreign countries for human consumption — either edibles or 
beverages— must likewise be certificated by the authorities of those 
foreign governments as wholesome and unadulterated before they are 
permitted to be sold in the United States'? 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF AGRICULTURE. 



13 



AMERICAN HOG PRODUCTS. 

Besides consuming such a vast proportion of the beef exported from 
the United States, the United Kingdom of Great Britain is likewise a 
voracious customer for American bacon, hams, and lard. Between 20 
and 25 per cent of the flesh food of the people of the United Kingdom 
consists of hog products. About 13 per cent of those hog products 
comes from other Countries, and 14 per cent of the live cattle and 
dressed beef and mutton is also imported. 

There were taken into the United Kingdom from the United States, 
in 1893, two hundred and forty- three million eight hundred and 
twenty-four thousand (243,824,000) pounds of bacon, valued at twenty- 
six million eight hundred and fifty thousand dollars ($26,850,000). 

During the nine months ending September 30, 1894, the United 
States sent into England two hundred and twenty-two million six hun- 
dred and seventy-six thousand (222,676,000) pounds, against one hun- 
dred and seventy-nine million eight hundred and seventy-two thousand 
(179,872,000) pounds during the corresponding nine months of 1893. 
Thus our trade with Great Britain in hog products shows an increase 
of nearly forty-five million (45,000,000) pounds this year. This, how- 
ever, does not restore to us the position we occupied prior to the year 
1893 as principal purveyor to Great Britain. Nor do the values make 
as good a showing as they should; for, notwithstanding the increase 
in quantity, there is a shrinkage in value of half a million of dollars; 
while the bacon imported to the United Kingdom during the same 
period increased fifty-six million pounds. The hog products from other 
countries than the United States did not fall in value proportionally 
with ours. This is shown by the market quotations throughout the 
year. 

Imports of pig products > beef, mutton, etc., into the United Kingdom during the first nine 
months of the years 1892-1894. 



[From the official returns of the British Board of Trade.] 




Product. 


Imports for first nine 


months — 


Value of imports first nine months — 


1894. 


1893. 


1892. 


1894. 


1893. 


1892. 


Bacon : 

From Denmark cwt. . 

Germany do.. 

Canada do.. 

United States .do.. 
Other countries, 


607, 577 

300 

178, 878 

1, 988, 203 

73, 542 


542, 49C 

9,499 

113, 626 

1, 606, 348 

77, 336 


530, 814 

2,987 

189, 999 

2, 295, 841 

53, 247 


$8, 614, 882 

4,275 

1, 790, 871 

19, 357, 376 

950, 712 


$7,988,400 

141, 6C6 

1, 415, 041 

19, 857, 315 

998, 578 


$7, 305, 375 

36, 546 

1, 763, 800 

20, 031, 048 

677, 368 






Total 


2,848,500 


2, 349, 305 


3, 072, 888 


30, 717, 916 


30, 401, 000 


29, 814, 137 


Hams, bulk, United States, 


887, 740 
178, 1GC 


757, 609 
145, 422 


1, 013, 044 
204, 737 


10, 704, 687 
1, 261, 967 


11, 067, 636 
947, 742 


11, 545, 579 


Beef (salted), United States, 
cwt 


1, 425, 879 



14 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OP AGRICULTURE. 

Imports of pig products, oeef, mutton, etc. — Continued. 
[From the official returns of the British. Board of Trade.] 



Product. 


Imports for first nine months — 


Value of imports firstnine months — 


1894, 


1893. 


1892. 


1894. 


1893. 


1892. 


Beef (fresh) : 

From United States. cwt.. 
Other countries, 


1, 350, 635 

243, 118 

107,335 

59, 869 


1, 109, 396 

223, 271 

80, 965 

59, 514 


1,434,813 
96, 784 
125, 494 
55, 468- 


$13, 995, 094 

1, 778, 705 

853, 440 

398,620 


$11, 958, 870 

1, 889, 774 

730, 400 

353,080 


$15, 106, 349 
763, 973 
846,775 
302,559 


Pork (salted) : 

From United States .cwt . . 
Other countries, 




Pork (fresh) : 

From Holland cwt. . 

Belgium do.. 

Other countries, 
cwt' 


77, 491 
16, 638 

15, 019 


79, 515 
16,159 

23, 844 


49, 342 
11, 063 

6,189 


888, 079 
203, 523 

198-, 844 


928, 950 
195, 642 

313, 474 


581, 111 
131, 952 

65,48$ 






Total 


109, 148 


119,518 


66, 594 


1, 289, 066 


1,438,066 


778, 551 






Meat (unenumerated) : 

From Holland cwt. . 

United States . . do . . 

Other countries, 

cwt 


83, 118 
21,710 

33,431 


91, 294 

15, 784 

30, 626 


79,978 

16, 785 

18, 704 


882, 086 
195, 802 

386, 470 


997, 222 
164,549 

350,913 


885, 384 
174, 744 

214, 879 






Total 


138, 259 


137, 704 


115, 467 


1, 464, 358 


1, 512, 684 


1,275,007 






Meat (preserved otherwise 
than by salting): 

Beef cwt... 

Mutton do.. 

Other sorts do.. 


193, 044 

85,069 

108, 950 


264, 805 
64, 023 
99, 961 


399, 882 

47, 825 

128, 169 


2, 674> 043 

723, 779 

1, 715, 507 


3,253,040 

584, 957 

1, 730, 786 


4,820,362 

465,942 

1, 811, 602 


Total 


387, 063 


428, 789 


575, 876 


5, 113, 329 


5, 568, 783 


7, 077, 906 






Mutton (fresh) : 

From Germany cwt. . 

Holland do.. 

Australasia . . . do . . 
Argentine Repub- 
lic cwt.. 

Other countries, 


7,017 

92, 646 

1, 082, 519 

424, 958 

58, 826 


16, 335 
98, 498 
949, 232 

384, 297 

51, 531 


19, 857 
73, 902 
796,933 

354, 500 

48, 355 


83, 007 
1, 028, 625 
10, 226, 000 

3, 735, 288 

637, 626 


199, 269 
1, 101, 809 
9, 202, 762 

3, 499, 960 

574, 009 


249, 674 

865, 334 

7, 945, 568 

3, 185, 367 

570, 633 






Total 


1, 665, 966 


1, 499, 893 


1, 293, 547 


15, 710, 546 


14, 577, 809 


12, 816, 576 







Note.— Cwt. = 112 pounds. 

Ill the fall of 1893 English bacon was commanding nearly as high 
prices as in October, 1894. The decline in the best grades of Irish bacon 
during the same period represents about half a dollar per cwt. (112 
pounds). There is some decline in Banish bacon and Canadian bacon. 
But United States side meats declined more than $2 per cwt. Cum- 
berland cuts have been reduced by $3, and short ribs the same amount 
per cwt. There is also a similarly disproportionate decline in the values 
in England of United States lard. 

Beside the general causes of depression in values of all commodities 
throughout the world, there is a special reason why values of hog 



REPORT OP THE SECRETARY OF AGRICULTURE. 15 

products should have been lower in Great Britain during the last year. 
The drought there during 1893 forced their domestic animals upon a 
glutted market. Thus the price of beef and mutton was brought down 
to a point where they were preferred as of superior value to bacon and 
hams. Another cause for the decline in hog products may be found in 
frozen dressed meats. Excellent mutton can be bought in England at 
the same price as bacon. Therefore a larger number of people who 
fifteen years ago seldom ate other flesh than salted swine flesh now 
purchase New Zealand, Falkland Islands, and other frozen imported 
mutton. In view of the low prices of meat and other food supplies 
pouring into England, there have only lately been expressions of sur- 
prise in the trade journals there that the prices of bacon are maintained 
even at present figures. But the British people are a bacon-eating 
people at breakfast every morning, and no competition of fresh meat is 
likely to alter their habit in this respect. 

The cheaply imported frozen meat largely lessens the consumption of 
bacon among a numerous class of working people who formerly were 
exclusively buyers of our hog products, which then were the cheapest 
in the European markets. Thus a great change in their demand for 
meats— from salt pork to fresh mutton and beef— is one cause of the 
decline ; but there is another reason more potent than this for the com- 
paratively disproportionate fall of the price in the American hog prod- 
uct output throughout the European markets, especially in the United 
Kingdom. The demand there is for a mildly cured, not oversalted, 
and very lean bacon. The nearness to market at the point of produc- 
ing gives to Danish bacon a great advantage. Therefore an astonishing 
growth of packing houses is witnessed upon the Continent, and partic- 
ularly in Denmark. Danish bacon reaches the English market in 
twenty-four hours. It arrives in fine condition. It is cured to meet 
the English taste and demand. The best Danish brands bring within 
a dollar a cwt. of the best Wiltshire. 

Thus a permanent and constantly increasing bacon trade has been 
built up between Denmark and England, which already amounts to 
more than fifty million pounds per annum. In October, 1804, Danish 
bacon is temporarily being diverted by the shortness of the hog crop 
in Germany from the markets of the United Kingdom. For along time 
Germany put a stop by a high tariff duty to the shipment of Danish 
hogs into its domains. Before that prohibition they were shipped there 
to be made into bacon ; but this year German packers are compelled, 
by the decline in the swine crop of that country, to import Danish 
swine and pay the duty thereon, to make up for domestic deficiencies. 

What is gained by carefully studying the character of the demand 
of the foreign markets we seek to supply is well illustrated by the 
figures given above, showing the relative values and quantities of bacon 
exported to Great Britain by Denmark and the United States. While 
the price obtained for Danish bacon is $14.18 per cwt., that obtained for 
bacon from the United States is only $9.72 per cwt. In other words, 



16 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

if the quality of the American bacon offered for sale in the British mar- 
ket had been as well adapted to the taste of the British consumers as 
the Danish, American bacon would have realized $28,192,300 instead 
of the $19,357,376 which it actually did realize. 

The prohibition of American cattle by Germany will stimulate the 
Teutonic consumption of bacon. Therefore, indirectly, but not the less 
effectively, .it will aid in lessening the Danish bacon capacity to 
compete in the British market with hog products from the United 
States. 

The best brands of Canadian singed sides bring in England within 
a half dollar to a dollar per cwt. of the prices of the best grades of 
Danish bacon, and the Canadians command from a half dollar to a 
dollar more than the corresponding American cuts will bring. Canada, 
unlike Denmark, has no advantage over us geographically. Its seem- 
ing superiority in quality is due wholly to the fact that its hog carries 
10 to 15 per cent more of lean and less of fat flesh than the American 
hog. It, therefore, more completely answers the taste and demands of 
the British public, and consequently commands a higher price. The 
imperious British demand for lean bacon is observed in the unceasing- 
attempts of the great Wiltshire packers to obtain lean hogs. The firm 
of Charles & Thomas Harris, Limited, of Calne, England (Wiltshire), 
some time since began to offer a premium for medium-sized pigs. 
Their system of buying is the issuance of a weekly circular, stating the 
prices they are willing to pay for certain sorts of swine. A circular of 
this firm, issued in October, 1894, is as follows : 

Present prices for prime pigs, in lots of not less than ten, on rail within 100 miles of Calne. 



Prime stores. 


Thickness of fat in any part of the back. 


Price 
per 20 
pounds. 




2J inches and under 


s. d. 

7 6 


Under 210 pounds 


Not exceeding 2£ inches 


6 9 




Not exceeding 2| inches - 


6 3 




Not exceeding 3 inches 


6 3 









This circular shows that they offered the largest prices for animals 
running from 130 to 190 pounds which carried not more than 2J inches 
of fat on the back. For such pigs they offered 7s. 6d. " per score " — that 
is, in our money, $1.80 per 20 pounds, or 9 cents a pound live weight. 
Under the Harris plan of purchase it is reported that the percentage 
of lean pigs sent to the Calne market in Wiltshire has risen from 47 to 
75. The public demand for this sort of bacon has been met by the 
farmers by changing the breed. To do this they have raised Tamworths 
and Yorkshires to the exclusion of the Berkshires. The methods of 
this firm of English packers are enlarged upon for the reason that 
Wiltshire bacon is all through Europe recognized as the standard brand, 
and the house of Charles & Thomas Harris is known as the largest and 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF AGRICULTURE. 



17 



best Wiltshire packing concern. Therefore a knowledge of the methods 
which they pursue to maintain their goods in public esteem is in the 
highest degree valuable to the American packers and farmers. The 
fact is demonstrated that the bacon which commands the best price in 
the English market is a lean and not oversalted meat. In view of that 
fact, it is of interest to American producers to place themselves in a 
position to cater especially for a market which demands so much of this 
peculiarly fattened and particularly cured commodity, 

The English lard market italicizes the fact that complaints from retail 
dealers throughout England are constantly being made, through their 
trade journals, regarding the short weights of American lard in pails. 
A prominent London trade journal of October 13, 1894, says: 

The tesult of carefully weighing 50 wood pails of a well-known American, bought, 
as usual ; at shippers' weights and received by us about a fortnight ago, shows 
that the exact weight in each pail (each lid bearing the words "28 pounds net") 
was as follows: 11 pails weigned 27 pounds 2 ounces each; 12 pails weighed 27 
pounds each; 3 pails, 26 pounds 14 ounces each; 15 pails, 27£ pounds each; 2 pails, 
27 pounds 6 ounces each ; 1 pail, 26 pounds 10 ounces ; 2 pails, 27£ pounds each ; 1 
pail, 27 pounds 10 ounces; 3 pails, 26| pounds each, making a shortage of 44-pounds 
on the lot. Retailers in England are combining against short lard weights gen- 
erally, and there is a movement in some of the larger trade centers looking to the 
same end. The result may be a discrimination, amounting in many places to a 
boycott, against all brands which do not weigh out as marked. 

The foregoing somewhat tedious details as to the meat trade of the 
United States with the United Kingdom of Great Britain have been 
secured by personal solicitation of the Secretary of Agriculture, and 
are perfectly reliable down to and inclusive of the first nine months of 
the year 1894. They accentuate the magnitude of that particular foreign 
market for surplus meat products of the farmers of the United States. 

Worthington O. Ford, the very competent and diligent Chief of the 
Bureau of Statistics in the Treasury Department, has furnished the 
Department of Agriculture the following table, which represents the 
quantities and values of bacon, hams, pork, etc., shipped into the United 
Kingdom from the United States during the year ending June 30, 1894: 



Product. 


Quantities. 


Values. 




Pounds. 

334, 985, 389 
73, 894, 248 
14, 272, 957 

150, G55, 158 


$31, 366, 843 
8, 230, 787 
1, 159, 315 
13, 528, 987 











To Mr. Ford the American public is indebted for valuable statistical 
data further illustrative of the foreign markets and the amount of 
American farm products which they consume. In his summary state- 
mentof the imports and exports of the United States, corrected to March 
1, 1894, it will be seen that during the seven months ending January 
31, 1894, the United Kingdom of Great Britain took fourteen million 



18 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OP AGRICULTURE. 

eight hundred and thirty-eight thousand three hundred and sixty- 
seven dollars' ($14,838,367) worth of live cattle from the United States, 
while all other countries took during the same period of time only 
two hundred and thirteen thousand eight hundred and fifty-five dollars' 
($213,855) worth. During the one month of January, 1894, the United 
Kingdom of Great Britain took from the United States thirty-five mil- 
lion two hundred and forty thousand four hundred and thirty-one 
(35,240,431) pounds of. bacon. The balance of the world took during 
the same time nine million five hundred and seventy- six thousand 
seven hundred and seventy (9,576,770) pounds. On page 565 of the 
summary statement referred to, under the head of "Domestic bread- 
stuffs, etc.," exported from the United States, is a recapitulation show- 
ing the amount of breadstuffs, provisions, cotton, and tobacco exported 
from the United States by all countries during the year ending Decem- 
ber 31, 1893. 

This recapitulation shows that the United Kingdom paid to Ameri- 
can producers during that year for breadstuffs, provisions, cotton, and 
tobacco more than three hundred and twenty-four millions of dollars 
($324,000,000). That is to say, the British market bought more than 
one-half of all the farm exports of the United States during that year. 
Including mineral oils with agricultural exports (and there was only 
$10,131,473 worth of oil shipped), the United Kingdom of Great Britain 
took 54.31 per cent of all that was exported from the United States 
during that year. And the entire exports of breadstuffs, provisions, 
mineral oils, cotton, and tobacco from the United States to all parts 
of the world during that year aggregated six hundred and fifteen mil- 
lion five hundred and seventy-four thousand and eighty-six dollars' 
($615,574,086) worth in value. A study of the world's markets demon- 
strates the fact to the producers of meat and breadstuffs in the United 
States that the United Kingdom of Great Britain furnished the largest 
demand for their commodities. 

Besides taking so much of meat and breadstuff's the same country 
took, in the year ending September 30, 1894, one hundred and forty-one 
thousand two hundred and ninety-four (141,294) tons of hay from the 
United States 5 but, owing to the fine hay crop which has recently been 
secured in Great Britain, there will be a great falling off in this respect 
for the coming year. 

Great Britain took thirty-one thousand five hundred and twenty 
(31,520) tons of cheese from the United States during the year which 
ended April 30, 1894, and of butter, for the same period, two thousand 
and twenty-one (2,021) tons. But Denmark furnished, in butter, in 
the same year to Great Britain, forty-eight thousand nine hundred 
and ninety-seven (48,997) tons. From these dairy figures one may rea- 
sonably conclude that the butter and cheese capabilities of the United 
States are only just beginning to be developed. 

One of the lessons of this competition, especially accentuated by the 
conditions of the foreign dairy market, is that quality must be the 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF AGRICULTURE. 



19 



constant aim of the producer. Upon that Denmark has founded and 
developed her wonderful foreign dairy trade. As a producing country, 
competing against all the world in the world's markets, the high 
quality and integrity of our products must be firmly established and 
strictly maintained. Such a reputation is indispensable if we are to 
hold our place in the markets of the world. 

WHEAT IN ENGLISH MARKETS. 

The United Kingdom took in from foreign countries during the nine 
months ending September 30, 1894, nine million (9,000,000) bushels 
more wheat than during the same months in the year 1893; but the 
increased shipments into England of wheat were principally from Eussia, 
the Argentine Eepublic, and Australasia. During that time the United 
States did not maintain its position as a wheat seller in England. In 
those nine months there was a falling off in American wheat upon the 
English markets of thirteen and a half million (13,500,000) Winchester 
bushels. The decline in value was proportionately far greater, and 
amounted to eight million four hundred and thirty-three thousand dok 
lars ($8,433,000). A primary cause for the falling off of American wheat 
in English markets during the early part of this year is found in the 
fact that Argentina was a free seller, while our people maintained 
figures a trifle above the British market. On October 25, 1894, the 
market appears more inclined to higher figures. There is a distinct 
indication of activity and a better trade, with, however, only slightly 
improving prices* Appended hereunto is a table showing the prices 
of American and British wheat, and English barley, and beef and 
potatoes^ during each month of the year 1894 down to and inclusive of 
September 28. 

Prices of certain food products in Great Britain on the first day of each month (or there- 
abouts) of the year 1894. 



Date. 



1894. 

January 5 

February 2 

March 2 

April 1 

May 1 

June 1 

Julyl 

August 3 

August 31 

September 28 . . 



American j -cv^i^i, 
red winter English 
wheat7™»v ' wbeat <P*> r 

bushel). ! bashel > 



Cents. 



Cents, 



77 

78 

77 

70 j 

75 

66 

04 

66 

62 

57 



English 
barley (per 
bushel of 
56 pounds). 



Cent*. 



85 
82 
86 
73 
62 
68 
68 
71 



Beef, infe- 
rior (cash, 
wholesale, 
per pound). 



Cents. 

7 
6 

7 
7 
7 
8 

7 

7 



Beef, supe- 
rior (per 
pound). 



Cents. 



14* 
13$ 

13f 
13| 

12§ 



Potatoes 
(per ton). 



$14. 60 
12.77 
12.16 
10.33 
7.39 
9.73 
12.16 

*17.03 
15.78 
17.00 



*!N"ew. 
Note.— These averages are official. In the original tables the figures for- red winter wheat are 
expressed in sterling money per quarter of 496 pounds. These are translated into United States 
equivalents at the par value of the pound sterling ($4. 86^) and in bushels of 60 pounds each. Eng- 
lish wheat has for its unit the quarter of 504 pounds; English barley, the quarter of 448 pounds ; flour, 
the sack of 280 pounds; beef, the London stone of 8 pounds. 



20 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

These tables are of value to the American farmer. They illustrate 
the fact that the price of wheat is now, and must always be, governed 
by the relation of the supply of wheat to the demand for wheat. Im- 
proved farming implements and machinery have reduced the cost of 
production. Wheat will, in all probability, remain at relatively low 
figures in all time to come, except when there are failures of the crop 
in large wheat-growing sections of the earth. The great competitors of 
the United States in the production and sale of wheat are the Argen- 
tine Eepublic, Australasia, and Eussia. The capabilities of the last- 
named country as a bread producer are beyond computation. Already 
American farm implements and machinery are finding enormous sale 
in that Empire, and permanently established agencies of the great reap- 
ing and other manufacturing concerns of the United States are solidly 
located at Odessa and other important entrepots to the wheat-growing 
regions. 

Looking at cheap bread from the standpoint of the consumer, the 
world is fed better and oftener than it ever was before. The profits of 
the producer are now divided, so that the consumer gets a large share 
thereof. But it matters very little to the producer of wheat in the 
United States what the price may be if he is permitted to buy in the 
markets where he is compelled to sell. In other words, if the price of 
the farmer's wheat is fixed in Europe, there is no good reason why the 
prices of the things he has to buy should not also be fixed in Europe. 
In selling, the farmer competes with all the world. To give him an 
equal chance he ought also to be allowed to buy where all the world 
competes. European and all other foreign markets for wheat indicate 
that the competition in that cereal is constantly increasing and intensi- 
fying. The Argentine Eepublic is capable already of placing thirty- 
five millions (35,000,000) of bushels of wheat a year on the European 
market, while it has only five millions (5,000,000) of population. The 
Argentine wheat fields average less than 100 miles from deep-water 
harbors. To reach shipping ports Argentine wheat pays no appreciable 
inland freight. But the wheat of the United States averages quite a 
heavy transportation charge in reaching the seaboard. In short, we 
have a long haul and the Argentine Eepublic a short haul before reach- 
ing the Atlantic. Eussia, likewise, has the advantages of a short haul 
and speedy transportation. 

There are many subsidiary crops to which the American farmer may 
profitably turn his attention. Wheat will not hereafter be our staple 
cereal product. Corn is constantly advancing in importance because 
of an ever-growing demand for that cereal which is evolved from the 
various new uses to which it is being constantly appropriated. 

EXPORTS OF BARLEY. 

There has been a steadily growing demand for barley exportation to 
Great Britain. This demand amounted during the first nine months 
of 1894 to an increase over last year of eighteen millions (18,000,000) of 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF AGRICULTURE. 21 

bushels. The universal use of barley by brewers in England maintains 
a steady and constant market for the highest grades of that cereal. 
Hard, firm, and bright grain barley from the Northwestern States and 
California commands higher prices than many European barleys. That 
kind of American barley is second best to the best grade barleys of 
Smyrna, and is regarded among the best malting barleys in the British 
markets. The average yield per acre of barley in Great Britain is 
thirty-four (34) bushels, though the drought of 1893 reduced it to an 
average of only twenty-nine (29) bushels. There are two and a quarter 
million (2,250,000) acres, average, of barley in the United Kingdom 
annually, so that the annual product is something like seventy-five 
million (75,000,000) imperial bushels, though the harvest of 1893 
shows only sixty-five million seven hundred and forty-six thousand 
(65,746,000) bushels. 

In seven years the export of barley from the United States to Great 
Britain has grown from nothing into a very considerable trade. The 
average price in England during the year 1894 of good, bright barley, 
per bushel of 50 pounds, has been 77£ cents. 

The supply of the best quality of malting barley is limited, but there 
are States in the American Union which have great advantages for the 
production of the very highest grades of this cereal, and the market 
seems to be a growing one into which American farmers can pour a 
large volume of remunerative products every year. 

THE UNITED STATES APPLE TRADE WITH ENGLAND. 

During the year 1892 England took in from the United States and 
Canada four and a half million (4,500,000) bushels of apples, valued at 
six and a half million dollars ($6,500,000). In the year 1893, however, 
owing to poor crops in this country and Canada, and not because of a 
want of a market in England, she purchased only three million four 
hundred thousand (3,400,000) bushels, valued at four million one hun- 
dred thousand dollars ($4,100,000) ; and during the nine months ending 
with September, 1894, Great Britain took one million nine hundred 
thousand (1,900,000) bushels of apples, valued at two and a half million 
of dollars ($2,500,000). The apple market in Great Britain during the 
spring is largely supplied from Australasia, £Tew Zealand, France, and 
Italy, the import from the latter country being a novelty which was 
witnessed for the first time during the year 1894. 

The English apple crop is gathered in the early autumn and partially 
supplies the markets until about the middle of September. Then the 
first shipments of American apples begin to arrive. They consist of 
summer fruit. They are very tender and require immediate sale. They 
are packed in what are known to the trade as u New York barrels," 
containing 3 bushels and running 1 cwt. in weight. These barrels are 
smaller by 25 pounds than those in which the Canadian apples reach 
that market. But it is rather an advantage to the American trade that 



22 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

the barrel is smaller. It is not believed in Great Britain that if the 
barrel were made larger the corresponding increase in price could be 
obtained. 

Canadian apples begin to arrive in London at the end of October. 
As a rule they are firm, hard, and fine colored, and command the best 
prices through the winter. American apples average, at wholesale, 
$2.25 to $3.15 per "New York barrel, 77 while the Canadian bring $2.91 
to $3.87 per " Canadian barrel." The 1804 apple crop of England is 
exceptionally small, owing to a late frost in the spring. The market 
for American apples will be good throughout the entire coming winter. 
It is important that the shippers understand that only choice fruit will 
pay profit on shipments* It is equally important that the apples be 
carefully handled and properly packed. 

There is also a good demand in England for high-class cider, and 
there is no reason why the American farmer should not export in this 
form the apples not properly conditioned for shipment^ At the pres- 
ent time English cider is selling at 22 cents per gallon, with a prospect 
of commanding 25 cents during the greater part of the winter. 

EXPORTS OF HORSES.* 

There is a growing demand in England for American horses. During 
the first nine months of the year 1894 the English market took two thou- 
sand eight hundred and eleven (2,811) American driving horses^ at am 
average value of $139 per head. Last year the average price of those 
shipped was $230. A sound light draft horse, in good condition, of the 
size and weight adapted to omnibus work in cities, will generally bring, 
in Liverpool or London, $150. Nearly all of the shipments of horses 
thus far from the United States to England have been through English 
buyers. Arriving in England, the animals are put out to grass, as a 
rule, for a month at least r and are then sold at auction. Canada has 
about an equal share with ourselves in the English horse market, 
although Canadian shipments have the reputation of being somewhat 
better in quality. 

The average price of Canadian geldings during the last nine months 
has been $160, as against $139 for American. The English under- 
stand perfectly well that priees of horses have fallen in the United 
States on account of the extensive substitution of trolleys and bicycles 
for horses, and it is generally conceded that a considerable demand for 
American horses will soon spring up throughout Europe. The great 
omnibus and tramway companies of London are recruiting their stocks 
from the United States and Canada very generally at the present time. 

POTATOES. 

The British acreage in potatoes has not varied materially from half 
a million acres during many years. In Ireland the acreage has grad- 
ually fallen, in the course of fifteen years, from eight hundred and forty- 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF AGRICULTURE. 23 

two thousand (842,000) acres to seven hundred and twenty thousand 
(720,000) acres. The potato product of the Channel Islands, France, 
and Belgium amounts to about three million (3,000,000) cwt. every year. 
But during the year 1894, up to and inclusive of the month of May, a 
considerable shipment of potatoes was made from England to the 
United States. When those shipments were made, potatoes were sell- 
ing in "Sew York for $2.25 per sack of 168 pounds, and the price in Eng- 
land was $7.29 to $12.15 per ton of 2,240 pounds. In October, 1894, 
potatoes were selling in New York at $1.85 per sack of 168 pounds, while 
the prices ranged in England at from $14.60 to $17 per ton. 

The cost of transportation for potatoes from Great Britain to the 
United States per ton is about as follows : Drayage to the ship, 60 
cents j freight, $3.03; sacks, $1.80. To these figures must be added 
insurance, duties, and commissions on this side. The duty is put on 
to protect the "infant industry" of potato growing in the United 
States. It is supposed to make higher prices for those Americans who 
raise potatoes, and lower ones for those who eat them. A protective 
tariff is always depicted by its advocates as a dual blessing to the 
farmer, so adjusted as to always enhance the things he sells and cheapen 
the things he buys. However, English potato dealers do not look to 
the New York market for sales until prices there reach about $2.25 per 
sack. The potato crop of England this year is so limited that we shall 
not be able to draw supplies from there, even at higher prices than 
were obtained last year. 

THE ASSISTANT SECRETARYSHIP. 

On January 1, 1894, the Hon. Edwin Willits retired from the office of 
Assistant Secretary of the Department of Agriculture. He remained, 
by request, up to that date, so that he might complete satisfactorily 
his arduous duties in connection with the Government's exhibit at the 
World's Fair. The sense of obligation which the Secretary is pleased to 
cherish for Mr. Willits, because of his many good services to the Depart- 
ment, is hereby very frankly acknowledged, and a sincere admiration 
for his rugged honesty, industry, and vigilance, as an official and efficient 
friend of agriculture during his entire connection with this Adminis- 
tration, is unconcealed. 

On the same date, Dr. Charles W. Dabney, jr., president of the 
University of Tennessee — who had previously been selected by the 
President and confirmed by the Senate as Assistant Secretary of Agri- 
culture — entered upon the discharge of his duties. During many years 
this gentleman had been prominently and intimately identified with 
agricultural education. He had especially prepared himself in that 
line of study by severe application in the laboratories of this country 
and in Germany. His experience as a State chemist, as director of 
an agricultural experiment station in North Carolina, and as presi- 
dent of the University of Tennessee, brought him to his present 



24 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

position peculiarly well equipped for the discharge of its responsible 
duties. Therefore, on the 2d day of January, 1894, the Secretary of 
Agriculture issued a special order wholly revising the duties of the 
Assistant Secretary. That order assigned to him the entire direction 
of all the scientific divisions, and likewise of the Office of Experiment 
Stations, of the Office of Irrigation Inquiry, of the Office of Fiber Inves- 
tigation, and of the Museum. Himself a scientist, Dr. Dabney has dis- 
charged the duty of supervising the expenditures and controlling the 
direction of scientific research, operations, and policy with admirable 
iudgment and skill. 

The application of science to agriculture, under his management, is 
becoming, through practical bulletins published by the Department 
and other popular means, more generally appreciated, understood, and 
approved. 

During the year the Department has entered upon two new lines of 
very important investigation. The first of these relates to grasses and 
forage plants. 

AGROSTOLOGY. 

The forage interests of the United States are vast in value. Seventy 
million (70,000,000) tons of hay are cut and cured each summer. This 
crop is taken from fifty million (50,000,000) acres of land. Each year's 
hay crop is estimated to be worth six hundred millions of dollars 
($600,000,000). No accurate means have been found for ascertaining 
the cash value of grasses upon pasture and other lands that are grazed. 
It is known, however, that those lands support and fatten vast herds of 
cattle, sheep, and horses. In 1890 such ranges in the United States fed 
fourteen million fifty-nine thousand and thirty (14,059,030) head of 
domestic animals. As these millions of animals subsist largely upon 
native grasses and other forage plants, the magnitude of these figures 
elucidates the vital necessity of securing, if possible, new and better 
grasses and forage plants in this country. Therefore the Department 
of Agriculture has undertaken the development of a Division of Agros- 
tology. The gentleman in charge of this new line of investigation, 
Prof. F. Lam son Scribner, has a national reputation. His appointment 
was made upon the recommendation of many of the best botanists in 
the several universities and colleges of the United States. 

At present agrostology is merely an agency in the Division of Botany. 
It is the duty of the expert in charge of this agency to study grasses 
and forage plants in general and to instruct and familiarize the people 
of this country, through bulletins and leaflets, with regard to the con- 
servation of the native grasses of the continent, and to teach them how 
to introduce from foreign countries such improved and useful forage 
plants as may be found adaptable and profitable in the United States. 
It will be his especial and specific duty to prepare and publish a work 
on " the forage plants of the United States," and subsequently a more 



REPORT OP THE SECRETARY OF AGRICULTURE. 25 

elaborate publication, Handbook of Grasses of the United {States. 
This will contain descriptions and illustrations of all the known 
grasses of this country. 

Through the Department of State the Secretary of Agriculture has 
secured the assistance of all the consular agents of the United States 
in collecting at their several stations or posts of duty any seeds of 
forage plants. These specimens and seeds are forwarded directly to 
this Department and submitted to Professor Scribner for examination 
and testing. Thus it is proposed to search the whole civilized globe for 
grasses and forage plants which may be of value to the people in each 
section of the United States. It is hoped that in this way the quantity 
j)er acre of the hay crop of this country may be very materially increased 
and its quality improved. If, however, the hay production per acre in 
the United States is, as a result of this effort in behalf of agrostology, 
raised only 1 per cent, it is equal to an increase of six millions of dollars 
per year in the value of this single farm product. Professor Scfobner's 
investigations have already reached such proportions, and they promise 
to become of such inestimable value to the farmers of the United 
States, that it is proposed to create a new division in this Department, 
as provided in the estimates herewith submitted, to be called "The 
Division of Agrostology." 

AGRICULTURAL SOILS AND CROP PRODUCTION. 

The second new line of investigation relates to agricultural soils and 
crop production. Such soils have long presented a problem unsolved 
by chemical analysis. It has been known for some time that the pecul- 
iarly valuable characteristics of different agricultural soils are often due 
to some other cause or causes than the chemical composition. Climatic 
conditions are potent in their influences as to the general distribution 
of plants, but they alone do not explain why one soil is well adapted 
to one variety of crop, while the soil in an adjacent field, receiving the 
same amount of rainfall and heat, is wholly unadapted to it, while 
perfectly adapted to an entirely different crop requiring an altogether 
different nutrition. 

Eecords of climatic conditions generally end at the surface of the 
earth. But the farmer's interests are equally connected and concerned 
with the climatic conditions within the soil and below the surface of 
the ground. 

The amount of sand, silt, clay, and organic matter contained in soils 
so modifies the atmospheric conditions that different soils maintain 
very different degrees of moisture and temperature for plant life. 
Different varieties of plants require different degrees of moisture and 
heat for their best development. Thus each class finds the conditions 
best adapted to its peculiar nature in different kinds of soil. "Wheat 
requires a low temperature. Corn requires a relatively high tempera- 



26 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

ture. Celery and rice develop best in moist soils. Sweet potatoes and 
peanuts require a comparatively dry, sandy soil. 

Deeply tilled soils provide a large reservoir for the rainfall. The 
deeper the soil is stirred and cultivated, the larger the reservoir. 
The texture of the soil — that is, the relative amount of sand, silt, clay, 
and organic matter which it contains, and the way in which these con- 
stituent grains are arranged — determines the amount of water which 
the soil may retain from rains. Sandy soils retain comparatively little 
water, because they afford little resistance to percolation of the rain- 
fall. Through them the water leaehes down beyond the reach of veg- 
etation, and is lost to plants. Such soils are naturally adapted to the 
forcing of early "truck" and vegetables^ and to such plants as are 
grown for fine texture and bright- colored leaf development. 

Soils having a great amount of clay in their composition offer great 
resistance to the rainfall. The movement of moisture downward 
through such soils is exceedingly slow, and thus an abundant humidity 
is generally retained; this adapts them to the growth of wheat and 
pasture grasses that need an abundant supply of water for their growth. 
Qn such soils tobacco also grows strongly, throwing out heavy leaves 
which contain a great amount of oil and gum, developing a character 
of tobacco adapted to an entirely different purpose from that grown 
from the same seed in lighter soils. 

Considerations like these led this year to the establishment of a 
division in the Weather Bureau for the study of meteorology in its 
relation to soils. Prof. Milton Whitney, who had previously been in 
the service of the Department as a special agent engaged upon these 
investigations and had made a marked reputation by his careful and 
original work, was appointed chief of this division. 

Observations. have been made during the past season on the condi- 
tions of moisture and heat in the typical soils of the "truck" area of 
the Atlantic seaboard and in several of the soil areas adapted to the 
different types of tobacco, and likewise in the soils of the arid regions 
of the West. 

These observations have shown the cause of the peculiar value of 
"truck" lands. They have indicated also large breadths of land simi- 
lar to them TFhich are at present practically abandoned, although well 
adapted to the important and oftentimes very lucrative industry of 
raising early vegetables for the markets of our great cities. Investi- 
gations have shown the reason for the differences in the type of tobacco 
grown in several of the most important tobacco regions. They have 
explained why certain types of land in the several regions are not 
adapted to the varieties of tobacco demanded by the present domestic 
and foreign markets. They have demonstrated this, and also sug- 
gested how the conditions of these lands may be changed to render 
them productive of a demanded grade of tobacco. 

iFrom the careful examination thus far made of the soils of the 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF AGRICULTURE. 27 

so-called arid regions of Kansas, Nebraska, and Colorado, Professor 
Whitney is convinced that, with their present climate, and with 
improved methods of thorough preparation and deep cultivation, and 
with a careful selection and modification and rotation of crops, they 
may be vastly improved in the certainty and constancy of their agri- 
cultural productiveness. Professor Whitney does not claim, however, 
that deep subsoiling alone can wholly obviate the necessity of irriga- 
tion, but he impresses the fact that irrigation is always expensive, and 
that there are vast areas of arid lands which can never be irrigated 
nor profitably farmed under existing methods. 

The time is not remote when in all the arid and subarid regions of 
the Northwest deep subsoil tillage will be regarded as the only probable 
certain assurance against the loss of crops in long-continued drought. 
The farmers in these regions must soon come to understand that the 
deeper, in plowing, the soil and subsoil is stirred, with subsequent 
deep tillage of corn or root crops during the summer, the greater 
the capacity for the storage of the rainfall and the less the liability of 
crop failure. Especially will this be demonstrated in the soils and sub- 
soils of Kansas, Nebraska, and the Dakotas, where there is so much of 
silt and so little of sand in the lands. 

When the conditions essential to the proper development of particular 
kinds of crops are perfectly understood and established, these investiga- 
tions will supply the basis for a more intelligent use of water. It is now 
the intention of the United States Department of Agriculture to have 
the texture and physical conditions of the principal agricultural soils 
of the American Union thoroughly examined. Thus it will establish 
among the people the knowledge of the necessary conditions for the 
maintenance of crops. When the conditions in these typical soils are 
understood, they will be the basis for comparison with other soils. 
Such comparison will show what class of crops each soil is fitted for 
and how soil conditions may be changed to adapt it to any particular 
crop for which the general climatic conditions seem favorable. 

As a basis for this work, a vast amount of material, consisting of 
nearly two thousand samples of soils, which have been collected with 
skill and judgment from all parts of the United States, is in possession 
of the Department. 

In consideration of the vast importance of this work, the Secretary 
of Agriculture recommends that this division be taken out of the 
Weather Bureau and established as an independent division in this 
Department. Estimates have been submitted in accordance with this 
plan. 

WEATHER BUREAU. 

The administration of the Weather Bureau during the fiscal year 
ending June 30, 1894, cost fourteen (14) per cent less than the appro- 
priation made for that period of time. The financial history of the 



28 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

Weather Bureau service is clearly set forth in the appended tabulated 
statement, which begins with 1882 and closes with 1894, as follows : 



Fiscal year ending June 30— 


Amount ap- 
propriated. 


Amount ex- 
pended. 


Deficiency. 


Amount 

returned to 

Treasury. 


1882 


$988, 615. 80 
993, 520. CO 
958, 034. 57 
954, 517. 88 
955, 740. 80 
892, 290. 42 
887, 503. 85 
845, 806. 27 
801,122.59 
813, 046. 53 
8S9, 753. 50 
908, 595. 50 
951, 100. 00 


$988, 615. 80 
993, 520. 00 
984, 451. 30 
9G6, 076. 44 
960, 812. 06 
902, 042. 67 
909, 410. 74 
853, 390. 27 
810, 622. 59 
877, 659. 80 

* 830, 783. 33 

* 892. 805. 20 

* 812, 711. 60 






1883 






1884 


$26, 416. 73 
11, 558. 56 
5, 071. 20 
9,752.25 
21, 906. 89 
7, 500. 00 
9, 500. 00 
64, 613. 27 




1885 




1886 




1887 




1888 




1889 




1890 




1891 




1892 


* $55, 000. 00 
* 15, 000. 00 


1893 




1894 




* 138, 500. 00 







* Estimated—accounts not yet permanently closed. 

This statement shows that for the year 1894 one hundred and thirty- 
eight thousand five hundred dollars ($138,500) of the appropriation 
was covered back into the Treasury — an amount of money aggregating 
nearly twice as much as all the moneys covered back into the Treas- 
ury from that Bureau in the preceding eleven years. It is agreeable to 
state, also, that the Chief of the Weather Bureau reports the reduction 
in expenditures to have been made without impairment of the efficiency 
of the work of the Bureau. 

PROMOTIONS. 

Important positions in the Weather Bureau were filled during the 
past year by competitive examinations. Some examinations were freely 
thrown open to all citizens. Others were only accessible to those in 
the lower grades of the Weather Bureau whose service ratings were 
the highest. The results of this competitive system have been exceed- 
ingly satisfactory. The introduction of this manner of promoting sub- 
ordinate officials has been an inspiration to all the Weather Bureau 
observers to do their very best as forecasters. Examinations have been 
held for forecast officials. Doubts entertained by many heretofore, as 
to whether capacity in forecasting might be satisfactorily tested by 
examinations, have been dispelled. The Weather Bureau itself has 
conducted the examinations, because this method of securing suitable 
persons for forecast duty was altogether experimental. 

• PUBLICATIONS. 

During the year the Weather Bureau issued two million six hundred 
thousand (2,600,000) weather maps outside of Washington, and two 
hundred and twenty-nine thousand one hundred and twelve (229,112) 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF AGRICULTURE. 29 

within the city's limits. During the same period of time the Bureau 
issued seventy-one thousand two hundred and sixty-six (71,206) 
Weather Crop Bulletins. 

The observations on the general subject of publications under the 
head of Division of Records and Editing, regarding gratuitous distri- 
bution, apply with peculiar force to the publications of the Bureau. 

FORCE AT THE CENTRAL OFFICE. 

During the year there was a cornjriete reorganization of the force in 
the Washington office of the Weather Bureau. In that time fifty-eight 
(5S) persons, whose salaries aggregated fifty-four thousand seven hun- 
dred and fifty dollars ($54,750) per annum, were taken from the pay 
rolls of that office. During the same period forty-five (45) persons, 
whose salaries amounted to thirty-six thousand seven hundred and 
seventy dollars ($36,770) per annum, were added to its pay rolls, tbus 
lessening by thirteen (13) the number of persons employed and reduc- 
ing their annual pay roll seventeen thousand nine hundred and eighty 
dollars ($17,980). The entire number of persons on the pay rolls of the 
central office, June 30, 1894, was one hundred and seventy-one (171). 
Their salaries amounted to one hundred and seventy-eight thousand 
seven hundred and thirty-one dollars and sixty cents ($178,731.60) per 
annum. 

FORECASTS. 

Eegular forecasts of weather, wind, and temperature have been 
made from the 8 a. m. and 8 p. m. observations and furnished to the 
press associations, telegraph companies, and newspapers throughout 
the United States. For forty-five (45) separate districts, covering the 
entire country east of the Bocky Mountains, these forecasts have been 
made. They are for periods each usually of twenty-four to thirty-six 
hours, respectively; but for longer periods when conditions seem to 
indicate such a necessity. 

Storm warnings have been wired often to the lake and seacoast sta- 
tions, and to the director of the Canadian Meteorological Service at 
Toronto. Warnings of frost to fruit, tobacco, and cotton regions, and 
warnings of severe local storms, cyclones, cold waves, northers, and 
dangerous floods have been frequently sent to threatened districts. 
Such admonitions are issued whenever conditions indicate the necessity 
for them. 

VALUE OF THE WARNINGS. 

During the year the Weather Bureau warnings received, as a rule, 
wide distribution. There were very few disastrous storms of which 
the people had not been apprised twenty-four to thirty-six hours in 
advance of their culmination during the last summer. The severe 



30 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

cyclones of August 25 to 27, and October 12 to 14, 1893, were notably 
well foretold. The warnings given for those dates italicized the value 
of the service to agriculture and to commerce. 

During the year much inquiry was elicited as to the probable value 
of the forecast work of the Weather Bureau. It is difficult to estimate 
with any degree of precision or accuracy the real value of the current 
work of the Weather Bureau. It, however, affects almost innumerable 
interests. It varies from day to day in its influence upon, protection 
over, and conservation of, those multifarious interests. Directors of the 
State weather service in Ohio and in Korth Carolina report — the first 
a saving of two hundred thousand dollars ($200,000) by the warning of 
January 24, 1894; the latter estimated that during the season two 
hundred thousand dollars' ($200,000) worth of farm products in his 
immediate territory was saved from frost by the same means. These 
estimates are conservative. They only hint at the vast possible value 
each year of the forecast work and warnings throughout the United 
States. 

In January, 1894, the steamship Rappahannock was stranded, and the 
nearest Weather Bureau observer, at Cape Henry, Va., immediately tele- 
graphed a wrecking company at Norfolk to the effect that unless the 
stranded steamer lightened up enough to float at high tide on the night 
of the 24th she would be broken to pieces by a coming storm upon the 
rocks. The observer's message was communicated to the BappaJian- 
nock by flag signals. This warning caused the wrecking company 
to exert themselves to the utmost, and they consequently discharged 
a sufficient cargo to enable the vessel to float that night at 10.35, and 
at 12.45 p. m. of the next day, just fourteen hours and ten minutes 
after the vessel was floated out of danger, because of the Weather 
Bureau warnings — an intensely severe westerly to northerly gale (which 
had been forecasted), with freezing temperature, rain, and a heavy sea, 
set in 5 and it is generally conceded that had the vessel continued 
aground until that storm struck her she would have been pounded to 
pieces and, with her cargo, valued at six hundred thousand dollars 
($600,000), proved a total loss. 

The September tropical storm of 1894 was forecasted with great 
accuracy and exactness. Warnings were sent very generally along the 
Atlantic coast. Because of the admonitions of the Weather Bureau 
relative to that particular storm one thousand and eighty-nine (1,089) 
vessels, valued at seventeen million one hundred thousand four hun- 
dred and thirteen dollars ($17,100,413), were retained in port. During 
the October tropical storm of 1894 one thousand two hundred and six- 
teen (1,216) vessels, valued at nineteen million one hundred and eighty- 
three thousand five hundred dollars ($19,183,500), were prevented from 
going out to sea because of the warnings issued by the United States 
Weather Bureau. The value of the cargoes in all this multitude of 
ships which were prevented from encountering the tropical storms 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF AGRICULTURE. 31 

of September and October lias not been estimated. It is, however, 
reasonable to presume that the cargoes were worth much more than 
the ships, and therefore safe to assume that the Weather Bureau 
warnings for the two months, which kept in port vessels valued in the 
aggregate at thirty-six million two hundred and eighty-three thou- 
sand nine hundred and thirteen dollars ($36,283,913), also preserved 
from the perils of those most disastrous and far-sweeping storms several 
million dollars 7 worth of merchandise, commodities, and other property 
in transit. 

Besides that vast amount of value in materials, many human lives 
undoubtedly were preserved from jeopardy and death. The records 
of those vessels which disregarded the warnings of the Weather Bureau 
in those two storms show that they suffered severely or were utterly 
destroyed. The owners of the vessels remaining in port because of the 
Weather Bureau admonitions plainly say that but for those warnings 
they might have been lost. 

It is not practicable to estimate the value of the warnings to agri- 
culture and inland commerce up to this time. But data are being col- 
lected by the Weather Bureau whicli hereafter may be of great service 
in elucidating the value of its warnings to fanners shipping perishable 
fruit and root crops in the autumn and spring, as well as to those 
middlemen who handle such products. 

Facts and figures have been quoted sufficiently in the foregoing to 
prove that the Weather Bureau, when it is properly and efficiently 
administered, may save to the American people, by its forecasts and 
warnings, many millions of dollars each yea.r. And as the utmost 
expenditure for the maintenance of this Bureau at this time is less than 
one million of dollars annually, the investment is apparently a paying 
one for all the people. This outlay of money may therefore come prop- 
erly within the functions of the Government, because it is in the line of 
protection to property and life. 

By recent arrangement with the Postmaster-General, the warnings 
have been extended by the Post-Office Department to 3,608 more dis- 
tributing points east of the Eocky Mountains, and thus a greatly 
increased number received warnings of the tropical storms of Septem- 
ber and October above mentioned. The actual saving of property 
from jeopardy by the admonition of those two months is beyond com- 
putation. 

The extracts from reports of observers concerning the value of the 
forecasts and warnings received from the Weather Bureau in connec- 
tion with the September and October storms of 1894 will be published 
in the full report of the Weather Bureau Service over the signature of 
that eminent forecaster, Maj. H. H. C. Dunwoody, in his transmittal 
of statements to the Chief of the Weather Bureau, showing the fore- 
cast work of his division in regard to the prenamed storms. 



32 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 
THE WEST INDIES CYCLONE SERVICE. 

This service is continued from July 15 to October 15 each year. 
Eeports are rendered by telegraph and mail from Santiago, Santo 
Domingo, St. Thomas, and Kingston. At all these points the United 
States Weather Bureau maintains paid observers. During the hurri- 
cane season observations are taken twice each day. They are wired to 
the United States observer at Key West whenever an unusual meteoro- 
logical perturbation occurs. All approaching storms are also heralded 
from the West Indies stations. Voluntary telegraphic reports are 
received by our observers at Jupiter and Key West, respectively. 
When of interest they are telegraphed to Washington also from Nassau, 
New Providence, the Bahama Islands, and Havana. This work is 
carried on by the cooperation of the governor of the Bahama Islands 
and the superintendent of the central office of the Meteorological 
Marine Service at Antilles, Havana. 

The attempt has been made by personal interview and correspondence 
to secure the voluntary cooperation of the Eev. Lorenzo Gangoite, S. 
J., of Belen College, Havana, and members of the Jesuit Order in 
Balize, British Honduras, in rendering reports of hurricanes to the 
United States Weather Bureau. So far the Bureau is much indebted 
to the Eev. J. T. Hedrick, S. J., of Georgetown College, Washington, 
D. C, for kind offices in this connection. The commercial importance 
and great need of reports from Yucatan can not well be overestimated. 

TELEGRAPH SERVICE. 

The service rendered the Weather Bureau by telegraph companies 
during the year has been reasonably x>rompt and generally efficient. 
The best record of telegraphy in this service was made on the morning 
of April 6, 1894, when all reports due in Washington at the central 
office over circuits and by special message were received by 9 a. m., 
that is, just fifty-four minutes after the time of filing. Not a single 
report was missing. These reports, be it remembered, embraced obser- 
vations made at 12G stations. They covered the continent from the 
British Possessions to the Gulf. They reached from the Atlantic to the 
Tacific. 

During the year a reduction in the cost of the regular " circuit" busi- 
ness of about 15 per cent was effected. This was accomplished by 
revising and reforming contracts of the preceding year. The total 
expense for telegraphing (May and June estimated) was one hundred 
and forty-six thousand one hundred and forty-seven dollars and forty- 
eight cents ($146,147.48), that is, forty-three thousand eight hundred 
and fifty-two dollars and fifty-two cents ($43,852.52) less than the 
allot-ment. That is a saving of twelve thousand and fifty-two dollars 
and sixty-six cents ($12,052.G6) by reason of reduced telegraph rates. 
Furthermore, by readjustment of the rates for local forecast and 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF AGRICULTURE. 33 

cotton-region messages an additional saving of about four thousand 
dollars ($4,000) will result to the Bureau during the current year. 

Public appreciation of the warnings of the Weather Bureau and the 
growing importance attached to their value are very well illustrated 
in a recent suit against the Pennsylvania Eailroad Company for the 
value of a canal boat wrecked during the storm of August 24 and 25, 
1894. The lost boat broke loose from a Pennsylvania Eailroad Com- 
pany tug, by which it was being towed to South Amboy, ST. J. Iu the 
progress of the trial Sergeant Dunn, the Weather Bureau observer at 
New York City, testified that he had warned the public, including the 
Pennsylvania Eailroad Company officials, of the approaching storm 
from Cape Hatteras. The question raised in the case is whether it is 
a legal duty of those having water craft in their charge to respect 
Weather Bureau warnings. The decision of the court is awaited with 
intense curiosity, because it involves, to a certain extent, the value of 
Weather Bureau warnings. It all indicates that in the near future 
marine insurance may contain, in every policy, a proviso by which the 
insurance will become inoperative and void in case of loss by a storm 
against which the Weather Bureau shall have sent out timely warnings. 

BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 

The most effective and valuable work rendered by the Bureau of 
Animal Industry to the commercial interests of the country during the 
past fiscal year has been in the inspection of meat for the export and 
interstate trade. At forty-six (46) abattoirs, situated in seventeen (17) 
cities, the number of animals inspected has increased from four million 
eight hundred and eighty-five thousand six hundred and thirty-three 
(4,885,033) in 1893 to twelve million nine hundred and forty-four 
thousand and fifty-six (12,944,056) in 1894. The cost of inspection has 
been reduced from 4f cents per head in 1893 to If cents per head in 
1894. 

The ante-mortem and post-mortem inspection of animals intended for 
human consumption will soon be completely under civil-service rules 
and altogether in the hands of skilled veterinarians. Hereafter no 
person can be appointed an inspector except he shall have exhibited to 
the United States Civil Service Commission his diploma from a repu- 
table veterinary college, and also have submitted to and passed a satis- 
factory examination before that honorable body. Thus all export and 
interstate meat will have been examined scientifically by an employee 
of the United States Government, and by him certificated as wholesome 
and edible. This governmental certification by skilled veterinarians is 
in fact a guaranty in all European and other markets of the wholesome- 
ness of American meat. Possibly, as a sanitary precaution, it would be 
well for the United States to demand governmental inspection and 
chemical analysis of specimens of all wines, brandies, and other bever- 

1 A 94 2 



34 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

ages which are imported from Europe, at the hands of the governments 
of those countries whence they are exported. If it is wisdom on the 
part of foreign nations to demand inspection and certification (for sani- 
tary reasons) by the American Government of its exports to them, and 
wise for us to comply with that demand, would it not be equally wise 
(upon sanitary grounds) for the United States to require governmental 
inspection and certification of all foreign nations for exports into the 
United States intended for the consumption of its citizens? 

The amount of pork microscopically examined for export during the 
year was thirty-five million four hundred and thirty-seven thousand 
nine hundred and thirty-seven (35,437,937) pounds. But in the year 1893 
it was only twenty million six hundred and seventy-seven thousand 
four hundred and ten (20,677,410) pounds. In 1894, one million three 
hundred and seventy-two thousand four hundred and ten (1,372,410) 
pieces, from as many different carcasses, have been microscopically 
examined under the direction of this Bureau. 

The cost of microscopic inspection has been diminished during the 
year 1894 from 8f cents per carcass or piece, in 1893, to 6£ cents per 
capita. This indicates a reduction of nearly 25 per cent. The cost of 
inspecting microscopically the pork sold in Germany and France (no 
other European countries demand such inspection) by the United 
States, in the year 1893, was one hundred and seventy-two thousand 
three hundred and sixty- seven dollars and eight cents ($172,367.08). 
But during the year 1894 the quantity so inspected was increased fifteen 
millions (15,000,000) of pounds, and the cost of inspection was in the 
s#me twelve months reduced to eighty-eight thousand nine hundred 
and twenty-two dollars and ten cents ($88,922.10). 

During the last half of the fiscal year the United States exported 
twenty-two million eight hundred and nineteen thousand two hun- 
dred and thirty-one (22,819,231) pounds, and the cost of inspection was 
thirty-six thousand four hundred and eighty-eight dollars and forty- 
two cents ($36,488.42). 

The Secretary of Agriculture recommends that the law providing for 
the inspection of export and interstate meat be so amended as to compel 
the owners of the meat inspected to pay the cost of the microscopic inspec- 
tion. If governmental inspection and certification widens the foreign 
and interstate markets for the products of any slaughtering and packing 
establishment, it, by having increased the demand for those products, 
has enhanced their prices. It is only equitable that those pay for the 
inspection who are directly pecuniarily benefited thereby. 

As long as the Government pays for microscopic meat inspection, 
many establishments will demand inspection which have neither inter- 
state nor export trade. If the inspection is worth anything at all to 
killers, packers, and dealers in fresh or cured meats, they should pay 
for it. As the law exists to-day, any slaughtering establishment, no 
matter how insignificant, which declares it has or expects to have 



REPORT OP THE SECRETARY OF AGRICULTURE. 35 

foreign trade in meats, lias a legal right to demand governmental in- 
spection and certification. It costs individuals nothing. When the 
killers, packers, and dealers demanding the inspection are compelled 
by law to pay the cost thereof, only that inspection will be called for 
which is necessary for the facilitation of foreign trade. J8o inspection 
will be asked merely to give employment to microscopists and others, 
at the expense of the Treasury of the United States. It is temptingly 
easy to be benevolent and generous at public cost. 

The live beef cattle exported and tagged during the year numbered 
three hundred and sixty-three thousand five hundred and thirty-five 
(303,535). This is an increase of sixty-nine thousand five hundred and 
thirty-three (69,533) head, or more than 25 per cent, as compared with 
the previous year. 

In the same time the employees of the Bureau of Animal Industry 
inspected, also for export, eighty-five thousand eight hundred and nine 
(85,800) head of sheep. 

After the experience of supervising the transportation of export 
animals for some years,, many modifications of the accommodations and 
conditions for their proper care have been insisted upon and adopted* 
By these innovations and ameliorations the losses in shipping live 
cattle have been very much reduced. In 1891 those losses were 1.6 
per cent; in 1892 they were 0.75 per cent; in 1893, 0.47 per cent, and 
in 1894, 0.37 per centf sheep lost in transportation during the present 
fiscal year, 1.29 per cent. This latter rate of loss indicates that further 
modifications of the regulations regarding the shipment of sheep are 
desirable. 

Stock yards inspection is maintained for the purpose of tagging 
export cattle, and for supervising their shipment to the seaboard and 
certifying their healthfulness at the time they leave American ports. 
It is further intended to prevent the dissemination of Texas fever. 
Southern cattle inspection is reported by the calendar year instead of 
the fiscal year, in order to include an entire quarantine season, which 
extends from February 15 to December 1. During 1893 there were 
inspected and placed in the quarantine pens in various stock yards one 
million seven hundred and thirty-seven thousanel three hundred and 
eighty (1,737,380) head of cattle. During the same period of time inspect- 
ors supervised the cleaning and disinfection of fifty-six thousand four 
hundred and six (58,406) cars. In Great Britain the inspection of ani- 
mals received from the United States has been continued for the pur- 
pose of learning the condition in which they reach British ports and 
the amount of losses suffered at sea from diseases with which animals 
in transit are often affected, and also for the purpose of ascertaining 
the adequacy of the sanitary regulations and fittings of the vessels 
engaged in animal transportation. 

This thorough inspection, it has been hoped, would result in the rev- 
ocation of the British restrictions upon the American cattle trade, by 



36 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

demonstrating that there is no danger, through animals of the United 
States, of the introduction of contagious diseases into the United 
Kingdom. More than two years have passed without the development 
of any pleuropneumonia or other diseases in the United States which 
might be, through our export cattle, made dangerous to the stock 
interests of Great Britain. But the hoped-for revocation of British 
restrictions remains unrealized. 

The expense of sanitary inspection of cattle shipped to Europe has 
averaged 10f cents for each one exported. The cost of inspecting 
Southern cattle and supervising the disinfection of cars and stock yards 
averages 2.7 cents per animal. 

During the year there were quarantined eight hundred and six (806) 
head of imported animals. In the same time there were imported from 
Canada and inspected one hundred and ninety-four (194) head of 
cattle, two hundred and forty thousand four hundred and twenty-seven 
(240,427) sheep, thirteen hundred and two (1,302) hogs, and two (2) 
goats. 

The scientific inquiries of the Bureau of Animal Industry have pro- 
gressed steadily during the year, and much tuberculin and mallei n have 
been furnished to State authorities for use in the ascertainment and 
treatment of tuberculosis and glanders. 

The appropriation to the Bureau of Animal Industry for the year 
ending June 30, 1894, was eight hundred and fifty thousand dollars 
($850,000). The expenditures during the year out of that appropria- 
tion aggregate omy four hundred and ninety-five thousand four hun- 
dred and twenty-nine dollars and twenty-four cents ($495,429.24). 
This leaves an unexpended balance of three hundred and fifty- four 
thousand five hundred and seventy dollars and seventy-six cents 
($354,570.76). 

In the appropriation bill for the current year (1894-95) tuberculosis 
and sheep scab are specifically mentioned among those diseases which 
the Secretary of Agriculture is authorized to guard against in such 
manner as he may think best. Endeavoring to carry out the suggest- 
ive provisions of the act above cited, the Department has avoided 
expending public funds for such purposes as private owners or the 
respective States ought reasonably to provide for. It is believed to be 
the duty of the Bureau of Animal Industry to seek, in every possible 
way, scientific enlightenment, to be disseminated among the agricul- 
turists of the country, so as to lead up to the extermination and sup- 
pression of the diseases of domestic animals ; but it is not believed that 
the Department of Agriculture is justified in much other than educa- 
tional work. The several States of the Union can do the necessary 
police work in the prevention of the spread of diseases of domestic 
animals within their own bounds. But very much must be left to the 
enlightened self-interest of the stock owners themselves. 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF AGRICULTURE. 37 

Quite recently this Department has published the result of its inves- 
tigations of bovine tuberculosis. These researches will be vigorously 
continued. Certain herds in the District of Columbia will be thor- 
oughly inspected, and many of the animals which respond to the tuber- 
culin test may be slaughtered, and for them, by the terms of the 
appropriation act, their owners may be partially remunerated. But 
there will be only a sufficient number of animals purchased by the 
Department to intelligently prosecute its scientific work and for pur- 
poses of illustration, description, and definition. 

THE STERILIZATION OF MILK. 

The sterilization of milk suspected of containing the bacilli of tuber- 
culosis has been very thoroughly explained in a leaflet by Dr. D. E. 
Salmon, the chief of the Bureau. This leaflet was issued July 24, 
1894, and given general circulation throughout the country. Pending 
the investigation of tuberculosis, and in view of the j eopardy to human 
health and life which some say is constantly evolved therefrom, the 
sterilization of milk may be made a shield and safeguard in every 
household.* 

OFFICE OF EXPERIMENT STATIONS. 

The Office of Experiment Stations, which is a part of the United 
States Department of Agriculture, has during the past year engaged 
itself almost wholly in preparing for publication works based upon the 
reports of Agricultural Experiment Stations and other institutions for 
agricultural inquiry in the United States and foreign countries. 
Bulletins, reports, and other publications from such stations have 
multiplied so rapidly that it is absolutely necessary to brief them in 
order to give them general circulation. Therefore, in order to reach 
the American farmers, the aforesaid bulletins and reports have been 
abstracted, sifted, compiled, and published in convenient form. 
Twenty-four (24) documents, making over two thousand (2,000) pages, 
have been issued. Among them is the fifth volume of the Experi- 
ment Station Kecord. It contains abstracts of three hundred and ten 
(310) reports of American stations, sixty-seven (67) bulletins of this 
Department, and two hundred and twenty-seven (227) reports of for- 
eign stations and other institutions. 

The Handbook of Experiment Station Work is a digest of the 
published work of the American experiment stations during the past 
twenty years. There has also been prepared a number of farmers' 
bulletins, based chiefly upon the work of experiment stations. There 
is now in process of publication a handbook on the culture and uses of 
the cotton plant. This will present a scientific and condensed state- 

* The further remarks on this subject which occurred in this report are omitted 
here owing to the full discussion of the same topic from the same point of view in 
another part of this hook. 



38 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

ment of practical knowledge. It will tend to improve the varieties of 
the cotton plant and advance the methods of culture and stimulate the 
production and use of cotton-seed products. 

During the year seeds of new and rare varieties of foreign plants 
and vegetables have been distributed to forty (40) experiment stations 
and to about three thousand (3,000) farmers selected by those stations 
for the purpose of making full tests. 

The Secretary of Agriculture in his report for 1893 called attention 
to the fact that the appropriations made for the support of the experi- 
ment stations throughout the Union were the only moneys taken out 
of the National Treasury by act of Congress for which no accounting 
to Federal authorities was required. The Fifty-third Congress,, heed- 
ing the suggestion^ in making the appropriation for the Department 
for the present fiscal year provided that — 

The Secretary of Agriculture shall prescribe the form of annual financial state- 
ment required hy section 3 of said act of March 2, 1887; shall ascertain whether 
the expenditures under the appropriation hereby made are in accordance with the 
provisions of said act, and shall make report thereon to Congress. 

That the stations might have the earliest advice as to the intentions 
of the United States Department of Agriculture with regard to their 
expenditures, schedules for the financial reports of the experiment sta- 
tions were prepared and issued to them immediately after the appropri- 
ation bill had imssed.. This new provision of law, construed with the 
previous legislation on the subject, gives the Secretary of Agriculture 
ample authority to investigate the eharaeter and report upon the 
expenditures of all these stations* Obeying this law, the Department 
of xlgriculture proposes to make, through its expert agents, systematic 
examinations of the several stations during each year, for the purpose 
of acquiring, by personal presence, detailed information necessary to 
enable the Secretary of Agriculture to make an exhaustive and com- 
prehensively satisfactory report to Congress. It is due to the boards 
of management of the several stations to state that, with great cor- 
diality, they have, almost unanimously, approved the amendment to the 
law w^hich provides for this supervision of their expenditures. Many 
of them declare that it will increase the efficiency of the stations and 
protect good men from loose charges of the misuse of public funds; 
and, furthermore, that it will bring the United States Department of 
Agriculture into closer and more confidential relations with the experi- 
ment stations, and that, acting together thus harmoniously and intelli- 
gently, the efficiency of their service to the agriculture of the Union 
will be vastly advanced. 

NUTKITION*. 

Acting upon the recommendations contained in the report of 1893, 
Congress appropriated ten thousand dollars ($ 10,000) "to enable the 
Secretary of Agriculture to investigate and report upon the nutritive 



BEPOKT OP THE SECRETARY OF AGRICULTURE. 39 

value of the various articles and commodities used for human food, 
with special suggestion of full, wholesome, and edible rations, less 
wasteful and more economical than those in common use." 

Out of this appropriation money will be used to make analyses of 
food materials not heretofore analyzed, and for the investigation of 
•the dietaries of the different classes of people in different portions 
of the country. The relation of food supply and consumption will be 
elucidated. Inquiries as to the best means of improving the methods 
of investigations along these lines will likewise be diligently made. 
A large amount of preliminary work has been accomplished during 
the year, the results of investigations thus far made in this country 
and elsewhere have been correlated, and a bulletin containing a resum£ 
of these matters is already in press. 

The health of all depends largely upon the adaptability of the food 
consumed. The capacity for work in each human being rests upon the 
same foundation. But the most intelligent know very little as to the 
real composition of their daily food. The kinds or amounts of nutri- 
tive material contained in it and its value are generally matters of 
guesswork, if thought of at all. The cost of this ignorance is loss of 
health and waste of money. Unfortunately it is the poor who suffer 
most from the unwise purchase and improper use of food. It is too 
often true that the poor man's money is the worst spent in the market, 
and too often true that the poor man's food is the worst cooked and 
served at home. In this matter of nutrition is a verification of the 
Scriptural passage : "To him that hath shall be given, and from him 
that hath not shall be taken even that which he hath." 

.From the hygienic standpoint also the demand for increased knowl- 
edge of this kind is imperative. A large part of the diseases formerly 
attributed to old age is due, in greater or less degree, to errors in diet. 

Earnest and intelligent investigation of food and the relative nutri- 
tive value of various kinds is needed, and the facts found in these 
researches should be widely scattered among the people of the United 
States. And it must not be forgotten that here, as elsewhere, the 
knowledge which has the most immediate, practical value must be 
based upon research of the highest scientific order. 

Cooperation by the agricultural colleges and experiment stations will 
be sought in these investigations. To Mr. Edward Atkinson, economist 
and publicist, of Boston, Mass., and to the distinguished physiological 
chemist, Prof. W. O. At water, of the Wesley an University at Middle- 
town, Conn., the Department and the American people are very much 
indebted because of their earnest, intelligent researches in, and unself- 
ish devotion to, the science of nutrients and nutrition. 

If such investigations are considered by such men worthy of their 
diligent and untiring pursuit, how much more ought the same subjects 
to be of interest to the teachers and pupils of the schools of this Repub- 
lic! As civilization advances, the time ax3proaches when the proper 



40 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

use of nutrients and tlie correct nutrition of the human body will be 
regarded as indispensable to the proper education of every American 
boy or girl. 

A farmers' bulletin, containing an elementary discussion of the nutri- 
tive value and pecuniary economy of foods is now nearly ready for distri- 
bution. Fully one-half of all the money earned by the wage earners 
of the civilized world is expended by them for food. In this paper the 
first lessons are given in the proper selection and economy in the use 
of food materials. But an economy of food is not the only thing desir- 
able. More important than this is the question of cooking food in such 
manner as will in the greatest degree promote the public health. 

The following extract from the farmers' bulletin on foods, above 
referred to, was given to the newspapers of the United States some 
weeks since. It contributed to a discussion of the discrepancy 
between the x>rice of flour to the baker and the price of bread from the 
baker, which has made better loaves and more nutriment for less money 
in many cities throughout the country. All eat bread — they have been 
benefited. Eelatively few make bread, and they have not been unjustly 
treated : 

THK COST OF BREAD. 

Tlio chief difference in the composition of flour and bread is the proportions of 
water, which makes about one-eighth the weight of flour and one-third that of the 
bread. The average composition of wheat flour and the bakers' bread made from it 
is about as follows : 

Comparison of flour and oread. 





Water. 


Nutrients. 


Fuel 
value 
of one 
pound. 




Total. 


Protein. 


F«u iCaruohy- 
iats * drates. 


Mineral 
matters. 




Per cent. 
12 
32 


Per cent. 
88 
G8 


Per cent. 

11 

9 


Per cent. 
1 




Per cent. 
75 
56 


Per cent. 
1 
1 


Calories. 
2,000 




1, 300 









In making the bread a little butter or lard, salt, and yeast, and considerable water, 
either by itself or in milk, are added to the flour. The yeast causes carbohydrates 
(sugar, etc.) to ferment, yielding alcohol and carbonic acid in the form of gas, which 
makes the dough porous. In the baking the alcohol is changed to vapor and the 
carbonic acid is expanded, making the bread still more porous, and both are mostly 
driven off. Part of the water escapes with them. The amount of sugar and other 
carbohydrates lost by the fermentation is not very large, generally from 1£ to 2 per 
cent of the weight of the flour used. With the increase in the proportion of water 
in the bread as compared with the flour the j>roportion of nutrients is diminished, 
but the addition of shortening and salts brings up the fat and minerals in the bread 
so that the proportions are larger than in the flour. 

In practice 100 pounds of flour will make from 133 to 137 pounds of bread, an 
average being about 136 pounds. 

Flour, such as is used by bakers, is now purchased in the Eastern States at not 
over $4 per barrel. This would make the cost of the flour in a pound of bread about 1£ 



REPORT OP THE SECRETARY OF AGRICULTURE. 41 

cents. Allowing one-half cent for the shortening and salt, which is certainly very 
liberal, the materials for a pound of bread would cost not more than 2 cents. Of 
course there should be added to this the cost of labor, rent, interest on investment, 
expense of selling, etc., to make the actual cost to the baker. 

Very few accurate weighings and analyses of bakers' bread have been made in 
this country, so far as I am aware, but the above statements represent the facts as 
nearly as I have been able to obtain them. 

The average weight of a number of specimens of 10-cent loaves purchased in Mid- 
dletown, Conn., was 1£ pounds. This makes the price to the consumer 8 cents per 
pound. The price of bread and the size of the loaf are practically the same now as 
when the flour cost twice as much. 

The cost of bakers' bread is a comparatively small matter to the person who only 
buys a loaf now and then, but in the Eastern States and in the larger towns through- 
out the country many people, and especially those with moderate incomes and the 
poor, buy their bread of the baker. Six cents a pound, or even half that amount, for 
the manufacture and distribution seems a very large amount. 

In the large cities competition has made bread much cheaper, but even there the 
difference between the cost of bread to the well-to-do family who bake it themselves 
and to the family of the poor man who buy it of the baker is unfortunately large. 

DIVISION OP ENTOMOLOGY. 

On April 26, 1894, Prof. C. V. Riley, for many years the chief of the 
Division of Entomology of the United States Department of Agriculture, 
submitted his resignation. That communication states: "This action, 
which I have for some time contemplated, is taken without suggestion 
from or consultation with you (the Secretary of Agriculture) or anyone 
else, but purely for the reasons mentioned.' 7 Among those reasons is 
stated "a due regard for the wishes of family and for health." 

The services of Professor Eiley to American entomology, extending 
over nearly a generation, are fully known and justly appreciated in the 
United States and in foreign lands. His resignation for the reasons 
which he cogently stated compelled its own acceptance and released 
him from arduous and taxing duties. Mr. L. O. Howard, who had 
during nearly the entire incumbency of Professor Riley been the 
assistant entomologist, and who had already earned a reputation as a 
scientific man and an economic entomologist, was promoted immedi- 
ately to the position of chief of the division, and then, by order of the 
President of the United States, the division was classified into the civil 
service, so as to include both the chief and assistant chief. 

In the year 1894 diligent attention has been paid to ascertaining the 
exact localities in the several Eastern States where the San Jose or 
pernicious scale of California is alleged to have made its appearance. 
The method of the dissemination of this pest has been found, and 
the nurserymen concerned in its spread haye been induced to make , 
strenuous efforts for its destruction. 

Insects injurious to stored grains have also been under continuous 
investigation, and a full report thereupon, with results of remedial 
experimentation, will soon be given to the public. 

1 a 94 2* 



42 YEARBOOK OS THE U. &■ DEPARTMENT OF A&RIGULTURE. 

Investigations of the chinch bug have been extended in certain 
Western States j in cooperation with the Department^ and facts of 
practical value, bearing upon the relations of agricultural methods and 
climate to the propagation of the chinch bug, have been ascertained. 

The insect. enemies of the orange and other citrus fruits have been dili- 
gently studied, and much valuable material collected for an additional 
report upon this subject. In harmony with the provisions of the appro- 
priation bill, cotton insects have been the subject of much research. 
Inquiries were made in the States of Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, 
and Alabama, where results of practical value have been reached. 

A new and very active enemy of the cotton crop has been discov- 
ered recently in Tex^ts, where it was introduced from Mexico. It is in 
the shape of a weevil, which bores into the bolls. The study of this 
insect has been begun. A special agent was sent to the agricultural 
sections of Mexico recently opened up by railways, who has forwarded 
to the Division of Entomology many interesting specimens and many 
valuable data which will serve to familiarize the people with other 
injurious insects which are liable to be imported from Mexico to the 
United States. 

The experimental work against predaceous and destructive insects 
has been continued, mainly in the line of testing new machinery and in 
determining the effects of insecticide mixtures upon the foliage of 
plants at different seasons^ and in determining the usefulness of these 
insecticides against the new peaclii scale and: the San Jose or perni- 
cious scale of fruit trees above referred to. The publication of a series 
of leaflets or circulars upon insects especially dangerous toliorticuL 
ture has been commenced. A manual of bee culture is completed, 
and one bulletin has been contributed to the series of the division and 
another to the series of the farmers' bulletins, 

DIVISION QW VEGmZ&B'&B FATHGLGCF5T. 

The diligent study of the diseases of cereal crops and fruits has 
been continued by this division during the entire year. Recognizing 
the vast value of the cereal crops produced in this country ,. and the 
immense losses accruing to them because of the attacks of certain 
diseases, particularly rusts and smuts, an expert investigator was 
appointed early in the year to take charge of this particular line of 
inquiry. 

In the laboratory of the division at Washington, pear blight, diseases - 
affecting the melons of the South, diseases of cereals, and diseases of 
fruits of the Pacific Coast and of Florida have been investigated. 
It has been ascertained that a simple and inexpensive treatment used 
early in the spring will almost completely hold in check a disease of 
the leaves of the peach tree which has recently damaged fruitgrowers 
many thousands of dollars. The remedy has been tested among the 



REPORT OE THE SECRETARY OP AGRICULTURE. 43 

peach orchards of California and the eastern portion of the United 
States and has proved highly efficacious. Several other diseases of 
plants and fruit trees are now under investigation with excellent prob- 
abilities of discovering a successful remedy. A branch station of this 
division in Florida is particularly devoting itself to the study of the 
diseases of citrus fruits and other subtropical plants. 

DIVISION OP ORNITHOLOGY AND MAMMALOGY. 

The work of this division divides itself into two attractive subjects. 
The first is the geographic distribution of animals, and the second the 
study of injurious and useful birds and mammals. Under the first head 
enough data have now been collected to finally solve the problem of tem- 
perature control of the geographic distribution in North America of 
animals and plants. Their laws of distribution have been formulated, 
and the result of the investigation will be published m a few months. 
The study of life zones has extended over large areas in the West. The 
field work has covered twenty-five (25) States and Territories west of 
the Mississippi Kiver, and also embraced Pennsylvania and three of 
the Southern States. 

Two groups of mammals very injurious to agriculture, the California 
jack rabbit and the pocket gopher of the plains and the Mississippi 
Yalley, have received attention during the year. An exhaustive study 
has been made of the pocket gopher, the results of which will appear 
in a popular bulletin on his food habits, his injury to crops, and the 
methods of extermination. 

During the inquiry into the food of birds and mammals, three thou- 
sand four hundred and twenty (3,420) stomachs of birds were added to 
the collection, and fourteen hundred and forty (1,440) of them were 
carefully examined. The stomachs of many Mammals were dissected 
in the laboratory and fn the field, A report on the food habits of the 
kingbird, with special reference to its habits relating to agriculture and 
horticulture, has been prepared. There has also been completed a leaf- 
let on the food habits of the woodpecker, and a similar one on the food 
habits of blackbirds. 

Some species of beautifully plumaged and useful birds are being 
exterminated in the United States to satisfy the barbarie demand for 
ornithological ornamentation of feminine head wear. By educating the 
public mind to a better understanding of birds, their interesting hab- 
its and mses to man,, this division is doing much to prevent this and 
other similarly cruel and senseless practices which, if not arre&ted, will 
result in the total destruction of many of our most beautiful and useful 
American birds. 

The eminent scientist at the head of this division, Br. (3. Hart Mer- 
riam, and* his capable assistant have been, by order of the President, 
placed in the classified service. 



44 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

DIVISION OF BOTANY. 

During 1894 a great amount of agitation and some trepidation lias 
existed in certain Northwestern States relative to the Eussian thistle 
and its possible detrimental and universal dissemination throughout 
the Northwest. The Division of Botany, therefore, made a special 
effort to systematically collect information as to this newly arrived 
emigrant weed and to provide methods for its speedy repressment and 
eradication. One result of this inquiry is that the seeds of new grasses 
and forage plants from abroad will be hereafter, for the public protec- 
tion, very carefully inspected as to their freedom from weed seeds. If 
possible, it might be well to require certification as to freedom from weed 
seeds and absolute purity and vitality of all seeds imported into the 
United States. A laboratory has been equipped and a special assistant 
detailed to give his entire time to the study of seeds with regard to their 
purity, vitality, and improvement. 

The census of 1890 shows the value of farms in the United States 
which are entirely devoted to seed growing to be over eighteen mil- 
lions of dollars ($18,000,000). The export of clover seed alone during 
the year ending June 30, 1894, is estimated at four million five hundred 
and forty thousand dollars ($4,540,000). The export of American seeds 
may be vastly increased by exalting the standard of purity and ger- 
minating vitality and giving all other peoples the same guaranty that 
we ask of them. The same course will increase the domestic use of 
American-grown seed. When information as to its high quality has 
been diffused, this course will vastly widen the world markets for Ameri- 
can seed and so enhance their value by giving increasing demand every- 
where. 

DIVISION OF FORESTRY. 

The greater part of the appropriation for the Division of Forestry has 
been expended during the present year in investigating the strength of 
different timber woods and the conditions that influence their quality. 
The importance of such an inquiry was pointed out in the Eeport of the 
Secretary.of Agriculture for 1893. Attention was also called to the 
unqualified commendations which had been bestowed upon this work 
not only in the United States but in foreign countries. The full value 
of the investigation will not be apparent until it has been carried to a 
successful termination, when the accumulated data will be carefully 
collated, with the intent of discovering the laws which give different 
degrees of strength to different varieties of timber. A knowledge of 
such laws will make the everyday use of timber in building much 
safer and more satisfactory than it has been. The financial and 
economic value of these timber examinations can hardly be estimated 
at the present moment. 

The practice of " boxing" pine trees for turpentine, it has been dis- 
covered, does not decrease the strength of the lumber. This discovery 
alone, it is -stated, will add two millions of dollars to the value of the 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF AGRICULTURE. 45 

pineries of th£ Southern States which are being " bled" for turpentine. 
It is further established that the long-leaf pine of the South is gen- 
erally far stronger than heretofore admitted, and, therefore, for struc- 
tures like bridges, trestles, and rooftrees made of this timber it is prac- 
ticable to effect a saving of 25 per cent of material without reducing 
the factor of safety. This saving applies to about two million M. feet 
of longleaf pine timber annually used for such purposes, and the 
present money value of that saving of long-leaf pine lumber can be 
calculated at six millions of dollars ($6,000,000). These facts may ren- 
der possible the extension of the time in which our forest supplies of 
this most valuable timber must be exhausted. This line of work, 
which establishes the true value of our varieties of timber, should be 
pushed to a conclusion as rapidly as possible. Therefore it has been 
recommended that Senate bill No. 313, making a special appropriation 
of forty thousand dollars ($40,000) for the completion of this work, be 
passed whenever the people seem to demand it and the condition of 
the public Treasury may permit such an expenditure. 

Inquiry into the rate of growth and production of the most valuable 
lumber trees is needed in order to properly estimate the profit that may 
be derived from forest management. Only the' white pine and the black 
spruce have so far been partly examined. But the information obtained 
is so valuable that it makes more apparent than ever the necessity of 
similar investigations upon other timber trees. Inquiries have been 
made, and are in progress, as to the principles and effectiveness of 
dry kilns for lumber, and also as to the increase in the use of metal 
for railroad ties and other processes of economy in the use of wood 
for railroad construction. 

Popular instruction as to the disastrous results upon adjacent agricul- 
tural valleys of the denudation of hills and mountains should be given 
in every schoolhouse in the Union. Professor Eothrock, of Pennsyl- 
vania, and Dr. Fernow, the chief of the Division of Forestry of the 
United States Department of Agriculture, have shown themselves effi- 
cient teachers and workers in this regard. The deforestation of the 
American Continent will practically be an accomplished fact within 
another century unless systematic and intelligent reafforestation be 
speedily inaugurated. 

DIVISION OP CHEMISTRY. 

The Division of Chemistry, in harmony with the provisions of the 
appropriation act, has during the past year devoted itself to the inves- 
tigation of the adulteration of foods, drugs, and liquors, and to the 
prosecution of experiments in sugar production. Examinations for the 
usual adulterations have been made of large numbers of specimens of 
meals, flours, and breads $ but in no instance has there been found an 
adulteration of American flour with terra alba or any other material. 
It is gratifying to know withal that while this sort of adulteration is 



46 YEARBOOK €>¥ THE U. S. BEPARTMEOT OF ASBICIILTURE. 

practiced largely in foreign countries,, it lias not obtained foothold in 
the United States. The only deceptions in the flour trade have been 
found in the substitution of cheaper grades for dearer ones. In bread 
the chief adulterant found has been alum. That substance is added 
for the purpose of whitening the loaf. 

Wines have been examined very thoroughly f especially have adul- 
terants been sought for in the coloring matter used. It is impossible to 
tell by chemical analysis whether any given amount of alcohol found 
in wines is natural or artificial. The Division of Chemistry has ascer- 
tained that the pure wines of the United States and the pure wines 
produced in Europe are not very dissimilar in many eases. Where 
there are differences, they have been carefully determined and defined. 

The chemical examinations of the typical soils of the United States 
have been commenced, and a series of pot experiments have bee® begun, 
having for their object the practical test of the several methods of 
analysis heretofore adopted and the actual powers of plants to assimi- 
late different kinds of food in the soil. It is sought in this way to learn 
approximately the available plant food in each type of soil. In con- 
junction with this, a thorough study of the nitrifying organisms of the 
soils has also been commenced. In addition to the above work, 
numerous inquiries as to the methods of analysis have been carried 
out, and a great number of miscellaneous samples have been analyzed* 

DIVISION OF POMOLOGY. 

During the year Mr. S. B. Heiges, of Pennsylvania, a horticulturist 
of long experience and of practical skill, was made chief of the division, 
-and it is to-day in better working order than ever before since its crea- 
tion. By order of the President it has been placed' wholly in the 
classified civil service, from the chief and assistant chief down to the 
messengers. 

The division is principally engaged in correspondence with fruit 
growers 5 in critical examination and comparison of specimen fruits 
received from them for identification, description, and illustration: of 
such specimens as may seem worthy of record and propagation. AH 
new and improved varieties of this sort are modeled and colored. 

During, the year close attention has been given to the investiga- 
tion of the varieties of the apple. Notwithstanding the almost total 
failure of the crop, some two hundred (200) specimens of new or little- 
known varieties of apples — some of which promise to be very valuable — 
have been received. Beside these many old varieties which had been 
catalogued and planted as new have been identified as to their origin 
and character. 

The damaging frosts; of the last week in March were made the sub- 
ject of investigation during the month of April, and the results were 
published in a special circular with the report of the Statistician for May. 
Important facts were developed in the course of this inquest which will 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF AGRICULTURE. 47 

be of great value to peacii growers. Noticeable among them is the fact 
that certain groups or families of the Persian race of peaches bloom 
later than others in the South, and they are therefore less likely to have 
their fruit cut off by frosts. This discovery is of great value, and esti- 
mated to be worth, in dollars and cents, many times the expense of the 
investigation. Numerous scions and plants of promising varieties have 
been experimentally planted during the year. 

Among the principal importations by the Division of Pomology are col- 
lections of fig cuttings from England and citron cuttings from Corsica. 

DIVISION OP ACCOUNTS. 

Congress appropriated to the United States Department of Agricul- 
ture for the year ending June 30, 1894, exclusive of the appropriation of 
seven hundred and twenty thousand dollars ($720,000) for agricultural 
experiment stations, $2,603,500. Of this amount one million seven hun- 
dred and ninety thousand five hundred and thirty dollars and seventy 
cents ($1,790,530.70) were disbursed prior to July 1, 1894. In addition 
to this sum there remained at that date unpaid bills aggregating 
$200,000. The payment of these will make the total expenditures 
for the fiscal year 1894 $1,990,530.70. In other words, when the 
accounts of the Department of Agriculture for the fiscal year ending 
June 30, 1894, shall have been finally adjusted there will be covered 
back $600,000 into the United States Treasury, or about 23 per cent of 
the entire appropriation. 

For the last fiscal year 31 specific appropriations were made, and 
15 subappropriations which required separate and distinct accounts. 

During the year 11,863 accounts were received r audited, and paid. 
They included the supplemental accounts of 1893, which amounted 
to $1,967,842.79. Mnety-three requisitions were drawn on the 
United States Treasury in liquidation of those accounts, aggregating 
$2,014,809.95. Those requisitions were in settlement of 19,100 checks, 
exclusive of about $450,000 paid in currency over the counter. 

During the year 59 separate amounts were received from various 
sources from the sale of condemned Government property. That and 
other similarly derived moneys were deposited in the United States 
Treasury to the credit of " Miscellaneous receipts, 77 as provided by law. 
They aggregated $7,135. 

During the twelve months ending June 30, 1894, the expenditures 
chargeable to the appropriations for that fiscal year were less by 
$386,364.83 than the expenditures during the twelve months end- 
ing June 30, 1893, chargeable to the appropriations for that year — 
an average monthly reduction of $32,1^7.07. Attention is called to 
the statement of the Annual Eeport of the Department of Agricul- 
ture submitted on the 20th of November, 1893, in which the hope is 
expressed that a saving may be made of 12 per cent, and to the fact 
that the present report justifies that hope and verifies all that has 
been claimed as to economy in the present management. 



48 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

The statements of the several divisions of the Department show that 
efficiency has not been sacrificed to economy, because in each division 
it is observable that more and better work has been accomplished 
during the last twelve months than during any previous twelve months 
of their existence. 

The total appropriations for 1894-95 are less by $104,476.94 than 
those for the year 1893-94. And this decrease occurs notwithstanding 
a new appropriation of $10,000 for nutrition and the fact that the seed 
fund included $30,000 for farmers' bulletins. The estimates for 1896 
are less by $98,693.06 than the appropriation for the current year. 

The expenses of the Department of Agriculture from July 1 to Octo- 
ber 31, 1894, were less by $9,418.76 than during the parallel period of 
last year; and by $78,852.41 than during the period from July 1 to 
October 31, 1892, thus realizing the hope expressed in the report of the 
Secretary for 1893 that the reduction then referred to would be made 
permanent. 

There were upon the pay rolls of the Department, in the city of 
Washington, on March 1, 1893, 750 persons, with salaries aggregating 
$54,764.82 per month. 

On March 1, 1894, the rolls showed 622 names, with salaries amount- 
ing to $49,085.66 per month. 

On November 1, 1894, there were 559 employees, with salaries aggre- 
gating $45,557.74 per month; a reduction of 191 in the number of 
employees between March 1, 1893, and November 1, 1894, and a saving 
in the amount of salaries of $9,207.08 per month. 

Comparative statement allowing amount of appropriations for the Department of Agricul- 
ture for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1895, and amount of estimates submitted by the 
Secretary of Agriculture for the fiscal ending June 30, 1896. 



Appropria- 
tion 1895. 



Estimate for 
1896. 



Increase. 



Decrease. 



Office of tho Secretary 

Division of Accounts and Disbursements 

Division of Statistics 

Division of Botany 

Division of Entomology 

Division of Ornithology and Mammalogy 

Division of Pomology 

Division of Microscopy 

Division of Vegetable Physiology and Pathology. 

Division of Chemistry 

Division of Forestry 

Division of Publications (Records and Editing) . . 

Division of Illustrations 

Farmers' Bulletins (Division of Seeds) 

Document and Folding Room 

Museum 

Library 

Agricultural experiment stations 

Experimental gardens and grounds 

Furniture, cases, and repairs 

Postage 



$91, 140. 00 

17, 300. 00 

145, 360. 00 

38, 600. 00 

29, 800. 00 

27, 360. 00 

11, 300. 00 

7, 300. 00 

26, 100. 00 

32, 000. 00 

28, 320. 00 

8, 100. 00 

15, 000. 00 

177, 520. 00 

5, 600. 00 

5, 400. 00 

6, 000. 00 

745, 000. 00 

32, 000. 00 

10, 000. 00 

5 r 000. 00 



1", 

145, 

33, 

29, 

27, 

12, 

7, 

26, 

32, 

33, 

S, 

15, 

56, 

9, 

5, 

6, 

750, 

28, 

10, 

2, 



140. 
500. 
160. 
800. 
500. 
560. 
500, 
300. 
500. 
000 
520. 
300. 
000. 
000. 
040. 
400. 
000. 
000. 
500. 
000. 
000. 



$3, 000. 00 




200. 00 






$200. 00 




4, 800. 00 
300.00 




200. 00 




1, 200. 00 






400. 00 








5, 200. 00 
200. 00 












121, 520. 00 


3, 440. 00 










5 000. 00 






3, 500. 00 








3, 000. 00 



REPORT OP THE SECRETARY OF AGRICULTURE. 49 

Comparative statement showing amount of appropriations , etc. — Continued. 



Contingent expenses , 

Investigations with relation to agricultural soils. 

Inquiries relating to public roads .* 

Experiments in the manufacture of sugar 

Irrigation investigations 

Nutrition investigations 

Investigations, etc., with grasses and forage 

plants 

Fiber investigations. . 

Bureau of Animal Industry 

Quarantine stations 

Weather Bureau 



Total 

Net decrease. 



Appropria- 
tion 1895. 



$25, 000. 00 



10, 000. 00 

10, 000. 00 

6, 000. 00 

10, 000. 00 



5, 000. 00 

800, 000. 00 

12, 000. 00 

876, 823. 06 



Estimate for 
1896. 



$25, 000. 00 
15, 000. 00 
10, 000. 00 
10, 000. 00 
8, 000. 00 
15, 000. 00 

15, 000. 00 



800, 000. 00 

12, 000. 00 

860, 610. 00 



3, 219, 023. 06 3, 120, 330. 00 



Increase. 



$15, 000. 00 



2, 000. 00 
5, 000. 00 

15, 000. 00 



Decrease. 



55, 840. 00 



$5, 000. 00 



16, 213. 06 



154,533.06 
98, 693. 06 



Note.— The amount appropriated for the office of the Secretary for the fiscal year 1895, as itemized 
in the bill passed August 8, 1894, was $94,140; but, by an error in printing, was stated as $91,140. 

Note.— The amount appropriated for seeds for the fiscal year 1895 was divided as follows : Purchase 
of seeds, $130, 000 j farmers' bulletins, $30,000; salaries, $12,120; printing, $5,400. 

Note.— The amount appropriated for agricultural experiment stations for the fiscal year 1895 
includes $720,000 for State experiment stations, over which the Department of Agriculture has no 
control. This statement also applies to the amount estimated for the fiscal year 1896. 

The Department of Agriculture expended for the fiscal year 1892 
$2,271,312.72 j and out of that sum the total amount expended in scien- 
tific research was 46.2 per cent. For the fiscal year 1893 the expendi- 
tures were $2,354,809.56, and out of it only 45.6 per cent was expended 
in the application of science to agriculture. But for the year ending 
June 30, 1894, out of a total expenditure of $1,990,530.70 (estimated), 
the Department applied 51.8 to scientific work and investigation. 

It is, therefore, very plainly observable that the economies which 
have been practiced in the administration of the Department have not 
impaired its capacity for scientific research. Comparing the expendi- 
tures for the fiscal years 1893 and 1894, respectively, it is noticeable 
that the total expenditures for 1894 are $364,278.86 less than the total 
for 1893. But the per cent of the total amount paid out for scientific 
work, as distinguished from the administration and general business, 
is 5.6 per cent more, in proportion to the total expenditures during the 
year 1894, than it was in 1892, and 6.2 more than it was in 1893. And 
yet during the year, as has been already shown, the new Division of 
Agricultural Soils has been established and the new Section of Agros- 
tology erected in the Division of Botany. 

It has been deemed desirable to reproduce here a full statement of 
the expenses of this Department for a period of fifteen years, from 1878 
to 1892, inclusive, showing the objects of the several appropriations and 
the amount appropriated to each branch of the work. This statement 
presents in a condensed and practical manner a full history of the devel- 
opment of the Department.* 

•* For convenience these tables are omitted from this report and will be published 
in the form of a circular. 



50 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

DIVISION OF RECORDS AND EDITING. 

The Division of Records and Editing has issued during the past fiscal 
year two hundred and five (205) different publications. Fifty-six (56) of 
these were printed at the Weather Bureau. The remainder were pub- 
lished at the office of the Public Printer. All editions of the above 
publications aggregate 3,169,310 copies. They contained 10,512 pages. 
Farmers' bulletins were increased in numbers so as to make it possible 
to economically reach many readers. The reduction in the cost of 
printing for this Department during the year as compared with the 
previous twelve months is nearly $20,000. It is suggested, neverthe- 
less, that an increase in the printing fund is necessary if all the infor- 
mation acquired by the Department through its several divisions is to 
be promptly printed, published, and disseminated. 

In harmony with the Eeport of the Secretary of Agriculture for 1893, 
it is urged that the vicious system of promiscuous free distribution 
of departmental documents should be abandoned. Public libraries, 
educational institutions, and the offices of States and of the Federal 
Government might be furnished without cost, but from all individuals 
applying for the publications of the Department a price covering the 
cost of the document asked for should be required. Thus the publica- 
tions and documents would be secured by those who really desire them 
for proper purposes. Half a million of copies of the Eeport of the Sec- 
retary of Agriculture are printed for distribution, at an annual cost of 
about $300,000. Many of these reports apportioned to members of the 
Senate and House of Eepresentatives remain undistributed. Large 
numbers of the annual reports of this Department have been found 
cumbering the storerooms at the Capitol and the shelves of second- 
hand bookstores throughout the country. All this labor and waste 
could be avoided if payment of cost price were demanded for all 
Government publications. 

As long as the custom or law requires the annual issuance of half a 
million of copies of this report, it is obviously the duty of those who 
make up thatdocument to strive to render it instructive, interesting, and 
useful to all the people. It ought to contain the results of the researches 
made in the various bureaus and laboratories during the year, and 
should be so plainly written and popular in its character as to adapt 
itself to the practical farmer and be held in esteem by him as a work 
of reference on agricultural science, practice, and statistics. Such a 
handbook by the Department of Agriculture, with all purely executive 
matter eliminated, might prove of infinite service in the advancement 
and exaltation of the vocation of agriculture throughout the United 
States. 

The chairman of the House Committee on Printing favorably reported 
a resolution at the last session of Congress providing for the printing 
of the report of this Department in two parts. As it passed the House 



HEFOK.T <W THE SECRETARY OF AGRKULTOEE. 51 

tke resolution- &imL tke report of the committee, containing a letter from 
tke Secretary of Agrieultnre with reference thereto, are appended. 

[H. Res. 198, to print Agricultural Report for 1891.] 
Resolaed by tlie Senate and House of Representative* of the United States of America 
in Congress assembled, That tke Animal Report of tlie Secretary of Agriculture for tke 
year eigkteen. kundred and ninety-four b« printed.. Said report shall hereafter be 
submitted and printed in two parts, as follows : Part one, wkick skall contain purely 
business and executive matter wkick it is necessary for tke Secretary to submit to 
tke President and Congress; part two, wkick skall contain suck reports from the 
different, bureaus and divisions, and suck papers prepared by tkeir special, agents, 
accompanied by suitable illustrations as skall, in tke opinion of tke Secretary, be 
specially suited to interest and instruct tke farmers of the country, and to include a 
general report of tke operations of tke Department for tkeir information. There 
shall! be printed of part one, one thousand copies Jor tke Senate, two thousand copies 
&r. tke House,, and three thousand copies for tke Department of Agriculture ;; and o# 
part two, one hundred and ten. thousand copies for tke use of tke Senate* three hun- 
dred and sixty thousand copies for the use of the House of Representatives, and 
thirty thousand copies for the use of the Department of Agriculture, the illustra^ 
tions for the same to be executed under the supervision of the Public Printer, in 
accordance with directions of tke Joint Committee on Printing, said illustrations to 
be subject to the approval of the Secretary of Agriculture: Provided, That the title 
of 3ach of the said parts shall be such as to show that such p-art is complete in itself*. 
Passed the House of Representatives June 29, 1894. 

[Report to accompany H. Res. 198.] 

The Committee on Printing have considered House joint resolution No. 198, to 
print Agricultural Report for 1894, and report same with recommendation that it. 
do pass. 

The committee are of the opinion that it is wise to print said report in two parts, 
as provided in the resolution, with contents divided as suggested. This proposed 
change has been submitted to the Department of Agriculture, and has the approval 
of the Secretary, as shown by the letter from him herewith submitted. 



Department? of Agriculture, Office of the. Secretary, 

Washington, D. C, June 21, 1894. 
Sir: I believe that the Annual Report of the Department of Agriculture, distrib- 
uted to the farmers of the country in such large numbers, could be greatly improved; 
by publishing it in two. separate parts, as follows: 

Part 1 to eon tain purely business and executive matter, which it is necessary for 
the Secretary to submit to. the President and Congress. 

Part 2 to include such carefully prepared and selected matter, with proper illus- 
trations, as will especially interest and benefit the farmers of the country, excluding 
everything that belongs to Part 1 and indudiing a general report on the work of the 
Department, written with special reference to the needs of the farming public. 

The advantages of such a division of the report are so apparent that no argument 
is needed to> support them. The plan will give this Department the opportunity 
to prepare a report which will interest and benefit the farming classes more than 
anything which has hitherto been- issued from it. 

If tkis division is to be made it will be necessary tkat tkis Department be notified, 
so tkat it can give early instructions to tke ckiefs of bureaus and divisions, wko 
will soon begin the preparation of tke annual report to be submitted on the 1st 
of December. I would respectfully suggest, therefore, th& incorporation: of some 
provision like tkat inclosed in the printing bill now under consideration by your 
committee. 

Respectfully, yours, J. Sterling Morton, 

Secj'etary. 
Hon. James D. Richardson, 

Chairman Committee on Printing 3 House of Regresent&twes, 

Washington, D. C. 



52 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

Iii view of the possibly favorable action of the Senate on the forego- 
ing resolution, the several chiefs of the various bureaus and divisions 
of the Department of Agriculture have been directed to prepare their 
reports in accordance therewith. It is believed that the result will 
supply a more useful, practical, instructive, and popular report than 
the late method has heretofore furnished to the public. 

DEPARTMENT PRINTING OFFICE. 

The constantly increasing demands for the prin ting of various blanks, 
letter heads, envelopes, circulars, etc., for use in the different divisions 
and bureaus has been promptly and satisfactorily met by the printing 
office under the control of this Department. Much of the work is 
needed for immediate use, and the ability to furnish it without delay 
demonstrates the efficiency of the present management. This office 
also prints the packets used in the distribution of seeds, of which, in 
September, October, and November, 4,747,550 were delivered to the 
Seed Division. During the year 1892-93, and for many years previous, 
the force consisted of 17 employees, working the entire year. In Novem- 
ber, 1893, the force was reduced to 7 employees for twelve months and 
8 temporary employees for seven months. During the first six months 
of the present year the number of impressions amounted to 8,210,110, 
against 5,201,065 during the same period of the preceding year; so 
that, with half the force, a third more work is now done, and that, too, 
of an improved quality. 

DOCUMENT AND FOLDING ROOM. 

The manual labor in this division has been nearly doubled, owing to 
the largely increased number of publications which have been issued 
during the past year. Notwithstanding this, the work of the division 
has been accomplished with celerity and certainty, although the force 
of employees has been considerably less than during the preceding year. 

A record has been kept, for the first time since the establishment of 
the division, during the entire year, which shows each and every pub- 
lication mailed from the Department of Agriculture. Three times as 
many packages were transmitted by the Department through the mails 
during the year as were sent out during the previous twelve months. 

During the year this division committed to the mails of the United 
States two million two hundred thousand (2,200,000) pieces of franked 
mail matter. 

The correspondence of the Document and Folding Eoom naturally 
increased very largely during the year, but it has been handled most 
efficiently by the clerical force. The entire mailing list of the Depart- 
ment is being revised and compiled so as to eliminate duplications from 
the mailing list. Already, in this readjustment of that list, dupli- 
cation and triplication of names have been frequently discovered. 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF AGRICULTURE. 53 

One address, indeed, lias been found receiving* twelve copies of each 
publication. 

During the year there were purchased two patent mailing machines, 
which will very materially facilitate the addressing of documents. 

DIVISION OF GARDENS AND GROUNDS. 

The gardens and grounds of the Department of Agriculture, contain- 
ing forty (40) acres, demand the constant attention of the superintend- 
ent and his subordinates. Glass structures cover nearly an acre of this 
reservation, and necessarily require the closest daily care and labor. 

Several of the glass structures are used for the propagation of plants, 
of which many are used to embellish the grounds; but the larger por- 
tion, mainly those of economic value, are distributed throughout the 
States and Territories. During the last year there were thus distrib- 
uted 75,000 plants. 

The expenditures upon gardens and grounds for the fiscal year are 
somewhat reduced. At the present rate the salaries are $3,000 less 
than those of the last fiscal year. It is impossible to make any exact 
estimates as to the possible miscellaneous expenditures, in the future, 
of this division. Exigencies may occur which can not be computed with 
any degree of exactness before their necessity arises. In any event the 
appropriation recommended is deemed sufficient for this division. 

OFFICE OF ROAD INQUIRY. 

October 3, 1893, in pursuance of the act of Congress appropriating 
ten thousand dollars ($10,000) " to enable the Secretary of Agriculture 
to make inquiries in regard to the systems of road management through- 
out the United States, to make investigations in regard to the best 
methods of roadmaking, to prepare publications on this subject suitable 
for distribution, and to enable him to assist the agricultural colleges 
and experiment stations in disseminating information on this subject, ?? 
the Office of Koad Inquiry was instituted and Gen. Eoy Stone, of New 
York, appointed to take charge thereof. 

During the nine months of the fiscal year the work was necessarily 
of a tentative character. Bulletins Nos. 1 to 9, inclusive, of the Office 
of Eoad Inquiry, were collected, compiled, and published. These bulle- 
tins have been in such demand that first editions have, in many 
instances, been exhausted and reprints required. 

During the year General Stone, besides attending to the literary 
work of the ofiice, has attended and addressed conventions and meet- 
ings relative to road improvement in various States. It is proposed to 
increase the work of the ofiice the coming year, to extend the inquiry 
on the same lines, and to publish maps showing the mileage of improved 
roads constructed in the United States during the last three years. The 
cooperation of the agricultural colleges and experiment stations will be 



54 YEARBOOK OF THE. tL S. BEPAMPMEOT? OF AGRICULTURE. 

sought, so as to advance and disseminate a knowledge of the economic 
advantages of good roads and of the best methods of constructing them. 

DIVISION OF STATISTICS. 

There is no phrase in the English language which, by implication, 
conveys the impression of so much vast and exact knowledge as the 
word statistics. Literally it means u a state of, ?? "a condition,' 7 or "a 
standing." It depicts, to one accustomed to dwell upon tabulated facts 
and figures, the mental image of a curious collection of valuable data and 
figures, caged in mathematical tables, for the purpose of elucidating 
facts which may be used in the further investigation of special subjects. 

Statistical investigations should always be made in accordance with 
the rule of the theory of mathematical probabilities that " numerical 
fractions express the value of the degree of presumption in favor of the 
correctness of a particular event, when the causes or conditions which 
influenced the result are partly known and partly indeterminate." 

Under this theory statisticians arrange results in numerical tables. 
Facts existing in large numbers are thus compactly and clearly set 
forth. Statisticians, therefore, should not be content with giving deduc- 
tions which admit of serious doubts. It is the duty of the statistician 
to supply credible materials whence anyone may, by examination and 
reasoning, evolve his own deductions. 

But statistics do not consist entirely of columns of figures. Con- 
clusions may be fairly drawn only from well-attested data, though in 
many instances they may not be susceptible of mathematical demon- 
stration. 

The particular object of this division of the limited States ^Department 
of Agriculture is the ascertainment, by diligence and care, of the actual 
and real condition of the farms and farmers of this country. Its duty 
is to seek the causes which produced that condition. The utility of 
ascertaining the condition is in the service which the ascertained facts 
may render in improving or mitigating, intensifying or repressing, 
that condition. 

A further important utility is found in agricultural statistics, through 
their elucidation of the relation of the supply of farm products to the* 
demand for farm products in the markets of the United States, and in the 
other markets of the world. Before the statistician begins an investi- 
gation in any certain line he should be sure that the agriculture, com- 
merce, and manufactures of this country need to know the facts which he 
proposes to gather. And in all researches statisticians should be ready 
to receive suggestions from those versed, either by experience or obser- 
vation, in the subj eefr which they consider, and they should be always 
without prejudice and ready to abandon with alacrity any hypotheses 
which they find untenable. The statistician's collection of materials 
should be willingly submitted, on demand, to any new tests which occa- 
sion may offer. And no statistician of an economic subject so vast as 



REP€)ET OP THE SECRETARY OW AGRICULTURE. 55* 

that of the agriculture of the United States can approximate the truth 
with frequency and certainty, unless he has some knowledge of the 
calculus or computation of probabilities. 

Enough has been stated to show that no person can become a suc- 
cessful statistician, an assistant statistician^ the chief of a section in 
the Division of StatistieSy or even a thoroughly competent clerk in that 
division, who is not well posted in the literature of European and 
American statistics. It is quite plain also that each person engaged 
in making up statistics for American use, from foreign tabulations,* 
should be perfectly acquainted with the metric system of weights and 
measures. In that system all foreign statistics, except those of Great 
Britain, are computed. 

COMPETITIVE EXAMINATIONS. 

There is no line of investigation which requires more intellectual dis- 
cipline, more accuracy of judgment, more patienee in research, more 
skill in combining and correlating facts and figures, or more special 
training for its pursuit, than the line followed by the painstaking 
and successful statistician. Holding such opinions, the Secretary of 
Agriculture is convinced that every person employed in gathering 
statistics under the chief of that division should be admitted to that 
work only after a thorough, exhaustive, and successful examination at 
the hands of the United States Civil Service Commission, There- 
fore, he has called for such examinations, by that honorable body, of 
candidates for the positions of assistant statistician and for chiefs 
of sections in the Division of Statistics. When these examinations 
transpire, any employees now in that division of the Department of 
Agriculture are at liberty, with other competitors, to test their peculiar 
fitness and adaptation for that work by submitting to the; examination* 

It is quite certain that their long- experience with the facts and figures 
that are received from day to day in that division will be no disadr 
vantage to them in the contest with outsiders who have had no sneh 
contact. 

STATE AND COUNTY AOENTS. 

A fundamental objection to the present system of gathering agricul- 
tural statistics in the United States is the fact that correspondents, 
who are expected to furnish reliable data, are paid nothing for their 
work. The Government is endeavoring to get something for nothing. 
The only payments (for services) made to these thousands of corre- 
spondents in all the counties of each State and Territory are public 
documents, garden seeds, and a few postage stamps. 

The service has been very much better than its compensation. In the 
several States and counties have been found very many zealous and 
enthusiastic men anxious to do this work. But they are tho exception. 
Human nature^ as a rule, is not desirous of doing diligent duty in any 
line without remuneration. 



56 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

In addition to the county agents, the Federal Government has a State 
statistical agent in each State and Territory of the Union. The sala- 
ries for these agents range from $400 to $1,200 per annum each. As a 
rule they are competent and accomplished men, but the service would 
be vastly improved if all these appointees were placed in the classified 
service, so that hereafter, when a vacancy occurs, the person appointed 
to fill it shall have passed an examination before the United States 
Civil Service Commission, demonstrating his fitness and adaptability 
for the proper discharge of the duties pertaining to the position. 

WORK OF THE YEAR. 

The Division of Statistics is, for convenience of administration, 
divided into four sections, as follows : Compilation and foreign statistics ; 
answers to Congressional inquiries and all verification of agricultural 
statistics are conducted in this section. Records, files, and correspond- 
ence 5 the title of this section clearly expresses the nature of the duties 
assigned to it. Crop reporting, which covers all investigations into 
crop conditions, and collecting and tabulating the reports of corre- 
spondents. Freights ; the work of this section consists in crosscheck- 
ing the compilation of crop reports, computations, and freights. 

The total expenditures in behalf of the Division of Statistics, includ- 
ing salaries of employees, during the last year, were one hundred and 
ten thousand dollars ($110,000). 

During 1894 the Division of Statistics has enlarged its work upon 
the crops of the United States. The data for the final report for 1893, 
containing estimates as to the area, product, and value of the principal 
crops, were secured by the issuance of 135,000 interrogative circulars 
addressed to farmers and others who were selected for their high char- 
acter and intelligence. 

Early in 1894 the usual investigation was made as to probable 
changes in the areas of the principal crops of the Republic, and the 
results of those inquiries were published in the report for May. The 
annual inquest as to the quantity of corn and wheat in farmers' hands 
on the first day of March was thoroughly made, and the facts found 
were published in the report for March. It contained also a compar- 
ison with the corresponding data for a number of previous years and 
a review of the production and distribution of the several cereals for a 
term of years. Since then a carefully prepared review of the " supply 
and distribution of wheat for twenty-five years " was given to the public. 
A tabulated statement showing the wholesale prices of a number of 
principal agricultural products at leading cities in all sections of the 
United States was also presented in the report of the Statistician for 
March, 1894. 

Careful inquiry has been made as to the cost per bushel of producing 
wheat and corn. Replies from thirty thousand (30,000) farmers and 
four thousand (4,000) experts were received. Their findings were 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OP AGRICULTURE. 57 

published by States and by sections. The State findings were those 
of experts, and the findings as to particular sections were by leading 
farmers. 

Two other inquiries made by the Division of Statistics were of great 
interest. The first related to the average weight of wool fleeces in the 
United States, and the second was relative to the health of the people 
in the several States and Territories, and was issued for the purpose of 
ascertaining the diseases most prevalent in each. 

The annual table of the world's wheat crop published by this division 
consists in part of official figures, and in part of such unofficial estimates 
as are deemed worthy of confidence. This table has been gradually 
increasing in correctness and accuracy. Its composition is a work of 
great care and diligent research, involving examination of reports in 
many languages. 

In addition to these customary reports and publications, much time 
was spent in the preparation of special reports on a variety of subjects 
of interest to farmers and business men, which, as usual, found a place 
from time to time in the monthly reports. 

AN ANNUAL AGRICULTURAL CENSUS. 

Is it not probable that satisfactory statistics of the agriculture of the 
United States could be better obtained th rough State authorities ll l Each 
Commonwealth, in its labor bureau, or in some other of the executive 
branches of its government, could establish a properly paid bureau of 
statistics, and through county agents gather reliable data quickly. 
The statistics thus collected would be sent by the commissioners in 
charge of statistics at the several State capitals directly to the Agri- 
cultural Department. In that manner possibly a more thorough, 
reliable, and credible collection of agricultural statistics might be made. 
If the tables are worth making at all, they are worth making correctly 
and credibly. If, however, the j)resent system is to be continued, 
advantages would result from an annual census of agricultural a-creages 
and crops. It is needed as a basis for even approximate accuracy in 
estimating crop conditions. To give the average condition of any crop 
in any State certain average weights are applied to each county esti- 
mate. Such weights should of course be based on the acreage of each 
crop in each county. As a fact, they are obtained apparently from 
acreages reported by preceding United States census, regardless of the 
increase or decrease from year to year.in each county of the area devoted 
to the several crops. This fundamental fallacy seems to have permeated 
the agricultural statistics for many years, and it is clear that there must 
be only guarded and limited faith in the possible accuracy of the crop 
estimates of the Division of Statistics up to a very recent period of 
time. Effectual elimination of all possibility of such erroneous calcu- 
lations is only feasible by means of such an annual census of acreages, 
which might be taken by some of the experienced men who now report 



58 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

to the Department, provided they are paid for the work. The precise 
information desirable by the taking of this census is as follows : 

(1) The area under each of the more important crops. 

(2) The aggregate product of each of such crops. 

(3) The quantity of wheat and corn in the hands of farmers at a date 
after the spring sowings and plantings and before the beginning of 
harvest 5 and also the quantity of cotton and tobacco remaining in the 
hands of planters, either at the same date or at some other designated 
time. 

(4) The number of farm animals on the 1st of January of each year. 
Such a census, to be carefully made by practical men, experienced in 

agriculture, who may be selected out of the large number of competent 
persons who have been doing gratuitous work in this line for many 
years, is very much favored by Mr. Henry A. Eobinson, the efficient 
chief of the Division of Statistics. He estimates that the actual cost 
of collecting for the census certain agricultural statistics, which may 
be considered about equivalent as regards the labor of collection to 
those just proposed, would be not far from five hundred thousand dol- 
lars ($500,000), and desires that an appropriation of that sum for the 
work of collecting such statistics during the fiscal year ending June 
30, 1896, be made. 

In Great Britain the agricultural statistics are as nearly correct as 
possible, because each farm is accounted for as to the amount of acreage 
in each crop and as to the number of domestic animals of each species. 
Furthermore, the yield of each sown or planted crop per acre is given, 
together with the number of poultry, eggs, and pounds of butter pro- 
duced — all of which is signed by either the tenant farmer or the pro- 
prietor. This exactness is reached through the revenue systems of 
foreign countries. It might possibly be approximated in the various 
counties and States of the American Union through similar agencies, 
or by United States revenue collectors and their deputies. 

THE GRATUITOUS PROMISCUOUS DISTRIBUTION OP SEED. 

The Secretary of Agriculture calls attention to the report of this 
Department for the year 1893, and particularly to page 17 thereof, 
under the head of " Distribution of seed at the public expense.' 7 

Briefly, he recommends that the purchase of seeds for gratuitous and 
promiscuous distribution be utterly abolished, and that not one cent be 
appropriated for such distribution. 

During the fiscal year ending June 30, 1894, the Seed Division gave 
out to Senators, Representatives, and Delegates in Congress seven 
million four hundred and forty thousand nine hundred and eighteen 
(7,440,918) papers of vegetable seeds, six hundred and forty thousand 
and sixty-five (640,065) papers of flower seeds, sixty-three thousand 
seven hundred and forty-six (63,746) papers of tobacco seed, one 
hundred and eighty-two thousand five hundred and forty-two (182,542) 
papers of turnip seed, thirty-five (35) quarts of mangel-wurzel seed, 



REFQffiF OF THU SECRETARY OF AGRICULTURE. 59 

five hundred and twenty-one (521) quarts of sugar-beet seed, four 
thousand eight hundred and seventy-three (4,873) quarts of rape seed, 
fifty (50) quarts of oats, twenty-live (25) quarts of sorghum, eleven 
thousand seven hundred and six (11,706) quarts of corn, ten thousand 
one hundred and sixty-six (10,166) quarts of grass seed, nine thousand 
two hundred and ninety-three (9,293) quarts of clover seed, and twenty- 
one thousand one hundred and sixty-six (21,166) quarts of cotton seed. 

In that distribution there were one hundred and seventy-seven (177) 
varieties of vegetable seed, sixty-five (65) of flower seed, seven (7) of 
tobacco, one (1) of wheat, five (5) of corn, three (3) of oats, one (1) of 
barley, five (5) of grass, four (4) of clover, six (6) of sorghum, one (1) 
of Kaffir corn, one (1) of Jerusalem corn, two (2) of mallo make^ two 
(2) of soja beans, one (1) of eowpeas, one (1) of flat, peas,- one (1) of 
serradella, one (1) of spurry, one (1) of hairy vetch, one (1) of rape, 
eight (8) of turnips, three (3) of sugar beets, one (1) of mangel-wurzel, 
one (1) of peanuts, and ten (10) varieties of cotton. 

In the distribution, Senators, Representatives, and IMegates in Con- 
gress sent out eight million three hundred and eighty-five thousand 
one hundred and twenty (8,385,120) packages -, county statistical cor- 
respondents of the Agricultural Department, five hundred and seven 
thousand six hundred and sixty-one (507,661) ; State statistical agents 
©f the Department, one hundred and forty- one thousand one hundred 
and twenty-nine (141,129) ,y experiment stations and experimental farms, 
fifty-two thousand two hundred and twenty -eight (52,228) y agricultural 
associations and miscellaneous applicants, four hundred and sixty-nine 
thousand one hundred and eighty (469,180). So that the aggregate 
number of packages of seed gratuitously distributed by the Govern- 
ment of the United States in the fiscal year is nine million five hundred 
and fifty-five thousand three hundred and eighteen (9,555,318). 

The cost of this enormous distribution, not including the carriage of 
the packages (which amount in weight to more than three hundred 
tons), as dead matter by the postal service, is as follows : 

For the purchase and distribution of seeds .. _. $111, 242. 51 

Payment of statutory salaries in Seed Division . . .. 12, 400. 00 

Making a total of . .. 123, 642. 51 

That total is divided as follows : 

Paid out for seed ...„ $56, 968. 66 

Paid out for freight and. express charges , 2, 858. 97 

Paid out for grain bags 182. 08 

Paid out for salary and expenses of special agent 3, 010. 59 

C os t of seed delivered at Department 63, 020. 30 

After the reception of the seed the Department paid — 

For labor in the seed room (laborers' roll) $34,. 690.. 75 

SMlled labor .... . 5,643.99 

Paper bags, twine, tags, and other supplies > 7, 887. 47 

Statutory salaries _ 12,400.00 

Cost of preparing seed for distribution 60, 622. 21 



60 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

The above statement shows that $60,022.21 was spent in preparing 
seeds for distribution — a sum in the aggregate lacking less than $3,000 
of the cost of the seed delivered. 

The cost per package of seed distributed is 1.20 cents, against 2 
cents for the preceding year. 

During the fiscal year 1802-03 the number of seed packages distrib- 
uted was seven million seven hundred and four thousand four hundred 
and sixty-four (7,704/164); and during the year 1803-04 the number of 
packages distributed is nine million five hundred and fifty-five thousand 
three hundred and eighteen (0,555,318). The total expenditure for the 
fiscal year 1802-03, including the statutory salaries and compensation 
of others detailed to this work, was one hundred and sixty thousand 
dollars ($160,000), and for the year 1803-04 one hundred and twenty- 
seven thousand seven hundred and eight dollars ($127,708). 

The extravagance and inutility of these disbursements are apparent 
to any person who will investigate the results of the expenditure. 
That the distribution is regarded with very little interest is evidenced 
by the fact that, taking nine millions of papers of seed, there is an aver- 
age of five papers to each person, for it is safe to say that there were 
1,800,000 citizens of the United States who received seeds out of this 
promiscuous distribution. Out of this number nine hundred and forty 
(040) persons acknowledged their receipt, and in those cases it was 
generally with a request for more seed. The State of Iowa sent 35 
acknowledgments, Kansas 30, Connecticut 16, New Jersey 2, Nebraska 
33, New York 62, New Hampshire 5, Rhode Island 1. The other 
States indicate about the same degree of indifference, so that there are 
less than one thousand acknowledgments by more than one and three- 
quarter million recipients. 

In view of the above, it is difficult to see how any x^ractical states- 
man can advocate an annual disbursement of $160,000 for such a pur- 
Dose. Educationally, that sum of money might be made of infinite 
advantage to the farmers of the United States if it were expended in 
the publication and distribution of bulletins showing, in terse and 
plain language, how chemistry, botany, entomology, forestry, vegetable 
pathology,- veterinary, and other sciences may be applied to agriculture. 

If, in a sort of paternal way, it is the duty of this Government to dis- 
tribute anything gratuitously, are not new ideas of more permanent 
value than old seeds'? Is it a function of government to make gratui- 
tous distribution of any material thing! 

No estimate has been made for an appropriation for the purchase of 
seeds for the next fiscal year. If it is deemed best to make such an 
appropriation, ifc is recommended that $500 be allotted to each one of 
the experiment stations of the several States and Territories, which 
for forty-eight (4S) stations would amount to $24,000. Such a law 
should provide that each station purchase such new and improved 
varieties of seeds, cuttings, and bulbs as, after examination, may seem 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF AGRICULTURE. 61 

to its director probably adaptable to the soil and climate of the State 
in which his station is located. If there ever was any sound states- 
manship in this gratuitous distribution of seed, which has already cost 
the Government of the United States several millions of dollars, the 
reason and necessity for such distribution was removed when the experi- 
ment stations were established in the several States and Territories. 
Those stations are in charge of scientific men. They are, therefore, 
particularly well equipped for the trial, testing, and approval or 
condemnation of such new varieties as may be introduced from time 
to time. 

LIBRARY. 

Since the present librarian, Mr. W. P. Cutter, who was certified by the 
United States Civil Service Commission, took charge of the library of 
the Department of Agriculture, modern methods have been introduced, 
for the first time, into its conduct. A dictionary catalogue has been 
instituted, and the books have been arranged in a regular system, in 
accordance with which the valuable material in it will be made avail- 
able for students. The increased appropriation has been used to fill 
out the fragmentary sets of scientific periodicals and to purchase works 
bearing upon the sciences studied by the Department experts. A 
reading room has been arranged and increased facilities provided for 
the convenience of investigators. The library has been made in this 
manner a working laboratory instead of a miscellaneous storehouse. 

OFFICE OF FIBER INVESTIGATION. 

A report on the uncultivated bast fibers, such as are found upon the 
inner bark of plants, was completed during the year by the Office of 
Fiber Investigations, and also a paper on the method of tillage and 
manufacture of ramie, which contains careful estimates of the cost of 
instituting ramie plantations, with reliable figures as to the probable 
or possible yield. The inquiry as to the production of flax in the region 
of Puget Sound, Washington, has been continued. Flax grown in 
that region during the past season has been retted and prepared. 
Though the local agents engaged in this work did not — because of lack 
of experience — perfectly perform their duties, nevertheless, practical 
flax planters, who examined their product, have declared that Wash- 
ington flax would produce, with skillful treatment, a very fine quality 
of fiber. 

DIVISION OF MICROSCOPY. 

Studies have been continued in this division upon the edible and 
poisonous mushrooms. These investigations have aimed to discrim- 
inate between edible and nonedible varieties and to give the people of 
the country plain and safe directions by which they might know them. 
It is hoped that in this way our neglected resources among these fungi 



62 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

may become better known and more used. For the purpose of giving 
assistance to amateurs in mushroom culture experiments have been 
made to ascertain the better method of cultivating mushroom spawn. 

Investigations on butter and butter fats have also been continued. 
Bequests are constantly received from official chemists, chemists of 
State boards of health, etc., for information or assistance with regard 
to the identification of oleomargarine, butterine, and the various lard 
substitutes, and for discriminating between the different lubricating 
oils, etc. 

Nearly two thousand careful measurements of the length of fibers of 
the cotton staple, domestic and foreign, and the average, together with 
the maximum and minimum lengths, has been recorded. 

OFFICE OF IRRIGATION INQUIRY. 

The chief of the Office of Irrigation Inquiry passed the earlier months 
of the year in Nevada, California, Arizona, New Mexico, and Utah col- 
lecting information as to the modes of irrigation most successfully used 
in those States and Territories. In that tour relations were established 
between this office and the people directly interested in this system of 
cultivation, from which it is hoped good may come in the way of addi- 
tional practical information. It is believed that all those engaged in 
farming in the arid and subarid regions where irrigation is practiced may 
soon be brought into immediate correspondence with the Department. 

The office has given some attention to the study of percolation and 
evaporation in the Rocky Mountain regions, where the annual snowfall 
is the source of many of the streams which fertilize the plains below. 

BUILDINGS. 

Neither the character nor the condition of the buildings of the Depart- 
ment can be truthfully commended. There are many wooden structures 
in the rear of the main edifice which are a constant menace because of 
the combustible materials of which they are constructed. The labora- 
tories in and about these buildings are constantly using alcohol, gas ? 
oils* ether, and other inflammable and explosive substances. It is there- 
fore imperatively necessary that such laboratories, together with all 
divisions which by their experiments may possibly create conflagra- 
tions, should be removed from these Government buildings. 

In view of the tinder-box character of the subsidiary buildings of the 
Department, it is recommended that all the laboratories and shops be 
removed to rented brick buildings across the street, in the rear of the 
Department grounds, provided said buildings can be secured by a 
reasonable annual outlay of the public money. 

The act creating this Department declares as follows: 

Be it enacted by the Senate*and House of Representatives of the United Stairs of America 
in Congress assembled, That there is hereby established at the seat of Government 
a United States Department- of Agriculture, the general designs and duties of which 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF AGRICULTURE. 63 

shall be to acquire and diffuse among the people of the United States useful infor- 
mation on subjects connected with agriculture in the most general and comprehen- 
sive sense of that word, and to procure, propagate, and distribute among the people 
new and valuable seeds and plants. 

But there was no building provided for the Department of Agricul- 
ture under that act, and rooms were assigned to the Commissioner and 
his employees in the basement of the Patent Office, where they remained 
six years. In 1867 one hundred thousand dollars ($100,000) was appro- 
priated for the present main building of the Department, and it was 
occupied in 1868. From that time, with a few minor changes in the 
interior, this building has remained practically unchanged. It is 170 
feet long by 6*1 feet in breadth. It has a basement, three full stories, 
and an attic. This building contains, exclusive of halls, 6,860 square 
feet of available floor space in the basement ; 5,800 square feet on the 
first floor ; on the second floor, including the galleries in the library, 
there are 10,344 square feet ; on the third floor, 2,384 square feet,- and 
there are 4,558 square feet in actual use in the attic, aggregating in 
occupancy at present 29,946 square feet of floor space. The basement, 
two- thirds of which is below the surface of the ground, contains the 
boiler and fuel rooms, the storerooms of the Property Division, the 
laboratory of the Division of Ornithology and Mammalogy, the post- 
office, and the printing office ; and in this ill-lighted and badly ventilated 
place from 25 to 30 people, including the engineers and firemen, are 
almost always at work. 

The library requires the larger portion of the second and third floors 
of the building. Little space, relatively, is used for the offices of the 
Secretary, Assistant Secretary, and chiefs of division. The attic of the 
main building contains the offices and laboratories of two of the most 
important divisions. Excessive heat and defective ventilation are 
unavoidable in these apartments. 

The building just described was erected to accommodate the Bureau 
of that date, composed of four divisions and employing fifty (50) persons. 
Those divisions, with the laboratory and Museum, fully occupied the 
building at the time of its completion. Pressure for space becoming 
greater from year to year, and adequate appropriations for the erec- 
tion of substantial buildings having failed, the Department has been 
forced to erect cheap wooden structures upon the grounds. In such 
buildings is sheltered much valuable property. The Museum building 
cost about ten thousand dollars ($10,000). A better building to burn 
could not be invented or constructed, and yet it contains a Museum 
which, on the market, is worth at least one hundred thousand dollars 
($100,000). Annually the Government is paying more than seven hun- 
dred thousand dollars ($700,000) for agricultural experiment stations in 
the several States and Territories. The cost of a central office in this 
Department for collating, compiling, and publishing the reports of these 
stations is each year twenty-five thousand dollars ($25,000). The chief 
records of the Office of Experiment Stations are compiled and stored in 



64 YEARBOOK OP THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

tliis combustible wooden Museum building. In it are stored the rec- 
ords of tlie results of agricultural experiments for which the United 
States Government has already paid out nearly five millions of dollars 
($5,000,000). The same building contains the publications of the Depart- 
ment and the offices of several important divisions, together with all 
the valuable data which each has acquired. 

In wooden buildings of equally combustible character are housed 
the testing laboratory of the Division of Forestry 5 the carpenter shop; 
stores of seeds; soil samples, collected at no inconsiderable expense 
from all parts of the Republic; and all tools and implements used by 
the superintendent of gardens and grounds and the various scientific 
bureaus. 

As the work of the scientific divisions multiplied it became necessary 
some years ago to rent two private buildings on B street SW. One 
of them is occupied by the laboratory of the Bureau of Animal Industry, 
and the other is the domicile of the Chemical Laboratory of the Depart- 
ment. For the first-mentioned building is paid $1,200 per annum rent, 
notwithstanding the Government preliminarily expended about $6,000 
in adapting the various rooms for present purposes and fitting them 
with gas, laboratory desks, steam, and water. The Chemical Labora- 
tory building costs $75 per month rent, although the Government had 
expended $4,500 thereupon in making similar improvements. There 
is hardly a university or agricultural college in the United States 
which has not better constructed, better lighted, and better ventilated 
laboratories than those used by the Department of Agriculture. 

Since its removal from the Patent Office, twenty-six years ago, and 
its establishment as a Department, only one hundred and fifty-four 
thousand dollars ($154,000) have been appropriated for buildings for 
its use, exclusive of the Signal Office building purchased while that 
office was in the War Department. During the same number of years 
other Departments of the Government have expended for the erection 
of buildings in the city of Washington, up to June 30, 1894, inclusive, 
$19,126,826.09. 

In view of the fact that the Department of Agriculture is maintained 
to educationally supervise that industry which furnishes the solid, 
fecund source of the revenues whence all that vast sum of money was 
derived, it may not be inappropriate to suggest more commodious 
accommodations for its further development and usefulness. 

The Weather Bureau, at the corner of Twenty-fourth and M streets, 
is too remote from the Department to receive that personal daily 
supervision of the Secretary which its magnitude and importance 
require. It is evident that this valuable property which the Govern- 
ment now owns, and upon which the Weather Bureau building stands, 
could, if authorized by law, be sold very advantageously. It is believed 
that it would probably bring a sum of money sufficient to erect substan- 
tial buildings for the Department of Agriculture, wherein the Weather 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF AGRICULTURE. 



65 



Bureau and all the other divisions and laboratories might be suitably- 
provided for. 

With the more than seven hundred thousand dollars ($700,000) saved 
since March 7, 1893, from the regular appropriations to this Department 
and covered back into the Treasury of the United States, and the amount 
the Weather Bureau property would certainly bring, it does seem that 
buildings commensurate with the relative value which agriculture bears 
to other vocations and pursuits might be erected at an early day. 

FARM PRODUCTS AND THE MONEY THEY BRING. 

It will no doubt prove a matter of infinite pride and satisfaction to 
the real farmers — the practical agriculturists — of the United States 
to learn that, out of the total exports of this country for the fiscal year 
1894, including the products of the mine, of the forest, of the fisheries, 
of the manufactories, together with every miscellaneous commodity — 
amounting to eight hundred and sixty-nine million two hundred and 
four thousand nine hundred and thirty-seven dollars ($869,204,937) — 
farm products aggregate a value of six hundred and twenty-eight mil- 
lion three hundred and sixty-three thousand and thirty-eight dollars 
($628,363,038). All the other exports in that year from this Eepublic 
amount to only two hundred and forty million eight hundred and forty- 
one thousand eight hundred and ninety-nine dollars ($240,841,899). 
This proves that for the fiscal year 1894 the exports evolved by farmers 
from the farms of the United States were 72.28 per cent, in cash value, 
of the total exports of the American Eepublic for that period of time. 
This is demonstrated by the following table: 



Amount. 



Per cent. 



Agriculture 

Mining 

Forest products 

Fisheries 

Manufactures 

Miscellaneous commodities 



$628, 363, 038 

20, 449, 598 

28, 010, 953 

4, 261, 920 

183, 718, 484 

4, 400, 944 



869, 204, 937 



72.28 

2.35 

3.22 

.49 

21.14 

.52 



100 



European markets and all the other markets of the world are demand- 
ing from the American farmer the very best quality of breadstuff's and 
meats. They demand them inspected and governmentally certificated 
to be of the highest sanitary, nutritive, and edible quality. But farm 
products have only a specific purchasing power. They will only buy 
money of people who desire farm products. The farmer exchanges 
these results of his labors, which have a specific purchasing power, for 
money, which has a general purchasing power. It is important, there- 
fore, to farmers everywhere that they demand money for their products 
which has the highest general purchasing power throughout all the 

1 A 94 3 



66 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

civilized world. It is as vital to the American agriculturist that the 
currency of his country should be on the basis of the highest and most 
universally recognized measure of value as it is to the reputation of 
American farm products in all the world's markets that they be of the 
most desirable quality. 

FOR PRIME PORK GIVE US PRIME CURRENCY. 

Would the six hundred million dollars' worth of farm products from 
the United States sold last year to foreign nations have been as remu- 
nerative to the American farmer if they had been paid for in silver as 
they have been when paid for in gold or its equivalent? 

When the standard coin of the Kepublic shall be made of metal 
worth as much after it is melted as it purports to be worth in coin, and 
the mint value and the bullion value of all coined money is nearly the 
same, will not the American farmer and all other citizens become more 
permanently prosperous? 

If the American farmer, laborer, and manufacturer are compelled by 
law to submit to the measurement of the value of the products of their 
efforts by a silver standard, will not the foreigner in buying those prod- 
ucts always use the same measure? With his beef, pork, and cereals 
the American farmer buys money, and why should he not demand as 
superlative quality in that which he blips as the domestic and foreign 
purchasers insist upon in that which he sells f If those buyers demand 
"prime" beef and " prime' 7 pork, why should not the farmer demand 
"prime" currency, the best measure of value, the most fair and facile 
mediation of exchanges, in the most unfluctuating money which the 
world of commerce has ever evolved? 

In closing his report for the fiscal year 1893 the Secretary of Agri- 
culture said : 

A year from this time, it is hoped, after consultation -with the Congressional com- 
mittees and other representative forces which are endeavoring to educationally 
develop and define duties for this Department, that useful progress in the right 
paths may be truthfully reported. 

Therefore the foregoing statements as to the practical workings of 
the Department are this day submitted as a partial fruition of the 
hope then earnestly and sincerely expressed. 

J. Sterling Morton, 

Secretary. 
U. S. Department of Agriculture, 

Washington, D. (7., November 20, 1894. 



THE FEDERAL MEAT INSPECTION. 

By D. E. Salmon, D. V. M., 
Chief of the Bureau of Animal Industry, TJ. S. Department of Agriculture. 

GROWTH OF THE INSPECTION. 

The inspection of meat by the Federal Government was begun in 
May, 1891, under tlie jurisdiction of tlie Bureau of Animal Industry, 
and in accordance with an act of Congress approved March 3, 1891. 
Considerable time was required to organize the force and systematize 
the work, and consequently the quantity of meat inspected in the fiscal 
year ending June 30, 1891, was not very large. 

The law requires that the inspected meat be marked for identification, 
and this is accomplished by attaching a meat-inspection tag to each 
quarter or piece with a wire and lead seal. These tags enable the 
consumer to learn whether the meat which he is buying has been 
inspected, because if the wires are properly sealed the tags can not be 
removed from one piece and attached to another. The tags are also 
intended under the law as a means of identifying meat which may be 
shipped from one State into another State or to any foreign country. 

When the law is fully complied with, only inspected meat can be 
used in interstate or foreign commerce. All meat shipped abroad is 
now inspected, and has been since the beginning of the fiscal year 1892; 
but the large number of abattoirs which do an interstate trade has 
made it impossible up to the present time to extend the service suffi- 
ciently to include them all. As the inspectors and assistant inspectors 
were, however, recently placed in the classified service, it is probable 
that a larger number of reliable and competent men can be secured 
than under the old system, and that the inspection service can be cor- 
respondingly extended* 

In the fiscal year ending June 30, 1891, the inspection being enforced 
during the months of May and June only, there were inspected and 
tagged 66,804 quarters of beef for export and 165,378 for the interstate 
trade. There were also inspected and stamped 1,594 packages of 
canned meat, 25 of salted meat, and 28 of smoked meat, and the car- 
casses of 2,216 hogs were inspected microscopically. 

These figures show that there was only a beginning of the inspection 
made in the fiscal year 1891, and that to obtain data from which con- 
clusions of any kind can be drawn we must begin with the fiscal year 
1892. The system and methods of inspection then in force were prac- 
tically the same as are now used, but more or less important modifica- 

67 



68 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OP AGRICULTURE. 

tions of the details have been made from time to time as experience 
indicated was desirable. 

In 1892 there were inspected 1,190,771 quarters of beef for export 
and 8,160,625 for the interstate trade. In addition there were inspected 
583,361 carcasses of sheep and 59,089 carcasses of calves. The number 
of hog carcasses microscopically examined reached 1,267,329. 

A part of the meat inspected is shipped in the carcass and is identi- 
fied by the meat-inspection tags ; but very much of the meat is canned 
or salted, and this is identified by meat-inspection stamps placed upon 
the crates or boxes in which the cured meat or cans are packed. Yery 
often cured meats are shipped in bulk, the pieces being placed directly 
into the cars without covering of any kind. In this case the car forms 
the package and is sealed with the same seal that is used for attaching 
tags to pieces of meat. 

There is need of a cheap and easily applied method for marking 
pieces of meat which are too small to be tagged. Tags are effectual in 
marking quarters and carcasses of meat, but are too expensive to be 
applied to the smaller pieces. Aniline inks are used in some countries, 
but the samples so far examined by the Bureau of Animal Industry 
have not proved satisfactory. These inks are affected by moisture and 
are liable to become smeared over the meat, damaging its appearance 
and obliterating the identifying mark. 

The number of packages of meat stamped in 1892 was as follows : 
Canned meat, 495,577; salted meat, 142,698; smoked meat, 159,432. 

During the fiscal year 1893 there were inspected and tagged 1,036,809 
quarters of beef for export and 10,534,102 quarters for the interstate 
trade. There were also inspected 92,947 carcasses of calves and 870,512 
of sheep. The number of hog carcasses microscopically examined 
reached 1,960,069. 

The number of packages of canned, salted, and smoked meats and 
other meat products stamped during the year reached 1,035,569. 

Previous to the fiscal year 1894 no inspection had been attempted of 
hogs at the time of slaughter. The carcasses of those for the export 
trade to continental Europe had been microscopically examined for 
trichinae, but this inspection is, of course, insufficient to reveal any other 
disease with which the animals might be affected. This year the same 
method of inspection before and after slaughter has been applied to 
hogs as has been in operation with cattle during the whole period of 
inspection. 

During the fiscal year ending June 30, 1894, there were inspected and 
tagged 2,417,312 quarters and 4,022 smaller pieces of beef for export; 
and 10,810,202 quarters and 748 packages of fresh beef for interstate 
trade. The number of packages of canned meat stamped was 636,227, 
and of salted and smoked meat, 487,011. The number of hog carcasses 
microscopically examined was 1,194,663, and of pieces of pork, 177,747; 
a total of 1,372,410 carcasses and pieces. 



THE FEDERAL MEAT INSPECTION. 



69 



The number of animals inspected at the time of slaughter is shown 
in the following table : 





1891. 


1892. 


1893. 


1894. 


B eef cattle 


83, 891 


3, 167, 009 

59, 089 
583, 361 


3, 922, 174 

92, 947 

870, 512 


3, 862, 111 

96, 331 

1, 020, 764 

7, 964, 850 


Calves 


Sheep 




Hogs 














Total 


83, 891 


3, 809, 459 


4, 885, 633 


12, 944, 056 





The meat inspection is now in operation at 46 abattoirs, situated in 
17 cities. 

The exports of microscopically inspected pork by fiscal years have 
been as follows : 





1892. 


1893. 


1894. 




Pounds. 
22, 025, 698 
16, 127, 176 


Pounds. 
8, 059, 758 
12, 617, 652 


Pounds. 
18, 845, 119 
16, 592, 818 






Total 


38, 152, 874 


20, 677, 410 


35, 437, 937 





A large quantity of the pork which the records show to have been 
exported to countries not requiring inspection was shipped to Belgium 
and Holland, and even to England, for reshipment to Germany and 
France. This was on account of the packing houses having agents in 
those countries, to whom large consignments were made, and these 
agents sold the meats in smaller quantities and forwarded them to their 
destination. The cases of provisions were all marked with the inspec- 
tion stamp of this Bureau, and were covered by certificates, so that they 
were undoubtedly sold as American inspected pork. 

The small proportion of inspected pork which was shipped directly 
to countries requiring inspection in 1893 is explained by the high prices 
here and the decreased demand in those countries. 



DISEASES DISCOVERED BY THE INSPECTION. 

The number of cattle found diseased, the carcasses of which were 
condemned as unfit for human food, was 4,127 ; the number of sheep 
carcasses condemned was 466, and the number of carcasses and pieces of 
pork found to contain trichinae was 33,013. In the ante-mortem inspec- 
tion of hogs 8,624 were rejected, and in the post-mortem inspection 
17,435 carcasses and 12,940 parts of carcasses were condemned. 

While the number of diseased animals discovered at the abattoirs 
shows the necessity of the inspection, it must be admitted to be exceed- 
ingly small compared with the immense number of animals examined. 
The meat- producing animals, and particularly the bovine animals, of 
the United States are in better health and better condition as a whole 



70 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

when they go to market than are the animals of most other countries. 
Among the 3,862,111 cattle inspected, but 765, or about 1 in 5,000, 
were found to have tuberculosis sufficiently advanced to justify con- 
demnation. Actinomycosis was found in 321 cases, Texas fever in 28, 
while 707 animals were condemned on account of advanced pregnancy, 
and 1,931 for bruises received during transportation. 

Among the diseases reported, the most dangerous to the consumer are 
those in which septic processes are in progress or likely to be devel- 
oped. As affected with this group of diseases cattle were condemned 
as follows: Septicemia, 100; pyaemia, 16; gangrene, 73; peritonitis, 18,* 
enteritis, 30; metritis, 3; abscess, 53; or a total of 293. 

The proportion of carcasses and pieces of pork found to contain 
trichinae was smaller than in the £>reeeding year, being* 2.4 per cent as 
compared with 3 per cent in 1893. 

REASONS FOR CONDEMNING CARCASSES. 

Although upon superficial consideration the meat inspector's task 
may seem simple and his duty plain, there are in practice many trouble- 
some problems to solve. Should carcasses be condemned for all diseases, 
or only for those which are likely to injuriously affect the health of the 
consumer! Should pregnant females and those which have recently 
given birth to young be condemned; and if so, at what point shall the 
line be drawn separating those which are fit for food from those which 
are not? These are the most perplexing questions and the ones upon 
which scientific men are most divided. 

In most European countries the inspection of meat is considered as 
a strictly sanitary question, and a disease which is not likely to injure 
the health of the consumer is not accepted as sufficient reason for con- 
demning the carcass. Acting upon this principle, carcasses of animals 
affected with pleuro-pneumonia, foot-and-mouth disease, actinomycosis, 
pneumonia, Texas fever, and similar diseases would be considered fit for 
food if the carcasses show no signs of emaciation. The meat from ani- 
mals in an advanced period of gestation or those which have recently 
given birth to young would also be passed as edible. Tuberculous car- 
casses which would be dangerous are in some countries sterilized by heat 
and then sold for human food. 

There can be no doubt that the people of the United States are more 
particular in regard to the quality and character of the food they eat 
than are those of any other country. There is an almost universal 
sentiment against eating the meat of animals affected with any disease^ 
whether it is communicable or injurious to the consumer or not. There 
is a repugnance to the meat of female animals when parturition is 
approaching or has recently occurred, while the flesh of very young- 
animals or of those which were unborn at the time the mother was 
slaughtered is regarded as even more offensive. 

In the Federal meat inspection it has been considered a duty to pro- 



THE FEDERAL MEAT INSPECTION. 71 

tect the consumer from meat which was offensive and repugnant to 
him, as well as from that whicli was actually dangerous to his health. 

This principle has been criticised by some and considered untenable 
by others; but as a matter of fact it has been admitted and acted upon 
in all countries where meat inspection is anything better than a farce. 
For instance, the meat of emaciated and anaemic animals is generally 
condemned, not because their flesh produces any disease in the con- 
sumer, but because it is innutritious and offensive. JSTo meat inspector 
would think that he could properly allow the carcasses of dogs, cats, 
or rats to be passed and sold for human consumption. Nevertheless, 
we have no reason to suppose that the meat of these animals would 
produce disease in the person who ate it. A meat-inspection service, 
however, which does not protect the consumers from meat so offensive 
to them, and which they would under no circumstances purchase if they 
knew its character, would not be worthy of support. 

Acting upon this principle, the inspectors of this Bureau have been 
instructed to condemn the carcasses of all animals having acute dis- 
eases or high fevers, as well as the specific diseases liable to be com- 
municated to or to cause disease in the consumer. Females are also 
condemned because of approaching parturition or because they have 
recently dropped their young. 

Though abattoirs where slaughtering is conducted exclusively for 
the local market are not embraced by this inspection, the consumer may 
protect himself against those dealers who would fraudulently sell the 
meat of such animals as have just been mentioned by assuring himself 
that the carcass bears the meat-inspection tag of this Bureau, attached 
with an unbroken seal. 

A more complete protection is realized by means of a recent order 
requiring the inspectors to seize upon all animals and carcasses unfit 
for food and dispose of them in such way as to render impossible the 
selling of the meat as an edible product. 

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF LARGE ABATTOIRS. 

Sanitary authorities favor a few large central abattoirs rather than 
many small ones, because the slaughtering business is then concen- 
trated, and the supervision may be conducted at less expense and in 
a more thorough manner. For this reason the small slaughterhouses 
which exist in nearly all cities, and which as a rule have little or no 
inspection, should be closed, and all slaughtering should be done at a 
central abattoir where inspectors are constantly present. 

The small establishments are often in a filthy condition, and they 
are frequently operated by irresponsible and unprincipled parties who 
would not hesitate to endanger the health of a whole community if by 
so doing they could increase their profits by a few dollars. It is at 
these small abattoirs, where animals are slaughtered almost entirely for 
local consumption, that the greater part of the unsound and diseased 



72 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

meat which reaches the market is prepared for human food. The abomi- 
nations of some of these places are unspeakable, and the wonder is that 
they can be tolerated by any civilized community. They probably 
w^ould not be allowed to continue in operation if half of their iniquities 
were known to those who have unwittingly consumed the offensive 
products. 

The very large abattoirs are not without some disadvantages. They 
cover so much ground and are divided into so many departments that 
it is difficult to keep the entire plant under supervision. Diseased 
meat should not be allowed to accumulate, because there are too many 
opportunities to remove it— too many places to which it can be taken 
and worked up without fear of detection. The killing floor is the proper 
place to intercept unwholesome meat. All meat must enter the abat- 
toir through this channel, and here it can be carefully examined and 
all its defects discovered. There is one contingency which it is diffi- 
cult to guard against even here, and that is the slaughtering of animals 
outside of the regular hours, or even in the middle of the night, with- 
out the inspector's knowledge. To prevent this, there should be a con- 
stant watch, and any company found to be offending in this way should 
be so severely punished that a repetition of the practice would not be 
likely to occur. 

The Federal meat -inspection law does not apply to abattoirs which 
do a strictly local business, and consequently the inspection at such 
places can only be made by the municipal health authorities. In most 
if not all cities this service is very inadequate. The number of inspect- 
ors is not sufficient to maintain a proper supervision, and too frequently 
the inspectors are incompetent or entirely ignorant of animal diseases 
and the effect of these upon the public health. 

When the meat-inspection service is sufficiently extended so that the 
provision of the law requiring all meat to be inspected which is trans- 
ported from one State into another can be enforced, there will be protec- 
tion for all consumers who insist on being shown the tags and stamps 
which certify to this inspection. In the meantime there is much inter- 
state meat which is not inspected, and the purchaser has no means of 
knowing the condition of the animals from which it was obtained. The 
importance of extending the inspection service rapidly and thoroughly 
until the whole country is embraced is too apparent to need argument. 
Until this is accomplished the large operators, who have the inspec- 
tion, are benefited at the expense of the smaller ones, who are unable 
to obtain it, while the public receives but inadequate protection. 

THE COST OF MEAT INSPECTION. 

Before the inspection service was inaugurated it was supposed that 
the cost would be so great that the utility of the work would be called 
in question. The experience which has been gained demonstrates, how- 
ever, that a thorough inspection may be made at a reasonable expense. 



THE FEDERAL MEAT INSPECTION. 73 

Before the inspection was commenced it was estimated tliat the 
microscopic examination would cost the Government about 25 cents per 
carcass. The first month of the inspection the cost was 20.3 cents per 
carcass, and this was reduced the second month to 13.3 cents and the 
third month to 8.6 cents. Since that time the amount of work put 
upon the specimens from each carcass has been nearly doubled in order 
to increase the reliability of the inspection ; but by perfecting the sys- 
tem and improving the methods the cost has been still further reduced, 
and during the year just closed has been only 6.5 cents per carcass. 
This is about the minimum for which a thorough microscopic examina- 
tion can be made. 

The cost of the ordinary inspection of animals before and at the time 
of slaughter has varied considerably in different years. In the year 
ending June 30, 1893, it was 4f cents per animal, and during the last 
year was only If cents per animal. This great reduction of expense is 
partly accounted for by the large number of hogs examined, which 
require less time than cattle, and partly by modified methods which 
secured more work for the same expenditure. 

The experience of the last year has demonstrated the possibility of 
maintaining a thorough and complete inspection of meats at an expense 
which would not be felt by the consumer. The microscopic examina- 
tion of pork has cost less than one-twentieth of a cent per pound, while 
the ordinary inspection has not cost one one-hundredth of a cent per 
pound. Would not every consumer prefer to pay this additional cost 
aud purchase only inspected meat? It is probable that there is nearly 
a unanimous sentiment in the affirmative. How, then, can this expense 
be assessed against the consumer in an equitable manner? 

It has been proposed to require the packers to pay this expense by 
charging them a fixed amount for every tag that is attached to the 
meat and for every stamp that is affixed to a package. It is only 
reasonable to suppose that the packers in turn would add this expense 
to the selling price of the meat, and that the consumer would finally 
have it to pay. 

The consumer ought not to object to paying the very small additional 
sum which is required to inspect meat according to the system now in 
operation, as the protection afforded would be worth much more to him 
than the cost. The difficulty would be to prevent the great corpora- 
tions which control the meat business from exacting much more from 
the consumer than they had been compelled to pay to the Government. 
Let us suppose, for example, that the Government charges the packer 
one-twentieth of a cent a pound for the pork inspection; would not the 
packer make this an excuse to charge one-fourth of a cent a pound 
additional to the dealer, and would not the result be that the consumer 
who buys only 1 or 2 pounds at a time would be charged 1 cent a pound 
more than formerly? The consumer, then, instead of paying the exact 
cost of the inspection, which would be insignificant to him, would be 

1 A 94 3* 



74 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

taxed twenty times this cost, and consequently would be unfairly 
treated. Mne teen -twentieths of what he would pay for inspection 
would go to increase the profits of the packers and retailers of meat. 
We are warranted in concluding that this example is not far from what 
would actually occur by a consideration of the methods which the 
gentlemen who control this business have enforced in the past. 

The problem is, therefore, how to collect the cost of inspection from 
the consumer, which practically means every citizen of the country, 
with the least expense for the collection. 

The reduction in the cost of the microscopical inspection as compared 
with the quantity of microscopically inspected pork actually exported 
has been very gratifying. Daring the fiscal year 1893 there were ex- 
ported 20,677,410 pounds of inspected pork, and the cost of the inspec- 
tion amounted to $172,367.08, or 0.833 cent for each pound exported. 
For the fiscal year 1894 the quantity exported was increased to 35,437,- 
937 pounds and the cost of inspection reduced to $88,922.10, or 0.248 
cent for each pound exported. 

A similar statement concerning the first and second halves of the 
last fiscal year shows that this reduction in the cost of the microscopical 
inspection as compared with the quantity of pork exported was pro- 
gressive throughout the year, and reached a much lower limit than is 
indicated above. That is, from July 1, 1893, to December 31, 1893, the 
quantity of inspected pork exported was 12,618,706 pounds and the 
expense of the microscopic inspection was $53,433.68, or 0.42 cent for 
each pound exported, while from January 1, 1894, to June 30, 1894, the 
quantity of inspected pork exported was 22,819,231 pounds and the 
cost of inspection was $35,488.42, or 0.155 cent for each pound exported. 
In other words, the microscopic inspection now costs the Government 
only 1 cent for each 6 J pounds of such inspected pork which is shipped 
to foreign countries. 

THE IMPORTANCE OF MEAT INSPECTION. 

There are few citizens of the country who realize the importance of a 
rigid inspection of meats by competent inspectors. In the days when 
animals were killed by the local butcher, whose reliability could be 
determined, and who was generally known to the consumer, there was 
not the same reason for suspicion as to the quality of meat which exists 
at present. To-day the essential work in the preparation of meats is 
conducted at a distance from the producer of the animals, and at an 
equal distance from the consumer of the products. 

The man who ships animals to these distant markets knows that their 
identity will in most cases be lost when they mingle with the enormous 
number of animals of the same species which arrive each day at any 
of the great stock yards of the country. He therefore has not the 
reason for hesitation in shipping hogs infected with cholera, cattle with 
actinomycosis or tuberculosis, and sheep with any of the diseases to 



THE FEDERAL MEAT INSPECTION. 75 

wliicli they are subject which lie would have in trying to sell such 
animals for slaughter and consumption in the neighborhood where he 
is known. 

At the stock yards we find the commission man, who desires to get the 
best prices which he can obtain for the animals which have been con- 
signed to hiin, and also the buyer for the packing houses, who desires 
to purchase as cheaply as possible. There is consequently an incentive 
for every man who handles the animals to use his influence to have 
them passed and used for the purposes which yield the best returns. 
The owners of the packing houses do not see the animals themselves, 
and would know very little about them in case they did. Each depart- 
ment of business is in charge of a superintendent, whose standing with 
the firm is probably rated by the success of his department — that is, by 
the money which he is able to make for the corporation. The products 
go to the consumer, often in distant parts of the land; frequently the 
identity of the goods is lost, and the final purchaser has no idea who 
slaughtered the animals from which they were produced, or even the 
city in which the slaughtering and curing was effected. 

Under these circumstances both the identity and responsibility of 
the principal parties to the transaction are lost. If the meat affects 
the health of the consumer, it is for the most part impossible to 
determine whether this was on account of the animal being diseased, 
or because of improper curing, or carelessness in handling by the 
shipper or retailer. If the packer could be identified he would gen- 
erally be able to shift the responsibility upon the retailer, or at least to 
make his share of it uncertain. 

The cases are comparatively rare in which any disease affecting an 
animal is transmitted through the meat to the consumer. Anthrax is 
the most dangerous malady in this respect, because the germs circulate 
with the blood and reach every portion of the body. They are certain 
to be in every particle of meat taken from the carcass* To make the 
matter worse, the germs of anthrax form spores when the carcass is 
dressed and the oxygen of the air comes in contact with the meat. 
These spores resist a very high temperature and may not be destroyed 
by cooking. There are instances on record of great mortality following 
the consumption of carcasses affected with this disease. Fortunately, 
anthrax is rare in the United States, and the affected animals die so 
quickly after infection that there is not much chance that they will 
reach the abattoirs alive. 

The germs of tuberculosis, as a rule, are not found in the muscular 
tissues, and they are more readily destroyed by heat. While there are 
many tuberculous cows all over the world r the danger from the meat of 
such animals is not as great as is generally supposed, particularly if it 
is fairly well cooked. 

Glanders of the horse is a disease which in the characteristics men- 
tioned resembles tuberculosis. When old, worn-out horses are gath- 



76 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

ered from all parts of the country for slaughter, it is morally certain 
that some of them will be affected with this disease. The slaughter of 
these animals without inspection is, therefore, a nuisance to the com- 
munity and should be prohibited. 

Anthrax, tuberculosis, and glanders are three diseases of animals 
communicable to man, and from which he has little chances of recovery. 
There should, consequently, be every precaution enforced to protect 
the consumer from meat infected with such contagion. 

Trichinosis of hogs is also a terrible and fatal disease, which, while 
not as common in this country as in Germany, still occurs in far too 
many cases. The consumer may protect himself absolutely from this 
disease by requiring all pork to be thoroughly cooked before it is eaten. 
Curing also destroys the vitality of the parasite, so that it is rarely 
that cases are found which have originated from eating salted pork. 
The cases of trichinosis in man which have occurred in this country 
have generally resulted from pork killed in some small local slaughter- 
house or on the farm. Packing-house pork has seldom been accused 
of causing the trouble. The reason, of course, is that pork from the 
packing houses is generally salted and is cooked before it is eaten, while 
that killed locally is frequently eaten fresh and often without being 
sufficiently cooked, sometimes without being cooked at all. 

Were it not for our large German population, trichinosis would 
hardly be worthy of consideration as a sanitary question. As it is, 
however, cases are reported from time to time, and the terrible suffer- 
ing of the victims, together with the high death rate, makes it desirable 
to adopt, if possible, preventive measures. The microscopic inspection 
of all the pork prepared at the abattoirs doing an interstate trade 
would prevent a portion of these cases; but beyond giving consumers 
an opportunity to select pork free from the parasite it would probably 
be disappointing. 

The elaborate and expensive system of microscopic inspection adopted 
by Germany has not fulfilled expectations, as the number of cases of 
trichinosis which occur from inspected pork is so large that it rather 
indicates the unreliability of the method than inspires confidence in it 
as a prophylactic measure. 

There are many other diseases liable to affect animals as they arrive 
in the stock yards which, while not directly communicable to mankind, 
may, nevertheless, produce serious or even fatal illness in those who 
consume the meat. Animals are frequently injured in transit, and as a 
result may become affected with gangrene, septicaemia, pyaemia, malig- 
nant oedema, peritonitis, or metritis, any of which conditions make the 
flesh absolutely unfit for food and dangerous to the health of consum- 
ers. In other cases there may be abscesses or actinomycotic tumors, 
the effect of which upon the carcass depends upon the extent of the 
lesions. 

It is not uncommon to find animals in a feverish condition owing to 



THE FEDERAL MEAT INSPECTION. 77 

bruises, local inflammations, or other causes. If the fever is very pro- 
nounced the carcasses should be condemned. In most countries such 
carcasses as these would be allowed to go upon the market, because no 
special disease has been traced to them. In the Umted States, how- 
ever, the people object to the flesh of animals affected with any disease 
which deranges the important functions of the body, and while there 
is such an abundant supply of healthy animals this sentiment should 
be respected. The flesh of feverish animals undoubtedly contains an 
abnormal quantity of leucomaines and in many cases of toxins, which 
are liable to affect the digestive organs, paiticularly in hot weather, 
and to cause illness, which is mild or serious according to the condi- 
tion in which the consumer happens to be at the time he partakes of it. 

The flesh of animals which have recently given birth to their young 
is objected to for the same reasons as is that from animals in a feverish 
condition. Animals shipped in this condition are very liable to inflam- 
mation of the uterus and septic infection, and should on no account be 
passed as fit for human food. Animals in advanced pregnancy are 
very subject to injury during shipment. They often abort if allowed to 
remain a few days in the stock yards, and it is not uncommon to find a 
dead and partly decomposed fetus in the uterus. Even when unin- 
jured, animals almost at the period of parturition can not be considered 
as furnishing acceptable meat. The nutriment which they assimilate 
is diverted from their own tissues to sustain the fetus, while the waste 
products of the latter's vital activity increase those already present in 
the mother's circulation. The meat from such animals may not usually 
cause disease in the consumer, but its nutritive qualities are impaired, 
and there is good reason for the repugnance which the American people 
feel in regard to it. 

These conditions and many others are daily met with in the auiinals 
shipped to the large cities for slaughter. To determine the exact con- 
dition, the nature of the disease, and the proper disposition of the car- 
cass requires expert veterinary knowledge. The inspectors should be 
not only competent but thoroughly honest and reliable. There should 
be stringent, clearly defined laws and rigid regulations from which the 
inspector will know his duty, and by which he will be able to dispose 
of diseased or unwholesome meat without being annoyed by constant 
appeals made by interested parties. 

VESSEL INSPECTION. 

The vessels carrying the exported cattle and sheep are all inspected 
by the officers of this Bureau in accordance with the act of Congress 
approved March 3, 1891, in order to secure sufficient ventilation, an 
adequate supply of food and drinking water, competent attendants, 
fittings sufficiently strong to avoid unnecessary danger of washing 
overboard, and enough space for the animals to stand in with comfort. 



78 YEARBOOK OP THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

The regulations adopted in 1891 are still in force, but they have been 
amended from time to time, and the condition of the cattle in transit 
has been continually improved. 

This improvement is shown by the marked decrease in the propor- 
tion of cattle lost at sea. The loss for each year since the regulations 
went into effect was as follows: 1891, 1.0 per cent; 1892, 0.875 per 
cent,- 1893, 0.47 per cent, and in 1894 r 0.37 per cent. 

The loss of sheep has been much heavier. Of the 80,898 exported 
and shipments inspected in Great Britain during the fiscal year 1,050 
were lost at sea* This is 1.29 per cent, and it indicates that more strin- 
gent regulations must be enforced to secure the humane treatment of 
these animals on shipboard. 

STOCK- YARDS INSPECTION. 

An inspection at a number of the important stock yards of the coun- 
try is maintained for the purpose of inspecting and tagging export 
cattle as near to their place of origin as is possible. After being tagged 
and recorded there is a supervision of the shipments, in order to prevent 
infection of any kind on the way to the seaboard. 

In the past one of the greatest dangers during the summer months 
has been infected pens in the stock yards, or infected alleys, streets, or 
cars which have been contaminated by cattle from the Southern fever 
district. These cattle, though apparently healthy, may so thoroughly 
infect the avenues through which they pass that they will be deadly for 
other cattle during the remainder of the season. 

It has therefore been found necessary to set apart separate pens 
and alleys for these Southern cattle, to prohibit their exportation, and 
to disinfect the cars in which they have been shipped. To secure the 
enforcement of these regulations constant supervision and inspection 
must be maintained, for otherwise infected cattle would be allowed to 
enter the pens in which export cattle were handled, and this would do 
away with any possible chance of guarding against the infection. 

The stock-yards inspection is designed to guard against the South- 
ern fever infection, but it also embraces the inspection and tagging of 
export animals and the inspection of the vessels which carry them. 
These different lines of inspection are so closely allied that they can 
not be separated without detriment to the service and increased 
expenditures. It should be borne in mind, however, that the entire 
expense of the stock-yards inspection is not for the benefit of the 
export trade, but that the cattle which are to remain in this country 7 
more particularly the "feeders," are also protected. 

The losses from the Southern or Texas fever have been almost 
entirely prevented, and cattle may now be moved through our largest 
stock yards without danger, while before the inspection was inaugu- 
rated a large part of the cattle so handled became infected. 



THE PEDEBAI, MEAT INSPECTION. 73 

This inspection, as it only continues during the spring,, summer, and 
fall months, is reported for the calendar instead of the fiscal year. In 
the quarantine season extending from February 15 to December 1, 
1893, there were inspected and placed in the quarantine pens 1,737,380 
head of cattle. In addition to this the inspectors had 50,400 cars 
cleaned and disinfected under their supervision, and inspected 20,075 
car loads of infected cattle which were en route for places beyond their 
jurisdiction. 

INSPECTION IN GREAT BRITAIN OP ANIMALS FROM THE UNITED 

STATES. 

This inspection has been continued during the year by two inspect- 
ors, one being stationed at London and the other at Liverpool. The 
object of this inspection is to learn the condition in which animals 
arrive, the extent of the losses at sea, the diseases with which animals 
in transit are affected, or from which they die, and the adequacy of 
the ventilation and fittings of the vessels for the safe transportation 
of their living freight. 

This information can only be obtained from the representatives of 
this Bureau who examine the animals both before and after they are 
unloaded from the ships. By means of this information improvements 
have been made by which the losses at sea have been reduced from 1.0 
per cent the first year of service to 0.37 per cent during the last fiscal 
year. This means a saving of 4,470 head of cattle on the exports of 
the last year. How much was saved by the regulations of the first 
year over the unregulated trade we have no data to determine, but it 
probably was a still larger number. 

The British restrictions hav,e not yet been removed from our cattle 
trade, but with the continued freedom of the United States from 
pleuro pneumonia and other contagious diseases dangerous to the stock 
interests of that country it is probable that reasonable modifications 
will be made. 

The entire expenses of the stock-yard, vessel, and export animal 
inspection for the year was $90,707.44. At least half of this expense 
is for the prevention of Texas fever in this country, and should not be 
charged against the export inspection. This would give an expendi- 
ture of about lOf cents for each animal exported. Considering that 
this covers the tagging of every animal and two inspections in the 
United States and one in Great Britain for the greater part of them, 
as well as inspection of the ships and supervision of the loading, it is 
seen that the service is very economically performed. 

Following this estimate to its legitimate conclusion, we find that the 
$48,353.72 which we estimate was expended in inspecting and quaran- 
tining 1,737,380 head of cattle from the district infected with Southern 
or Texas fever makes the cost of such inspection 2.7 cents per animal, 
with no allowance for the disinfection of 50,400 cars. 



80 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 
INSPECTION AND QUARANTINE OF IMPORTED ANIMALS. 

The number of animals imported from Europe, inspected and quar- 
antined on arrival, was 11 head of cattle, 565 sheep, 43 hogs, and 4 
goats quarantined at Garfield, ]ST. J., and 1 head of cattle and 179 sheep 
quarantined at Patapsco, Md. In addition, 3 head of cattle imported 
from Canada were quarantined at Buffalo, K. Y. This makes a total 
of 806 imported animals that were quarantined during the year. 

Under the provisions of the act of Congress approved August 30, 
1890, requiring the inspection of all cattle, sheep, and hogs imported 
into the United States from foreign countries, there were inspected, as 
imported from Canada, 194 head of cattle, 240,497 sheep, 1,302 hogs, 
and 2 goats. 

Cattle from Europe and Canada are still detained in quarantine for 
a period of ninety days, which is necessary to protect from the conta- 
gion of pleuro-pneumonia. with which most European countries are 
still infected. Sheep from Europe are detained fifteen days, a period 
considered sufficient to guard against the introduction of foot-and- 
mouth disease; if from countries on the American continent, these 
animals are admitted on inspection when found free from any form of 
contagious or infectious disease. 



EDUCATION AND RESEARCH IN AGRICULTURE IN THE 

UNITED STATES. 

By A. C. True, Ph. D., 
Director of the Office of Experiment Stations, U. S. Department of Agriculture. 

More than a century has elapsed since the movement began in this 
country to advance the interests of agriculture by widening the infor- 
mation of the farmer regarding the rational practice of his art. Near 
the end of the eighteenth century there. was unusual activity in agri- 
cultural affairs, both at home and abroad. New crops and breeds of 
animals were being introduced. The attention of practical men was 
drawn to the discoveries of science, and great hopes were excited that 
immediate benefits of inestimable value would accrue to agriculture as 
well as to the other arts, especially from the application of the prin- 
ciples of chemistry to the various industries. The newly awakened 
interest in the oldest of human occupations was marked by the forma- 
tion of agricultural societies. In Great Britain, for example, the Bath 
and West of England Society and the Highland Society were estab- 
lished. The British Government also recognized the importance of the 
movement by organizing a board of agriculture. The same influences 
were soon felt in the New World. 

ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OP AGRICULTURAL INSTITUTIONS 
IN THE UNITED STATES. 

As far as is now known, the first society for promoting agriculture in 
the United States was established at Philadelphia, then the seat of the 
General Government, March 1, 1785, by men who were for the most 
part engaged in pursuits having no immediate connection with agri- 
culture. On the 4th of July, 1785, General Washington was elected 
an honorary member of this society and ever afterwards showed a 
deep interest in its proceedings. Benjamin Franklin's name is also 
found on the list of its honorary members. In the same year a similar 
society was formed in South Carolina, which had among its objects the 
establishment of an experimental farm. This society was incorporated 
December 19, 1795. The present State Agricultural Society of South 
Carolina still holds the original charter. The New York Society for 
the Promotion of Agriculture, Arts, and Manufactures was organized 
February 26, 1791, and about the same time a society was formed at 
Kennebec, Mass. (now Maine). In 1792 the New York society pub- 
lished a small quarto volume of its transactions. The Massachusetts 

81 



82 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

Society for Promoting Agriculture was incorporated March 7 ? 1792 ? and 
in 1794 the Western Society of Middlesex Husbandmen was formed in 
Massachusetts, though not incorporated until 1803. "The Society for 
Promoting Agriculture in the State of Connecticut was organized 
August 12, 1794, and published its first volume of transactions, a small 
quarto pamphlet, in 1802." This society still exists as the county society 
of £Tew Haven. 

THE FIRST PLANS FOR AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION. 

In 1792 Samuel L* Mitchill, M. IX, LL. D., was appointed professor of 
natural history, chemistry, agriculture, and the other arts depending 
thereon, in Columbia College, in the city of ISTew York. The college 
records do not show whether he ever gave any instruction in agricultu- 
ral subjects, but it is almost certain that he was active in early efforts 
to advance agriculture through education, and that men afterwards 
prominent in urging the establishment of agricultural colleges were 
among his students. Lavoisier, who was probably the first scientist to 
give systematic attention to the application of chemisjbry to agriculture, 
was then the great chemist. Dr. Mitchill is credited with introducing 
his theories in this country, and undoubtedly referred in his lectures to 
the agricultural features of this science. We know that he was active 
in the New York Society for the Promotion of Agriculture, Arts, and 
Manufactures, and that he wrote essays on the chemistry of manures. 
He was retired in 1801, having been elected a member of the House of 
Representatives. 

On the 21st of January, 1794, a committee was appointed by the 
Philadelphia society "to prepare outlines of a plan for establishing a 
State society for the promotion of agriculture, connecting with it the 
education of youth in the knowledge of that most important art, while 
they are acquiring other useful knowledge suitable for the agricultural 
citizens of the State." The committee made a report in which several 
alternatives for promoting agricultural education are presented to the 
legislature: 

Whether by endowing professorships, to ho annexed to the University of Pennsyl- 
vania and the College of Carlisle, and other seminaries of learning, for the purpose of 
teaching the chemical, philosophical, and elementary parts of the theory of agricul- 
ture ; or, by adding to tho funds of the society, increase their ability to propagate a 
knowledge of the subject, and stimulate, by premiums and other incentives, the 
exertions of the agricultural citizens; or whether, by a combination of these means, 
the welfare of the State may be more effectually promoted. 

It was also a part of the plan to make the common-school system of 
the State contributory to the technical education of the farmer. 

The country schoolmasters may be secretaries of the county societies, and the 
schoolhouses the places of meeting and the repositories of their transactions, models, 
etc. The legislature may enjoin on these schoolmasters the combination of the sub- 
ject of agriculture with the other parts of education. This may bo easily effected by 
introducing, as school books, those on this subject, and thereby making it familiar 



EDUCATION AND RESEARCH IN AGRICULTURE. 83 

to tlieir pupils. These will be gaining a knowledge of the business they are destined 
to follow, while they are taught the elementary parts of their education. Books thus 
profitable to them in the common affairs of life may be substituted for some of those 
now used, and they can easily be obtained. Selections from the best writers in 
husbandry may be made by the society. The essays of our own experimentalists or 
theorists and the proceedings of the society will also afford information. 

This report seems to have been the first formal attempt made in the 
United States to urge the claims of agricultural education and experi- 
mentation upon the attention of a lawmaking body. 

WASHIITOTCm'S MESSAGE TO CONGRESS. 

Two years later, on December 7, 1796, in his annual message to the 
second session of the Fourth Congress, Washington showed his interest 
in agriculture by the following recommendation : 

It will not he donhted that, with reference either to individual or national welfare, 
agriculture is of primary importance. In proportion as nations advance in popula- 
tion aiul other circumstances of maturity this truth becomes more apparent and 
renders the cultivation of the soil more and more an object of public patronage. 
Institutions for promoting it grow up supported by the public purse, and to what 
object can it be dedicated with greater propriety? Among the means which have 
been employed to this end none have been attended with greater success than the 
establishment of boards composed of public characters, charged with collecting and 
diffusing information, and enabled, by premiums and small pecuniary aid, to encour- 
age and assist a spirit of discovery and improvement. This species of establishment 
contributes doubly to the increase of improvements, by stimulating to' enterprise 
and experiment, and by drawing to a common center the results everywhere of indi- 
vidual skill and observation, and spreading them thence over the whole nation. 
Experience accordingly has shown that they are very cheap instruments of immense 
national importance. 

I have heretofore proposed to the consideration of Congress the expediency of 
establishing a national university, and also a military academy. 

Congress soon established the academy to promote the science and 
art of war, but paid no attention to the words of the great general in 
favor of institutions to benefit the sciences and arts of peace. 

In 1797 the trustees of the Massachusetts society began the publica- 
tion of pamphlets, or, as we should now say, bulletins, on agricultural 
topics, which afterwards were developed, into a regularly. issued journal. 
A voluntary agricultural association was formed at Stockbridge, Mass,, 
in 1799, and probably a few other societies were organized before the 
close of the last century. 

Near the opening of the new century (1801) a suggestion was made 
to the Massachusetts society that fairs should be regularly held in May 
and October on Cambridge Common and bounties given for certain 
articles. This plan included not only the exhibition of agricultural 
I>roducts, but also stated open markets for their sale. No action was 
taken by the society regarding this suggestion. In the same year this 
society discussed a proposition for the permanent endowment of a 
professorship of natural history and a botanic garden at Harvard 



84 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

College. The society took a lively interest in this matter and was 
enabled to carry out the suggestion in 1804, when William D. Peck was 
elected to fill the new chair. 

AGRICULTURAL FAIRS AT WASHINGTON. 

In the Eeport of the United States Commissioner of Agriculture for 
1866, in an article on the History of the Agriculture of the United 
States, by Ben : Perley Poore, may be found the following statements 
regarding the first attempt made at the newly established seat of the 
National Government to promote the interests of American agriculture: 

In 1804 it was suggested by Dr. Thornton, the first Commissioner of Patents, then 
residing in Washington, which was literally a "city in the woods," that the ready 
sale of cattle and of domestic products could ho promoted by the holding of fairs on 
market days, as in England, his native land. The idea met with the warm approval 
of the citizens, and the municipal authorities passed an act establishing semiannual 
fairs. An editorial article in the National Intelligencer of October 17 spoke of the 
coming fair as offering advantages to purchasers and to settlers, " while at the same 
time it can but prove equally beneficial to the agricultural interests of our country." 
The fair was held on Wednesday, Thursday, and Friday, in "the mall at the south 
side of the Tiber, extending from the bridge at the Center Market to the Potomac." 

It was a decided success, ancLbefore the next one was held an attempt was made 
by additional legislation on the part of the city government to increase its usefulness 
by appropriating $50 toward a fund for premiums. The citizens raised by subscrip- 
tion an equal sum, so that at the fair, which began on the 26th of April, 1805, pre- 
miums to the amount of $100 were awarded to the best lamb, sheep, steer, milch cow, 
yoke of oxen, and horse actually sold. A third fair was held in November, 1805, 
after which they were discontinued. 

Early in the year 1806 Joel Barlow, then residing at Kalorama, in the vicinity of 
Washington, published the prospectus of a " National Academy," in which he enu- 
merated,, among the foreign institutions to be copied in forming an American organi- 
zation, the agricultural societies of England and the veterinary school of France. 

Meanwhile an institution had been organized by " members of Congress, officers 
of the Federal Government, and others, devoted to objects connected with public 
economy." Meetings were held at Mr. Hervey's, on Pennsylvania avenue, every Sat- 
urday evening, from 5 until 8 o'clock, and among the subjects considered were: 

Our mechanical economy, or the means of abridging labor by useful inventions, 
implements, and apparatus; our agricultural economy, or the means of producing 
the most abundant.and most reciprocal crops, under any given circumstances, with- 
out doing things by guess; the economy of our forests, or the best management of 
our latent resources there. 

CATTLE SHOWS IN MASSACHUSETTS. 

In the autumn of 1807 Elkanah Watson, a native of Plymouth, 
Mass., and a direct descendant of Governor Edward Winslow, who, in 
1624, had brought to Plymouth, in the ship Charity, three heifers and a 
bull, "the first neat cattle that came into New England," procured the 
first pair of Merino sheep which had been introduced into Berkshire 
County, and gave notice of an exhibition of his two sheep on the pub- 
lic square at Pittsfield. He wrote that " many farmers and even females 
were attracted to this first novel and humble exhibition. 7 ' The interest 



EDUCATION AND RESEARCH IN AGRICULTURE. 85 

excited by this exhibit led Mr. Watson to undertake a larger enter- 
prise, and on the 1st of August, 1810, an appeal drawn by himself and 
signed by twenty-six persons was published, appointing an exhibition 
of stock at the same place on the 1st of October. This u cattle show" 
was quite successful, and before many years the annual exhibit became 
a permanent and popular institution in Massachusetts. Mr. Watson's 
report of the exhibition of September, 1811, shows the picturesque 
elements which were thus early introduced into these rural festivals. 
There was " a procession of sixty- nine oxen drawing a plow held by 
the oldest man in the county; a band of music; the society, bearing 
appropriate ensigns, each member decorated with a badge of two heads 
of wheat in his hat, and the officers three heads secured by a green 
ribbon." Meanwhile, in 1809, a number of gentlemen interested in 
agriculture, residing in Maryland, Virginia, and the District of Colum- 
bia, had formed the Columbian Agricultural Society, which may prop- 
erly be considered as the germ of a national organization. This society 
actively engaged in the work of educating the farmer through the 
agency of exhibitions. 

HINDRANCES TO AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION, 1810-1840. 

Various causes seem to have contributed to retard the progress of 
agricultural education during the next three decades. The war with 
England, from 1812 to 1815, undoubtedly turned the attention of our 
people away from the consideration of measures for the improvement of 
agriculture. The obstruction to commerce growing out of the wars of 
Napoleon, and the quarrel between England and the United States, 
caused the manufactures of this country to develop with wonderful 
rapidity. The enterprising youth were drawn in large numbers from 
the farms to factories, and the public mind was occupied with schemes 
for increasing the wealth of the country in this direction. However, in 
1817, the Berkshire Agricultural Society of Massachusetts, under the 
enthusiastic leadership of Elkanah Watson, presented a memorial to 
Congress praying for the establishment of a national board of agricul- 
ture, in accordance with the original suggestion by President Wash- 
ington. A bill for this purpose was actually reported in the House of 
Kepresentatives, but was defeated by an overwhelming vote. Some 
members opposed the bill because there was in their judgment no war- 
rant in the Constitution for such an institution; others based their 
opposition on questions of expediency, or on the general indifference of 
the agricultural public. It was also well known that President Madison 
was not in favor of the measure. The decade closed with the establish- 
ment of the New York Horticultural Society, the first horticultural 
society in the United States, in 1818, and the publication of the first 
distinctively agricultural periodical in this country, the American 
Farmer, in Baltimore, Md., in 1819. This was followed by the New 
England Farmer, published in 1822. " During this decade, also, the 



86 YEARBOOK OP THE U. S. DEPARTMEIST OP AGRICULTURE. 

wool interest made much stir. The breaking up of the flocks in Spain, 
the importation of Merino sheep into this country, and the speculation 
which followed, influenced agricultural fairs and societies." 

There were comparatively few events of striking interest to mark the 
progress of agriculture in the United States during the next twenty 
years. During this period the boundaries of the Eepublic were greatly 
enlarged j the introduction of steam as a motive power was already 
contributing largely to the movement of population from worn-out 
lands in the East to fertile districts further west j the demoralization of 
enterprise resulting from the employment of slaves was beginning to 
be felt in the South; questions relating to the extension of slavery, to 
methods of transportation, to the establishment of new States and 
Territories, to public systems of free elementary education, were absorb- 
ing public attention. There was little heed paid to the claims of scienti fie 
agriculture or thought about the necessity for technical education. 
About 182o, however, there was considerable popular interest in a 
scheme for the culture and manufacture of silk in the United States, a 
matter which had had its cycles of agitation somewhere in this country 
in every decade since 1750. Congress responded to the demand for 
information by ordering the publication of a well-digested manual 
prepared by Eichard Eust, Secretary of the Treasury, containing the 
best practical information that could be collected on the growth and 
manufacture of silk. In 1828 an edition of a Treatise on the Eearing 
of Silkworms, by Count Yon Haggie, of Munich, was printed as a 
Congressional document, and several valuable reports on silk culture 
were made and published, until the bursting of the u Morus multicaulis 
bubble" checked for a time this branch of agricultural industry. 

REVIVAL OF INTEREST IN AGRICULTURE. 

Ten years later public attention was rudely awakened to the neces- 
sity of doing something to prevent the rapid exhaustion of the soil, 
which was becoming a matter of serious concern in all States along the 
Atlantic seaboard. The failure of the crops in 1837-38 turned the 
balance of trade heavily against us and caused the importation of 
millions of dollars' worth of breadstuff's. From this time may be dated 
the beginning of active interestin agriculture on the part of the National 
Government. At the prompting of Hon. Henry L. Ellsworth, Com- 
missioner of Patents, Congress, in 1839, made an appropriation of $1,000 
for the "collection of agricultural statistics, investigations for pro- 
moting agricultural and rural economy, and the procurement of cut- 
tings and seeds for gratuitous distribution among the farmers." In 
the two succeeding years Congress failed to make any further appro- 
priation, but the Commissioner of Patents did not flag in his efforts to 
secure recognition of the claims of the farmers by the National Legisla- 
ture, and in 1842 the appropriation for agriculture was renewed and 
has ever since been regularly made, except iu 1846. The first attempt 



EDUCATION AND RESEARCH IN AGRICULTURE. 87 

to organize a national agricultural society was made at Washington in 
1841 by a convention of persons desiring a to elevate the character and 
standing of the cultivation of the American soil." It was hoped that 
the fund left by Hugh Sraithson might be made available for the main- 
tenance of such an organization, but the establishment of the Smith- 
sonian Institution frustrated these expectations, and the "national 
society remained dormant until 1852." 

PLANS FOR AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION IN NEW YORK AND OTHER 

STATES. 

The history of the early agitation in favor of agricultural education 
in the State of New York is very interesting and instructive. Prof. 
W. H. Brewer, of Yale University, who was closely identified with agri- 
cultural schools established in that State prior to 1860, has collected 
much information on this subject, and the author of this article is 
indebted to him for many of the facts here stated. As early as 1819, 
Simeon De Witt, surveyor-general of New York, to whom we are 
indebted for the classical names given to many towns in that State, in 
a pamphlet published anonymously at Albany, under the title u Consid- 
erations on the necessity of establishing an agricultural college," urged 
the foundation, under State authority, of an institution which he pro- 
posed to call " The Agricultural College of the State of New York/ 
This matter was thereafter never allowed to drop wholly out of sight. 
Allusions to an attempt to found an agricultural college in 1822 are 
found in the Transactions of the New York Agricultural Society and 
elsewhere. 

In 1826 mention is made of a lyceum in Maine devoted to agricultu- 
ral studies, of schools in Connecticut having agricultural courses, and 
of efforts in Massachusetts to establish an agricultural college. The 
Farmers 7 School Book, by Prof. J. Orvill Taylor, was published at 
Ithaca, N. Y., in 1837. It was a little elementary work on science, par- 
ticularly chemistry, on the use of manures and on general farming, and 
was soon introduced in many of the district schools. About the same 
time the establishment of an agricultural college, probably a private 
speculation, was undertaken in Columbia County. Between 1830 and 
1840 there was much talk about " manual labor schools," a term vari- 
ously applied to schools in which the students were to pay for their 
education in whole or part by their labor, and a number of schools 
were started on that basis. The Oneida Institute was one of the 
earliest of these schools, and for a time enjoyed considerable popu- 
larity. So general had the agitation for agricultural education become 
in New York by 1838 that petitions asking for State aid in behalf of 
this cause, with nearly 6,000 signatures, were presented to the legisla- 
ture and turned over to a committee, who made a report deploring in 
strong language " that there is no school, no seminary, no subdivision 
of any school in which the science of agriculture is taught," and recorn- 



88 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

mending the establishment of a school for this science. This matter 
came up in the legislature in different forms in succeeding years, and 
the movement seems to have steadily grown in strength and impor- 
tance. It was greatly aided by the State Agricultural Society, which 
was reorganized in 1841, and immediately began the publication of the 
series of volumes of Transactions, which was continued annually for 
over thirty years, and less frequently since. One project of these times 
w r as that the State should maintain a lecturer who should inform the 
people of different localities on scientific and practical agriculture. 
Lectures on agricultural chemistry were delivered about this time to 
popular assemblies or schools in w T estern New York, and this seems to 
have been done elsewhere, perhaps as far south as Georgia. 

At the annual meeting of the New York State Agricultural Society 
in January, 1844, a committee of seven, consisting of Hon. John Greig, 
Governor Seward, Lieutenant-Governor Dickinson, Col. John A. King, 
James S. Wadsworth, Judge Savage, and Henry O'lieilly, was appointed 
to promote "the introduction of agricultural books and studies in the 
schools and libraries throughout the State, and also for the purpose of 
selecting such prize essays from among the transactions of the society 
as may be most appropriately published in volumes of suitable size for 
the family and school district libraries ; ? ' and the society further resolved 
"That this society regards the establishment of an agricultural institute 
and pattern farm in this State, where shall be taught thoroughly and 
alike the science, the practice, and the profits of good husbandry, as an 
object of great importance to the productive agriculture of New York." 

This committee entered into correspondence with school superintend- 
ents and influential friends of agriculture in several States and presented 
an elaborate report the following year, in which are quoted the resolu- 
tions passed by the State convention of common-school superintendents 
held in June, 1844. The chairman of the committee which submitted 
these resolutions was Professor Potter, of Union College, and the com- 
mittee stated that in their opinion "the time has arrived when the ele- 
ments and scientific principles of agriculture should be taught in all 
our schools, especially to the older class of pupils." 

Between 1845 and 1850 agricultural schools were established by pri- 
vate enterprise in various places in the State. Among the peculiar 
features of these earlier schools were courses of lectures on agricultural 
chemistry and other topics, similar to the short or winter courses recently 
organized in a number of our agricultural colleges. For example, the 
Genesee Farmer for March, 1846, speaks of the Cortland County Agri- 
cultural School and of Mr. Wool worth's "unexpected success" in deliver- 
ing lectures once a week to twenty-five or thirty farmers. 

The agricultural school at Cream Hill, Connecticut, was established 
in May, 1845, by Dr. S. W. Gold and his son, T. S. Gold, and continued 
in successful operation until 1869. The number of pupils was limited 
to 20, and the object of the school was "to unite with classical and 
scientific education, theoretical and practical instruction in agriculture." 



EDUCATION AND RESEARCH IN AGRICULTURE. 89 

-■ A coarse of lectures on agricultural chemistry was delivered in New 
Orleans on invitation of citizens during the winter of 1845-46, by B. 
W. Jones, afterwards a professor in Yale College. 

Sufficient interest was awakened in this and other plans for the pro- 
motion of agriculture to make it seem to the United States Commis- 
sioner of Patents worth while to send a special agent to Europe to inves- 
tigate the movements there in the same direction. In the report of 
this agent, published in 1847, is contained an account of the European 
agricultural schools. 

In 1846 John P. Norton was appointed professor of agricultural chem- 
istry and vegetable and animal physiology at Yale College, New Haven, 
Conn. B. Silliman, jr., was appointed professor of chemistry applied to 
the arts. This was the beginning of Sheffield Scientific School. The 
Lawrence Scientific School at Harvard was begun about the same 
time. Professor Norton began his lectures in 1847, and during the next 
five years also wrote extensively for agricultural journals, edited an 
American edition of Stevens on the Farm, and published a work of his 
own on the Elements of Agriculture. So great was the demand for 
teachers in agricultural chemistry that a regular course with a view to 
their preparation was established at Yale in 1848. Prof. W. H. Brewer 
was among the first students to take this course, and Prof. S. W. John- 
son joined him in 1849. 

In January, 1849, Governor Hamilton Fish, of New York, in his annual 
message to the legislature of the State, strongly recommended the estab- 
lishment of a State agricultural college. The same year the New York 
Agricultural Society established at Albany a chemical laboratory for 
the analysis of soils, manures, etc., and an elaborate but very inaccurate 
chemical examination of maize was made there by Dr. Salisbury. Dur- 
ing the session of the legislature that year Professor Johnston, of Edin- 
burgh, the celebrated Scotch agricultural chemist, came to Albany and 
delivered a course of lectures under the auspices of the society. 

In an address before the Norfolk Agricultural Society, delivered in 
1849, Hon. Marshall P. Wilder urged the advisability of establishing 
an agricultural college in Massachusetts. The idea speedily took hold 
of the friends of agriculture in that State to such an extent that in 
1850 the State senate of Massachusetts passed a bill to found such an 
institution, but it was defeated in the house. As a compromise meas- 
ure a board of commissioners was appointed to investigate the matter. 
The commissioners sent Professor Hitchcock to Europe to visit the 
agricultural schools already in operation there, and his report was 
transmitted to the legislature in the following year. The only imme- 
diate outcome of this movement was the establishment of the Massa- 
chusetts Board of Agriculture in 1852. 

The United States Commissioner of Patents had meanwhile begun to 
urge upon Congress the desirability of giving national aid to agricul- 
tural education. In his report for the year 1850 he deplores the lack of 



90 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OP AGRICULTURE. 

qualified men to fill professorships in agricultural colleges, and says 
that "if a young farmer engaged in stock growing wishes to study the 
digestive organs, the muscles, nerves, or blood vessels of the horse, cow, 
sheep, or hog, there is not a museum in all America where this can be 
done. 7 ' And in the two succeeding years the same official publishes in 
his reports letters from prominent agriculturists urging the establish- 
ment of a national school for the training of teachers for agricultural 
and other industrial schools. 

Professor Brewer thus writes concerning the first industrial college 
established in New York : 

In 1850 Mr. John Delafield, a retired "banker of New York City, a graduate of 
Colombia College, where he may have received instruction from Professor Mitchill, 
was living on one of the best farms in the State, " Oaklands," near Geneva, in the 
town of Fayette, Seneca County. He was enthusiastic in all matters relating to 
agricultural progress, and was a near neighbor of John Johnston, the famous Scotch 
farmer, the pioneer of tile drainage in the United States. Mr. Delafield imported 
the first tile-making machine in 1852. He was also at onetime president of the New 
York State Agricultural Society, and originated and carried out an agricultural and 
topographical survey of Seneca County. He took a deep interest in the cause of 
agricultural education, and, owing to his action and energy, on April 15, 1853, the 
State passed an act establishing a State agricultural college. This act created a 
board of ten trustees, of which Mr. Delafield was president, but appropriated no 
money. The college was to bo located on Mr. Delafield's farm, in the town of Fayette, 
but as he died October 22 of the same year, nothing more was done about building 
a college there. 

At this time the Ovid Academy, located some 15 miles south of 
Fayette, was in successful operation ; agricultural chemistry was there 
taught, and public lectures were given upon the same subject. Eev. 
Amos Brown, the principal of that academy, conceived the idea of having 
the college charter transferred to Ovid. The agitation for this was 
begun in 1855, and in 1856 an act was passed providing for the loan by 
the State of $40,000 for twenty-one years without interest, and the 
citizens of the vicinity subscribed nearly $50,000 more for the carrying 
out of the plan. In that year the board of trustees was reorganized ? 
and soon after a farm was purchased at Ovid and Judge Cheever was 
made president. Buildings were built and the college was formally 
opened as the New York State Agricultural College in the fall of I860, 
under the presidency of Maj. M. E. Patrick. By this time the institu- 
tion was heavily in debt, the civil war soon broke out, Major Patrick 
was called to the army, and the college was closed, never again to be 
opened as a school. The land and buildings reverted to the State and 
are now used for an insane asylum. 

Contemporaneous with this was the starting of another institution, 
known as "The People's College," to be located near Havana, K Y. It, 
too, was to be an industrial institution, but of wider scope. Its act of 
incorporation was passed April 12, 1853, or three days before that of 
the agricultural college just mentioned. Amos Brown later became 
the president of this institution, and as such took an active part in the 



EDUCATION AND RESEARCH IN AGRICULTURE. 91 

discussion of the Morrill bill, and was largely instrumental in securing 
its passage. In a letter dated December 1, 1862 (only five months after 
the passage of the bill), Mr. Morrill writes as follows : 

The Reverend Amos Brown took such active part in securing the passage of the hill 
referred to whenever it was "before Congress, both by his earnest and intelligent 
advocacy of the measure through personal interviews and by sufficient urging the 
attendance of members on all questions of any test votes, his services continuing 
for months, that it is due to him and the institution of which he is the head, whenever 
an official disposition of the funds shall be made, that his merit shall not go unac- 
knowledged by the State of New York. From an early moment after the first bill 
was introduced he has been unflagging in his efforts to promote the success of this 
great measure in behalf of agriculture, and it is a pleasure to me to acknowledge 
tho value of his aid and cooperation. 

It is interesting to note in this connection that even before the first 
introduction of the Morrill bill, in 1857, and when Mr. Brown probably 
had no knowledge of Mr. Morrill's intention to frame such a bill, Mr, 
Brown was earnestly urging that an agricultural college should be a 
broad institution of high grade, in which the sciences and technology 
should be taught along with the old studies. In talking of this matter 
he often expressed the sentiment, if not the very language, afterwards 
adopted for the seal of Cornell University. 

After the passage of the Morrill act of 1862 the legislature of Kew 
York voted to give the whole of £Tew York's share of the land grant 
to the " People's College/' but afterwards, when that institution failed 
to comply with the conditions of the law, the grant was given to Cor- 
nell University. 

THE FIRST AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE. 

The constitution of the State of Michigan, adopted in 1850, requires 
that "the legislature shall provide for the establishment of an agricul- 
tural school for agriculture and the natural sciences connected there- 
with." In obedience to this provision an act for the establishment of a 
State agricultural college was adopted by the legislature of Michigan 
in 1855, and approved February 12 of that year, and the organiza- 
tion of the institution given into the charge of the State board of edu- 
cation. A farm, then in the woods,, of 076 acres, lying 3J miles east of 
the city of Lansing, was purchased and buildings erected, and on May 
13, 1857, the college was formally opened for the reception of students. 
The institution began with 61 students and 5 professors. To Michigan, 
therefore, belongs the honor of having been the first of the States to 
put in actual operation an educational institution for the direct promo- 
tion of technical training in agriculture. 

The Farmers' High School of Pennsylvania (now the Pennsylvania 
State College) was incorporated in 1854 and opened for students in 
February, 1859. Donations of land as a site for the institution were 
offered in several parts of the State. Funds for the erection and 
equipment of buildings were provided by the legislature, the State 



92 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

Agricultural Society, and private subscription. The first president, 
Dr. Evan Pugh, had not only studied in Germany at a time when very 
few American students went abroad, but had also spent several months 
at Eothamsted, England, working under Lawes and Gilbert. 

In 1856 the legislature of Maryland incorporated Maryland Agricul- 
tural College. 

Under this law nearly 500 philanthropic and patriotic citizens of Maryland, with 
a few in other States and in the District of Columbia, subscribed the minimum 
amount of stock provided by the act and organized the institution. The stock- 
holders met, elected the first board of trustees, and this body, after much delibera- 
tion, purchased for the college, from the late Charles B. Calvert, the estate known as 
Rossboro, containing 428 acres and situated in Prince George County, 8 miles from 
the city of Washington, and upon the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. There the cor- 
ner stone of the main college building was laid on August 24, 1858, and the institu- 
tion was opened for students in September, 1859. The opening of the college was 
quite an imposing event. Bishop Pinkney was chaplain and Professor Henry, of the 
Smithsonian Institution, was the orator of the day. 

Meanwhile, in 1856, Mr. Wilder, of Massachusetts, had succeeded in 
obtaining from the legislature of his State a charter of "The Trustees 
of the Massachusetts School of Agriculture," and from Congress a 
charter of the United States Agricultural Society, which had been 
formed in 1852. It is perhaps worth while to notice that the latter 
was opposed in the Senate by Jefferson Davis on the ground that 
u Congress had no power to create corporations." 

THE FIRST MORRILL ACT. 

The activity of the friends of agricultural education now began to 
extend itself beyond the limits of State legislation, and numerous 
petitions were presented to Congress asking for national aid for the 
establishment of agricultural colleges. The relation of this movement 
to that wider development of the American system of higher education 
due to the progress of the natural sciences and their application to the 
arts is thus briefly discussed by Professor Brewer, whose intimate per- 
sonal acquaintance with many of the leaders of industrial, scientific, 
and educational progress in this period eminently qualifies him to 
speak of the causes which led to the passage of the Morrill act of 1862. 

THE EVENTS LEADING UP TO THE MOKRILL ACT. 

The Morrill act of 1862 was the outcome of a long series of events which seem 
either to have been imperfectly understood by mauy writers or to have been deemed 
of an importance far below what they really had. The causes which led up to this 
grant of land for the purpose of aiding schools of science were numerous and not 
so simple as they seem now. Educational demands were doubtless the greater, but 
others, which need not be discussed in detail here, were important and, indeed, 
essential factors in promoting the passage of this act. Considered even as an edu- 
cational movement, it was only a part of a wide movement, of which instruction 
in the sciences of immediate and special application in agriculture was but one phase. 

It is true that there was a widespread and often-heard demand for agricultural 



EDUCATION AND RESEARCH IN AGRICULTURE. 93 

colleges during the twenty years preceding the passage of that act, but this was but 
one feature of a general educational movement. 

The period between 1840 and 1860 was a peculiar one in the history of the worlds 
intellectual activity and material progress. At its beginning some of the physical 
sciences, more particularly chemistry and geology, were scarcely 50 years old, but 
they had already revolutionized some of the arts and produced great changes in 
agriculture. All this had taken place within the lifetime of the older workers then 
in the field. 

Popular works on science were widely read, and had prepared the public mind to 
cherish hopes, perhaps exaggerated, of the benefits to come by the applications of 
science, and had greatly stimulated intellectual activity in this new field of knowl- 
edge. Liebig's familiar Letters on Chemistry incited hopes for agriculture which 
will probably never be realized. Dick's works made the moon hoax 1 not only pos- 
sible but such a great success as it never could have been before or since, and the 
discoveries actually taking place at that time awakened the most widespread desire 
to know more. 

In a thousand and one ways, more in the other lines than in agriculture, discov- 
ery, invention, and the application of scientific la ws to the arts and industries were 
playing a part in the development of the material resources of the civilized world 
and modifying the industries and occupations of men. There was then an absorb- 
ing interest in the growing steam transportation; railroads and ocean steamships 
then came into use and were made practicable; iron working, dyeing, and many 
other arts were being revolutionized by chemistry; commercial fertilizers were 
coming to be used; the electric telegraph, just invented, first came into use during 
this period; other events, some of them political, were profoundly affecting the 
current of human activity; prices, which had been falling from the decline of the 
production of silver in Mexico, began to rise with the discovery and production of 
gold in California. This was t he beginning of an era in the rise of prices and of 
material prosperity unexampled in the history of civilization. The vine disease in 
the south of Europe, the potato disease in Ireland, the revolution in Germany, all 
occurring just as steamships began to carry immigrants, stimulated the immigration 
of working people as never before. 

All these influences produced a deep and lasting effect on the theories and practice 
of education. The "old education," as it was called, did not supply the new 
wants. There was a loud and discordant demand for something else. The many 
agreed only in this, that less Latin and Greek (which had before been considered 
the corner stone and substance of a liberal education) be taught and in their place 
more science ; or at least that, whatever place the old college curriculum might have 
in the future, new systems of education were required in this new development of 
civilization. 

For example, great railroads were being surveyed and built ; yet, aside from the 
national military school at West Point and personal instruction at places scattered 
here and there, there was but one engineering school in the United States previous 
to 1840. 2 So it is not wonderful that the matter of training in the sciences, pure 
and applied, was discussed when engineers were wanted and our factories, iron 
works, and other industries were asking for chemists. The old education was not 
sufficient for the new uses, but what the new education was to be and what were to 
be its schools no one seemed to know. 

This discussion, along with that t)f elective studies instead of a rigid curriculum, 
went on in all the colleges and universities in the land. The University of Virginia 

1 [A fabulous account of telescopic information regarding the moon, published in 
the New York Sun, in which the writer went so far as to predict that we should 
soon be able to study the entomology of that satellite. Many persons believed this 
marvelous story. — Ed.] 

2 Renssalaer Polytechnic Institute at Troy, N. Y. 



94 YEARBOOK OP THE IT. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

already had elective courses. All tried in some way to expand in tlie direction of 
the physical sciences. 

Tho agitation for education in sciences began earlier, but the profoundest move- 
ment in the colleges took place between 1840 and 1850. Yale College then established 
its scientific and agricultural department, more agricultural than elsewhere because 
of tho personal bent of Prof. John P. Norton, who was really tho father of that 
department in Yale. Harvard started its scientific department at the same time — the 
Lawrence Scientific School — but the Lawrences, who gave tho endowment of $40,000 
to start it with, being prominently engaged in manufacturing, chemistry applied in 
the direction of the arts rather than in agriculture became there more prominent. 
While these old and reputable universities added scientific departments, others 
modified tho curriculum in their literary courses to embrace more science. So pro- 
found was this movement that some very respectable institutions whose endowment 
did not permit of extensive expansion seriously considered the advisability of chang- 
ing their plans and becoming essentially schools of science rather than of literature. 

Prominent among those educators who agitated this question was Francis Wayland, 
then president of Brown University. Liberally educated, first at Union College, 
under the administration of the eminent Dr. Nott, then studying and graduating 
doctor of medicine, later a Baptist clergyman, he became eminent as a Baptist theo- 
logian, as K a teacher, as a professor of moral science, but more so as a teacher and 
writer on educational matters. He was president of Brown University from 1827 to 
1855, and between 1840 and 1855, the period. I am more especially €liscussing, he took 
a more prominent part in the discussion of the new needs in education than any 
other college president of the country. 

As early as 1842 he published a little book entitled Thought on the Present 
Collegiate System of the United States, in which he argues earnestly in favor of the 
introduction of new subjects into the college curriculum, much more attention to the 
sciences, and the adoption of a system of elective studies. 

In A Sketch of the History and the Present Organization of Brown University, 
published by the executive board, Providence, 1861, we find that Way land had come 
in as president in the college in the year 1826-27; that "his presidency was marked 
by greater changes and more numerous improvements than had been effected by 
either of his predecessors;" that a science hall and. a museum of geology had been 
added in 1840; that the college was poor and not self-supporting, and that, " despair- 
ing of improvement so long as the existing system was perpetuated, Dr. Wayland in 
1849 resigned his presidency ; " that he, however, consented to reconsider his purpose, 
and the corporation falling in with him, "it was resolved to attempt to raise a fund 
for the purpose of realizing his theory of education j $125,000 was subscribed and 
what was called the new system was commenced." Its main features were a provi- 
sion "for such now courses in science as the practical spirit of the ago demanded, 
etc." Tho four-years' course was abolished, a three-years' course established, and 
several kinds of degrees conferred. This ran from 1850 to 1855; then Dr. Wayland, 
"having inaugurated his cherished plan," resigned, and Dr. Sears was put in his 
place. Dr. Sears already had fame as a theologian, and soon under him the four- 
years' course was reestablished, leading to the degree of A. B. 

Going along with these changes in collegiate instruction there was much clamor 
for purely technical schools of special kinds. In no direction was this more marked 
than in agriculture. This became the field of work for enthusiasts of various grades 
and a bewildering number of schemes was proposed. A few private schools were 
started, but the loudest clamor was for State agricultural colleges. Many were 
planned, a few were chartered, and three or four actually opened before 1862. 

These early agricultural colleges were certainly not at first a success. Some were 
total failures (as in New York), others hardly a success (as in Michigan and Penn- 
sylvania). Why this was so was a matter of dispute. It is certain that they were 
poor in means, and to this cause many attributed the poverty of their results. 



EDUCATION AND RESEARCH IN AGRICULTURE. 95 

We ought here to say that previous to 1850 numerous private agricultural schools 
of a grade lower than colleges had been established in the Uuited States and many- 
were for a time reasonably successful. Such,, for instance, was Dr. Gold's, iu West 
Cornwall, Conn. 

Not only were a few agricultural schools started, but also other schools in which 
the sciences were to be a leading feature. 

Many prominent educators, however, came to think that their failure was because 
their aim was too narrow; that it was too early in this country for a narrow insti- 
tution, supplying but a single want, to be successful; that scientific and practical 
institutions should be wider and with wider aims, inciting to higher culture and laying 
a more solid foundation ; in short, that schools of science rather than trade schools 
were needed. Of colleges of the old-fashioned sort there were already enough and 
more than enough. The direction of their studies and system of instruction had 
been developed by centuries of experience which must not be rudely thrown aside. 
On the other hand, schools of science were too new and too few to show what was 
the best curriculum and what should be the details; consequently there was a wide 
difference of opinion as to how they might be best conducted. It was therefore but 
natural that practical success should come slowly and total failures be common. 

Such was the condition of educational affairs when the Morrill act wa& discussed 
and passed. This wisely left the details to be developed in the respective schools. 
With a sagacity greater than that of most "educators" before and since. Mr. Morrill 
saw that schools grow rather than are made, and he therefore only indicated the 
general direction in which they should grow ; that is, they were to be schools of 
science rather than schools of literature — institutions where the sciences and their 
application in agriculture and the arts were to be studied and cherished as the lead- 
ing objects. 

On December 14, 1857, Justin S. Morrill, then a member of the House 
of Representatives, and now a venerable Senator, from the State of 
Vermont, introduced a bill into the lower House authorizing the 
establishment of industrial colleges in every State, and granting for 
their maintenance 20,000 acres of the public land for each member of 
Congress. This bill was referred to the Committee on Public Lands, 
who brought in an adverse report April 15, 1858. Nevertheless, in the 
following session of Congress the bill passed both Houses, but was 
vetoed by President Buchanan. 

In December, 1861, Mr. Morrill introduced in the House of Repre- 
sentatives his amended bill, which bestowed 30,000 l acres of land for 
each member of Congress upon the several States for the establishment 
of colleges "to teach such branches of learning as are related to agri- 
culture and the mechanic arts, in order to promote the liberal and 
practical education of the industrial classes in the several pursuits and 
professions in life," and May 2, 1862, Benjamin Wade, of Ohio, intro- 
duced a similar bill in the Senate. On May 29 the bill was reported 
adversely in the House by the Committee on Public Lands, but was 
passed by the Senate June 10, and nine days later by the House. 
President Lincoln made the bill a law by affixing his signature July 
2, 1862, the very day when McClellan's army began its retreat from the 
Peninsula after the bloody battle of Malvern Hill. Amid the national 

ir rhe amount of land actually allotted the several States was partly determined 
by the value of the land selected. 



96 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

gloom which succeeded the failure of the Union's greatest army to take 
the capital of the Confederacy, few paid any attention to the gift of 
over 11,000,000 acres to promote the arts and industries of peace. It 
is a significant fact that in the amended bill it was provided that every 
institution receiving the benefits of the land grant should provide for 
the military training of its students. 

As it was anticipated that the land grant would furnish a fund only 
sufficient for the partial support of such colleges as the several States 
ought to maintain for the benefit of the "industrial classes," the act 
provides that "no portion of said fund, nor the interest thereon, shall 
be applied, directly or indirectly, to the purchase, erection, preserva- 
tion, or repair of any building or buildings." Ten per cent of the fund 
might, however, be expended "for the purchase of lands for sites or 
experimental farms." "The Federal Government," says Dr. Blackmar, 
in his History of Federal and State Aid to Higher Education, " intended 
the grant should form a nucleus in each of the several States around 
which buildings, libraries, laboratories, workshops, gymnasiums, mili- 
tary halls, and other educational appliances should be grouped by 
means of public munificence and State bounty. It was to prove a 
stimulus to the generosity of the people and the liberality of the States. 
To this test the people, through private gifts and municipal and State 
governments, have responded, with few exceptions, in a liberal way." 

The shares of the several States under the land-grant act of 1862 
ranged from 24,000 acres for Alabama to 990,000 acres for New York. 
The fund arising from the sale of the lands was not, however, pro- 
portionate in all cases to the number of acres received by the State. 
Many States sought to establish colleges very soon after the passage 
of the act, and in other States where the land grant was given to exist- 
ing institutions the boards of management foolishly endeavored to 
convert the gift into cash at once. At the same time the homestead act, 
by enabling thousands of settlers to obtain land free of c6st, and the 
extensive gifts of land to aid railroads, tended to depress the price of 
public lands offered for sale. The general result was that many States 
received small advantages from the land grant, the income from which 
in some cases was not sufficient to properly maintain even a single 
department of a college. In a few States, like New York and Mich- 
igan, where the number of acres received was large and the sale of the 
land was skillfully made, large funds were obtained and strong institu- 
tions were established. The total fund received from this land grant 
amounts to about $9,500,000, and about 1,200,000 acres still remain 
to be sold. The twenty-five years succeeding the passage of the act 
was necessarily a period of organization and of discussion regarding 
the character of the institutions which would fulfill the objects of the 
act and meet the needs of the industrial classes in the respective com- 
munities. The language of the act is broad and easily admits of 
widely diverse interpretation. It was not the intention to establish 



EDUCATION AND RESEARCH IN AGRICULTURE. 97 

agricultural colleges only, but rather institutions for "the liberal and 
practical education of the industrial classes in the several pursuits and 
professions in life." Whether a farmer's or mechanic's boy wished to 
become a doctor, machinist, or farmer, he was to have such instruction 
as he needed in the land-grant college. At the same time, in the agi- 
tation which preceded the introduction of the bill, in the speeches 
made in its favor, as well as in the act itself, special emphasis was laid 
upon agricultural education. The colleges to be founded under this 
act were in the minds of many to be to the profession of agriculture 
what West Point is to the profession of war. Unfortunately, the desig- 
nation "agricultural colleges" was inserted in the title of the bill by 
the engrossing clerk and quickly passed into current use. In this way 
the real import of the act was obscured in the minds of the people, and 
the difficulties attending the proper administration of the fund were 
greatly increased. 

It is also very important to remember in this connection that the 
definitions of the terms "liberal education," "practical education." 
"professions," as employed in the United States in 1862, were very 
different from those given to the same expressions to-day. A "liberal 
education" was then, in the popular mind, a medieval classical educa- 
tion ' y a "practical education" was one which fitted a man to earn his 
livelihood in any honest calling, and the "professions" were medicine, 
theology, and law. Beading, writing, and arithmetic were " practical" 
studies; Latin and Greek were "liberal" studies. Technical and 
scientific schools as we now know them were comparatively few and 
weak, and the period had not yet come when the ordinary education of 
the schools was not a passport to remunerative employment. It may be 
safely said that in 1862 an industrious boy of average common sense 
was sure of good wages if he could only get a common- school educa- 
tion. There is little wonder, then, that in carrying out the provisions 
of this act many of the States did little more than graft certain indus- 
trial features on new or old institutions which in general were like all 
the other institutions for higher education existing in the United States. 
Moreover, it could be fairly claimed that all institutions which made it 
easier for members of the industrial classes to obtain an education of 
any sort acted within the provisions of the Morrill act. But the land- 
grant colleges did far more than this. Almost all of them made more 
or less earnest efforts to secure agricultural students, and to provide at 
least a small amount of training in agricultural science. The farmers 
were not prepared to respond to these efforts. Many did not think 
there was or could be any science of agriculture worth learning. In 
the newer States the lands were so fertile and so cheap that farmers 
were highly prosperous under the most careless methods of agriculture. 
Moreover, wlieir the immense volume of foreign immigration and the 
wonderful development of thousands of manufacturing and other 
industries in the United States since the civil war are considered, it 

1 x 94 4 



98 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

will not seem strange that tlie American farmer's boy of the period 
between 1802 and 1887 was not willing to stay on the farm, but sought 
the avenues leading to more rapid accumulation of wealth. It is easy 
ta say now that the land- grant colleges ought to have resisted this 
tendency and held out larger inducements to pursue technical courses 
in agriculture; but when institutions deriving a large part of their 
support from the public purse were beset by the very class for which 
they were established with demands for a general education, and when 
there was no consensus among professional educators as to what should 
be included in agricultural courses, it could hardly be expected that 
the schools would refuse compliance with such requests. On the other 
hand, these colleges did much to inculcate a broader view of what con- 
stitutes a liberal education, and undertook much pioneer and experi- 
mental work in the development of technical courses suited to the 
needs of American farmers and mechanics. Even those which may 
seem to have done very little to directly benefit agriculture did in some 
cases the most valuable kind of work in preparing teachers and scien- 
tists who are now in the front ranks of those engaged in. the work of 
technical instruction and in scientific and practical investigations 
in the agricultural schools and experiment stations throughout the 
country. 

During this period clearer conceptions of what is desirable in courses 
of instruction in the sciences and arts, including agriculture, were being 
formed in the minds of educators and the public Great changes and 
developments were taking place in all institutions of learning. The 
system of elective studies was steadily making its way and opening 
up wider opportunities for satisfying the demands of individuality in 
teacher and learner. Original research, which was all the while grow- 
ing in importance and securing more brilliant and useful results in the 
Old World, began to assert its claims in the United States. Private 
benevolence was beginning to provide funds for the maintenance of such 
research in this country, and the people were gradually awaking to the 
necessity of promoting the interests of great industries by extending 
governmental aid to inquiries carried on in their behalf. Agriculture 
began to feel the influence of this movement. Experimental inquiries 
in field and laboratory were begun here and there, and very soon the 
regularly organized experiment station, after the German pattern, made 
its appearance in this country. Before proceeding to give a brief 
sketch of the history of the experiment stations let us consider for a 
moment the general status of the land-grant colleges just prior to the 
establishment of experiment stations under the act of Congress of 
March 2, 1887. The report of the United States Bureau of Education 
for 1880-87 contains the following general statements regarding these 
institutions : 

The number of institutions in the United States sharing in the benefit of the land 
grant of 1862 is forty-eight. 
In thirteen States the grant was made over to universities or colleges already exist- 



EDUCATION AND RESEARCH IN AGRICULTURE. 99 

ing, and has served to establish or augment the funds of courses, departments, or 
schools of applied science in the same. In the twenty-five remaining States the fund 
has served as the chief source of endowment for now institutions, or as the nucleus 
around which have collected additional funds, in several cases far exceeding the 
amount derived from the national grant. In six States the grant has been divided. 
In Georgia it has been applied to the endowment of six colleges of agriculture, affili- 
ated to the State University; in Massachusetts separate colleges, one of agriculture, 
the other of the mechanic arts, have been the recipients; in Missouri a portion of 
the grant has been applied to the endowment of an " agricultural and mechanical 
college/' and the rest to the endowment of a " school of mines and metallurgy/' 
both under the auspices of the University of Missouri; in Mississippi, South Caro- 
lina, and Virginia the fund has been divided between institutions for white and 
colored students, respectively. 

Certain of the schools have developed particularly in the direction of the me- 
chanical art3; others are agricultural colleges, pure and simple; a few combine 
both departments, with large provision for theoretic instruction, while some differ 
in no essential particular from the ordinary classical college. 

ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT 

OF AGRICULTURE. 

While the States had been active in establishing agencies for aiding 
the farmer in acquiring a better knowledge of his art and in improving 
its practice, the National Government had not neglected to provide a 
central bureau for doing its part in similar work. 

The establishment of a national board of agriculture was one of the 
measures which President Washington strongly urged upon the atten- 
tion of Congress. The propriety of giving national aid to agriculture 
was early considered by committees of both Houses of Congress, but 
the indifference of the farmers and constitutional objections prevented 
any legislative action. During the Administration of John Quincy 
Adams the consuls in various parts of the world were instructed to 
send to the Department of State rare seeds and plants for distribu- 
tion, and about the same time a botanical garden was established at 
Washington. These measures proved to be the germs from which has 
grown the United States Department of Agriculture. When our Gov- 
ernment was first organized, after the adoption of the Federal Consti- 
tution, the principal charge of the issuing of patents was given to the 
Department of State, and when seeds and plants were received from 
consuls they were distributed through the Patent Office. Thus it came 
to pass that when, on the 4th of July, 1836, the Patent Office was made 
a separate bureau, and Hon. Henry L. Ellsworth, of Connecticut, was 
appointed as Commissioner of Patents, he considered it within the 
proper scope of his office to help the farmers of the country by distrib- 
uting seeds and plants. Mr. Ellsworth had been a practical farmer in 
Connecticut, and, having traveled far to the West as Indian Commis- 
sioner, had been greatly impressed by the fertility of the vast prairies 
and was deeply interested in projects for the opening of these lands 
to settlement. He also realized the importance of the invention of 
improved agricultural implements, which were then beginning to attract 



106 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

public attention, and believed that great benefit might result from the 
establishment of a regular system for the selection and distribution of 
grains and seeds of the choicest varieties for agricultural purposes. 
So earnest was he in this matter that, without legal authorization and 
outside of office hours, he secured free gifts of seeds and plants, which 
he afterwards distributed to farmers in various sections of the country, 
with the help of friendly members of Congress, who lent their franks 
for this purpose. Beginning with his first annual report, dated Janu- 
ary 1, 1838, he strongly urged an appropriation to continue and enlarge 
this work, and in the closing hours of the Twenty-fifth Congress 
secured the passage of an act (March 3, 1839) appropriating $1,000, " to 
be taken from the Patent Office fund, for the purpose of collecting and 
distributing seeds, prosecuting agricultural investigations, and pro- 
curing agricultural statistics." From that time up to 1854 seeds were 
distributed and agricultural statistics were compiled with the aid of 
small appropriations from the Patent Office fund, except in 1840, 1841, 
and 1846, when Congress failed to make any appropriation for this 
purpose. In 1854 the policy of appropriating money from the Patent 
Office fund was abandoned, and in the following year the whole amount 
($39,000) drawn from that fund in the interest of agriculture was reim- 
bursed, and thereafter the appropriations for agriculture were drawn 
directly from the Treasury. The same year the annual appropriation 
for agriculture was increased to $35,000, and has never since been less 
than that sum. A special agent was now employed "to investigate 
and report upon the habits of insects injurious and beneficial to vege- 
tation, especially those infesting the cotton plant." In 1855 an arrange- 
ment was made with the Smithsonian Institution for procuring and 
publishing meteorological statistics. A chemist and botanist were also 
employed, and a propagating garden was begun. The first annual 
report of Commissioner David P. Holloway, of Indiana, is worthy of 
notice as the last and most complete agricultural manual issued by the 
Patent Office, and as containing a bold and able plea for the creation 
"of a Department of the Productive Arts, to care for all the industrial 
interests of the country, but especially for agriculture." Congress 
adopted a portion of the Commissioner's plan, and passed a bill estab- 
lishing a Department of Agriculture. This act became a law by the 
approval of President Lincoln on the 15th of May, 1862, and on the 
1st of July of the same year the new Department was formally organ- 
ized in the rooms of the Patent Office previously occupied by the 
agricultural division of that Office. Though by the terms of the 
act an independent department of the Government was established, 
its chief officer was styled Commissioner of Agriculture and was not a 
member of the President's Cabinet. The duties of the Department as 
defined in this act are, "To acquire and diffuse among the people of 
the United States useful information on subjects connected with agri- 
culture in the most general and comprehensive sense of that word, and 



EDUCATION AND RESEARCH IN AGRICULTURE. 101 

to procure, propagate, and distribute among the people new and valu- 
able seeds and plants." Hon. Isaac Newton, of Pennsylvania, who 
had been, since early in 1861, the superintendent of the agricultural 
division of the Patent Office, was appointed the first Commissioner 
of Agriculture. Mr. Newton had been a practical and progressive 
farmer, was one of the first and most active members of the State 
Agricultural Society of Pennsylvania, and had for years urged upon 
Congress the importance of establishing such a department as that 
over which he was now called to preside. 

Upon assuming the duties of his office he at once proceeded to organize the Depart- 
ment in accordance with the liberal spirit of the act creating it. * * * The 
clerical force of the former agricultural division was increased; a chemist was 
engaged and a laboratory established ; a skilled horticulturist was placed in charge 
of the propagating or experimental garden; greater activity in the collection and 
dissemination of current agricultural facts was inaugurated, and a larger quantity 
of seeds and cuttings was distributed. * * * A statistical brancji was organized 
early in 1863, and to ib was committed the collection and analysis of all statistics. 
Lewis Bollman, of Indiana, was appointed statistician. To ascertain, at the earliest 
practical period, the condition of the crops, their yield, the prices obtained for them, 
and other facts connected with current agricultural operations, the Commissioner 
issued during 1863 periodical circulars to farmers in every county of the loyal 
States. The results thus obtained were given to the public through the medium of 
monthly reports, which have been continued to the present time, with such modifica- 
tions of their original features as time and experience have seemed to render neces- 
sary. The first monthly report was issued July 10, 1863. The publication in the 
monthly reports of monthly and bimonthly meteorological tables furnished by the 
Smithsonian Institution was commenced at the same time. These tables were repro- 
duced in the ensuing annual report. Up to 1872 the same arrangement concerning 
these tables continued in force, when their further publication was suspended. 

The employment of a skillful gardener was one of the most auspicious incidents of 
the first year of Mr. Newton's administration. He was fortunate in procuring the 
services of William Saunders, who has ever since given to the important duties 
assigned to him an intelligent and conscientious devotion. 

In the second year of Mr. Newton's administration (1863) Townend 
Glover was appointed entomologist. In 1864 the Government reserva- 
tion in the city of Washington lying between the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion and the Washington Monument, and embracing 35 acres, was 
assigned to the Department of Agriculture. For several years this 
land was chiefly used as an experimental farm. The main building now 
occupied by the Department was erected on this farm, being completed 
in 1868. At that time the grounds were converted into a landscape 
garden, comprising a collection of hardy trees and shrubs arranged in 
their natural orders. 

As the progress of agricultural science demanded new divisions of 
the work and the means at the disposal of the Department enabled it 
to widen the range of its efforts, one scientific branch after another was 
added. In 1884 the Bureau of Animal Industry was established to 
investigate and report upon the diseases of domestic animals, especially 
pleuropneumonia, and to devise measures for improving the animal 
industries of the country. The Bureau has since been charged with 



102 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

the inspection of import and export animals and of live stock and their 
products slaughtered for food consumption. On the 11th of February, 
1889, President Cleveland approved the act of Congress to make the 
Department of Agriculture an Executive Department, and nominated 
Norman J. Colman, of Missouri, the last Commissioner of Agriculture, 
to be the first Secretary of Agriculture. With the change of Adminis- 
tration, on March 4 of the same year, Jeremiah M. Busk, of Wisconsin, 
was appointed Secretary of Agriculture by President Harrison, and 
Edwin Willits, president of the Michigan Agricultural College and 
director of the experiment station connected with that institution, 
was appointed Assistant Secretary. During their administration the 
Department was further developed by the addition of the Weather 
Bureau, which had been a branch of the Signal Service of the Army, 
and was, under act of Congress, transferred, on July 1, 1891, to this 
Department. . 

As at present reorganized by Secretaries Husk and Morton, the 
Department of Agriculture has been divided into two grand divisions. 
One division embraces all branches of the Department which are more 
particularly charged with administrative and executive functions, and 
which, for that reason, are conducted under the personal supervision 
of the Secretary. The other division includes those branches which 
are chiefly engaged in investigations in agricultural science, and which 
are in immediate charge of the Assistant Secretary. Under the present 
organization, the Secretary supervises the Weather Bureau, Bureau of 
Animal Industry, Divisions of Statistics, Forestry, Kecords and Edit- 
ing, Accounts, Seeds, Garden and Grounds, Eoad Inquiry, and the 
Library. The Assistant Secretary supervises the Office of Experiment 
Stations, the Divisions of Chemistry, Entomology, Ornithology and 
Mammalogy, Botany, Pomology, Vegetable Pathology, Microscopy, 
Agricultural Soils, Irrigation, Fiber Investigations, and the Museum. 
The duties of the several branches of the Department are briefly 
described in the Appendix. While the administrative and executive 
functions of the Department have been greatly enlarged by recent leg- 
islation, the scientific and practical investigations have been pursued 
with increasing activity, and the results of its work are more widely 
distributed and more highly appreciated than ever before. The growth 
of the Department is strikingly illustrated in the rapid increase in 
the amount of information which it has disseminated during the past 
five years. In 1889 the Department issued 78 publications, in editions 
aggregating 520,537 copies. During the fiscal year ending June 30, 
1894, 205 publications passed through the Division of Becords and 
Editing, all but 6 of which directly issued from this Department. The 
editions of these publications aggregated 3,169,310 copies. 

That this Department has been a mighty factor in the education of 
the farmers of this country probably no one will deny. For our purpose, 



EDUCATION AND EESEARCH IN AGRICULTURE. 103 

however, it is only necessary to observe here that the Department has 
developed very strongly in the direction of original research in behalf 
of agriculture. In considering the history of the experiment stations 
in the States it should never be forgotten that the Department has for 
many years had within itself what is practically a great experiment 
station, and that it is a very important feature in the great system of 
experimental research in agriculture which has been established in this 
country, very largely with the aid of funds drawn from the National 
Treasury. 

THE AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS. 

We have already seen how the idea that experiments with a view to 
improving agricultural practice should be carried on, along with instruc- 
tion in agriculture, had been more or less prominent in the minds of 
leaders in agricultural progress in this country for many years. At 
first it was thought that all that was necessary for this purpose was to 
establish experimental farms on which new varieties of plants or new 
processes of culture of crops could be tested, or practical experiments 
in the feeding or breeding of animals could be conducted. Before the 
middle of this century, however, the investigations of such chemists 
as Liebig, in Germany, and Boussingault, in France, had shown that 
science could be made useful to agriculture as well as to other arts. 
Indeed, Liebig's theory of fertilizers aroused extravagant expectations 
in the popular mind, and it was hoped that chemical analysis of soil 
and plant would be an infallible guide to show what manuring of the 
crop would produce the most abundant harvests. In the period between 
1840 and 1850 Liebig's Familiar Letters on Chemistry were printed in 
cheap form and widely read in this country. In 1843 Lawes and Gil- 
bert began, at Eothamsted, England, that remarkable series of field 
and laboratory experiments which has been continued under the same 
management for half a century. 

"The beginning of the experiment station proper, the organization 
of scientific research with the aid of Government * as a necessary and 
permanent branch of agricultural business, " ? came in 1851, when a 
u company of Saxon farmers joined themselves together in the little 
German village of Moeckern, near the city and under the influence of 
the University of Leipsic, called a chemist to their aid, and with later 
help from Government, organized the first agricultural experiment 
station." As soon as agricultural colleges were established in this 
country experimental investigations in field and laboratory were under- 
taken, but for a number of years these were carried on with small means 
and for the most part by the voluntary labor of professors outside of 
their regular duties as instructors. 

The act to establish and endow an agricultural college passed by the 
legislature of Maryland in 1856 contains the following section: 

Sec. 6. It shall be the duty of the said board of trustees to order and direct to be 
made and instituted on said model farm, annually, a series of experiments upon the 



104 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

cultivation of cereal and other plants adapted to the latitude and climate of the 
State of Maryland, and cause to be carefully noticed upon the records of said insti- 
tution the character of said experiments, the kind of soil upon which they were 
undertaken, the system of cultivation adopted, the state of the atmosphere, and all 
other particulars which may be necessary to a fair and complete understanding of 
the result of said experiments. 

The records of the college show that in 1858, immediately after the 
college was located, and before building began, field experiments with 
corn, oats, and potatoes, " to test the relative value of the different 
manures offered for sale in the cities of Baltimore and Washington," 
were commenced on the college farm. This work continued for two or 
three years, but was interrupted by the financial distress which soon 
affected the whole country and by the disturbed political condition of 
the State and nation. 

In 1870 the president and fellows of Harvard College began to organ- 
ize the school of agriculture and horticulture which had been provided 
for in the will of Mr. Benjamin Bussey, of Eoxbury, Mass. This inter- 
esting document was signed July 30, 1835, and was proved soon after 
the death of the testator, in 1842. It bequeathed half of the income of 
about $300,000 and 200 acres of land in Eoxbury to the president and 
fellows of Harvard College, on condition that they establish on the 
farm "a course of instruction in practical agriculture, in useful and 
ornamental gardening, in botany, and in such other branches of natural 
science as may tend to promote a knowledge of practical agriculture 
and the various arts subservient thereto." Owing to other provisions 
of the will, it was not deemed advisable to begin the formation of the 
Bussey Institution earlier than 1870. In the same year the trustees of 
the Massachusetts Society for Promoting Agriculture granted to the 
corporation of Harvard College a considerable sum "for the support of 
a laboratory and for experiments in agricultural chemistry, to be con- 
ducted on the Bussey estate." The laboratory of the new institution 
was not ready for occupation until the last week in 1871. As soon as 
it was completed, however, agricultural researches were begun by F. 
H. Storer, the professor of agricultural chemistry, and his assistants. 
The first report of this work was presented to a committee of the 
trustees of the Massachusetts Society for Promoting Agriculture, 
December 3, 1871. The experiments consisted of field tests of fertilizers 
upon the farm of the institution, and chemical analyses of commercial 
fertilizers. Other interesting and valuable work was done in the next 
few years, but the great fire in Boston in 1872 and the commercial 
crisis of 1873 combined to cripple the institution financially, and it has 
since been able to make comparatively few original investigations. 

When the College of Agriculture of the University of California was 
organized it was understood that a part of its work would consist of 
experimental inquiries. In 1870 Prof. E. S. Carr, in an address at the 
State Fair, made the following specific allusion : " The University pro- 
poses to furnish the facilities for all needful experiments ) to be the 



EDUCATION AND RESEARCH IN AGRICULTURE. 105 

station where tests can be made of whatever claims attention." A later 
report contains the following statements regarding the development of 
experimental inquiries in agriculture at the University: 

Ex-President Gilman, in his report dated December 1, 1873, alludes to progress in 
this work, as follows : 

' * The University domain is being developed with a view to illustrate the capability 
of the State for special cultures, whether of forests, fruits, or field crops, and the 
most economical methods of production. It will be the station where new plants, 
and processes will be tested and the results made known to the public. * * * 
A fine estate has been provided, well adapted to the establishment of an experiment 
station in agriculture, a botanic garden, an arboretum, etc." 

As is usual in the history of new undertakings, progress at first was slow and 
hesitating. The report for the years 1873-1875, by R. E. C. Stearns, at that time 
secretary of the board of regents, shows that 40 acres were prepared for planting 
with a view to agricultural experiments in 1874, and that during the winter folio w- 
iug there were planted 584 named varieties of tree fruits, 73 of grapevines, and 95 
of various small fruits. * * * 

In 1874 buildings were erected on the grounds set apart for agricultural experi- 
ments, viz: A barn 36 by 44 feet; a tool house 64 by 12 feet; two propagating 
houses, one 64 by 15 feet, the other 30 by 24 feet; a house for hatching fish eggs; 
and in addition to these larger structures a complement of sheds and outbuildings, 
hot beds, and cold frames were provided. Propagation of shrubs and trees from seed* 
obtained abroad, and especially from other arid regions of the world, was first 
undertaken. 

In 1874 E. W. Hilgard was chosen professor of agriculture. [Prof. Hilgardhad. 
previously been engaged for a number of years in conducting an agricultural and 
geological survey in Mississippi, in connection with which chemical examinationa 
of soils, field experiments, and other agricultural investigations had been inciden- 
tally carried on in accordance with a plan inaugurated as early as 1857 and after- 
wards made the basis for the highly successful work of the California Experiment 
Station under his direction.] In the winter of 1875-76 the first field experiments- 
were undertaken to determine the effects of deep culture and of the application of 
various fertilizers. 

In 1875 the laboratory branch of the experiment station work was inaugurated, 
the regents making provision for the expenses thereof for the first two years; and 
at the end of this time the legislature opened the way for the continuation and 
extension of the work by liberal special appropriations from year to year. 

After the fund which had been established by the sale of the land 
scrip donated to Connecticut under the act of Congress of July 2, 1862 r 
had been given to the Sheffield Scientific School of Yale College in 
1863, a professor of agriculture was added to the working force of that 
institution. Samuel W. Johnson, M. A., the successor of Professor 
Norton as professor of theoretical and agricultural chemistry, and 
William H. Brewer, Ph. D., the professor of agriculture, have for 
many years taken an active interest in all work for the promotion of 
agricultural science in Connecticut and elsewhere in the United States. 
Under their direction experimental work for the benefit of agriculture 
was carried on to a limited extent at New Haven more than twenty-five 
years ago,and it is doubtless safe to say that " through the influence 
of the professors and pupils trained in this school, more than to anjr 
other single cause, is due the recognition of the importance of the 

1 A 94 4* 



106 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

establishment of agricultural experiment stations, first in Connecticut 
and subsequently throughout the whole country." Prof. W. O. Atwater, 
the first director of the first regularly organized experiment station in 
this country, received a part of his training in this school. 

The reports of the successful and beneficial work done in the Euro- 
pean experiment stations excited more and more attention on this side 
of the Atlantic, and the more advanced leaders in agricultural progress 
in this country began to ask for the establishment of similar institu- 
tions in the United States. In 1872, at a convention of representatives 
of agricultural colleges held in Washington in response to a call issued 
by th£ United States Qommissionerof Agriculture, the question of the 
establishment of experiment stations was discussed, and the report of a 
committee in favor of such institutions was adopted by the convention. 
On the 17th of December, 1873, at the winter meeting of the State 
board of agriculture, at Meriden, Conn., Professor Johnson, of the 
Sheffield Scientific School, and Professor Atwater, of Wesleyan Univer- 
sity, urged the establishment of an agricultural experiment station 
in that State after the European pattern, A committee was appointed 
to consider the expediency of such a movement, and reported two days 
later that it was their " unanimous opinion that the State of Connecti- 
cut ought to have an experiment station as good as can be found any- 
where, and that the legislature of the State ought to furnish the means 
for its establishment." A permanent committee was then appointed by 
the board to bring this matter to the attention of the public and the 
legislature. This committee held meetings in different parts of the 
State, and the following winter secured the introduction of a bill for 
an experiment station, which, however, was laid over until the next 
session of the legislature. Another year of agitation of the matter 
ensued* The project had many warm and enthusiastic friends, but, as 
might have been expected, the great mass of the farmers took little 
interest in the enterprise. When it had become apparent that it could 
not succeed, Mr. Orange Judd, the editor and proprietor of the Ameri- 
can Agriculturist, offered on his own part $1,000 to begin the under- 
taking, and on the part of the trustees of Wesleyan University, at 
Middletown^ the free use of the chemical laboratory in the Orange Judd 
Hall of Katural Science. 

These offers were made on condition that the legislature should 
appropriate $2,800 per annum for two years for the work of the station 
It was thought that if by these means the work of agricultural experi- 
mentation could actually be begun, the usefulness -of the enterprise 
would be so clearly demonstrated that it would speedily receive more 
generous and permanent support. An act making the appropriation 
thus proposed was unanimously passed, and approved July 2, 1875. 
Early in October of the same year a chemist was on the ground, and as 
soon as practicable two assistants were secured. Professor Atwater 
was made director, mid thus the first agricultural experiment station 



EDUCATION AND RESEARCH IN AGRICULTURE 107 

in America was an accomplished fact. -Notwithstanding the severe 
financial depression of 1877, which caused serious reduction in old 
appropriations and utter refusal of new ones by the legislature of that 
year, a bill prepared by the director of the station and making a per- 
manent annual appropriation of $5,000 "to promote agriculture by 
scientific investigation and experiment'^ was passed unanimously. At ' 
the end of the two years provided for in the original bill the station 
was reorganized under the direct control of the State and permanently 
located in £Tew Haven where it has since been in successful operation, 
until 1882 in the chemical laboratory of the Sheffield Scientific School, 
and thereafter in buildings and on grounds provided by the State in 
the suburbs of the city, 

The success which attended this first attempt to establish an organized 
experiment station in the United States was sufficient to attract the 
attention of advanced agriculturists throughout the country, and the 
example set by Connecticut was soon followed in other States. March 
12, 1877, the State of North Carolina established an agricultural 
experiment and fertilizer control station at Chapel Hill in connection 
with the State University in accordance with an act of the legislature 
creating a Department of Agriculture, Immigration, and Statistics. 
The Cornell University experiment station was organized in February, 
1879, by the faculty of agriculture of the university, as a voluntary 
organization. From that time until the x>assage of the act of Congress 
of March 2, 1887, the work was carried on by the different professors 
in such time as could be spared from other studies. For a part of that 
time the trustees of the university appropriated money from the uni- 
versity funds to pay for the services of an analyst and for the pur- 
chase of supplies. All the other work was done without compensation. 

The New Jersey State station at New Brunswick, N. J., was estab- 
lished March 18, 1880, by an act of the State legislature and connected 
with the scientific school of Eutgers College. 

The movement grew in favor with the people with each succeeding 
year, and in 1880 the Committee on Agriculture in reporting the Hatch 
bill to the House was able to make the following statements: 

Since 1881 the legislatures of several States hare either recognized or reorgan- 
ized the departments of agriculture in the land-grant colleges as " experiment 
stations," thus following substantially the course adopted by New Jersey. Such 
stations havo been established in Maine, Massachusetts, Ohio, Tennessee, and Wis- 
consin. In three other States (possibly more), without legislative action, the col- 
lego authorities have organized their agricultural work as experiment stations. 
This has been done in California, Missouri, and New York. But in addition to the 
twelve experiment stations specifically designated by that name a very large num- 
ber of tho colleges established under the act o£ 1862 are doing important work of a 
precisely similar kind. Many of them began such work immediately upon their 
establishment, and have since maintained it continuously ; others have entered upon 
it more recently. The colleges in Colorado, Indiana, Kansas, Michigan, and Penn- 
sylvania are carrying on what is strictly experiment-station work as a part of their 
ordinary duty. 



108 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

The convention of delegates of agricultural colleges which met at 
Washington in 1883 discussed and indorsed the project for the estab- 
lishment of stations in connection with the colleges by appropriations 
from the national Treasury, in accordance with the terms of a bill 
already introduced in the House of Representatives by O. 0. Carpen- 
ter, of Iowa. Congress, however, was not yet quite ready to undertake 
so large a scientific enterprise in this direction, and the bill was not 
put upon its passage. Meanwhile the number of stations was steadily 
increasing, and the interest of practical farmers, as well as men of 
science, was more and more excited by the reports of the results of the 
experiments which the stations had completed. On July 8, 1885, a 
convention of agricultural colleges and experiment stations met at the 
Department of Agriculture at Washington, in response to a call issued 
by the Commissioner of Agriculture. Almost the first thing which this 
convention did was to pass a resolution "that the condition and prog- 
ress of American agriculture require national aid for investigation and 
experimentation in the several States and Territories; and that there- 
fore this convention approves the principle and general provisions of 
what is known as the Cullen bill of the last Congress, and urges upon 
the next Congress the passage of this or a similar act." (The Cullen 
bill was in its general provisions similar to the bill afterwards passed 
by Congress and now popularly known as the Hatch act.) So earnest 
was the convention in this matter that it appointed a committee on 
legislation, which was very efficient in securing the passage of the 
amended bill. 

In a later session the convention passed resolutions urging the crea- 
tion of a branch of the Department of Agriculture at Washington 
which should be a special medium of intercommunication and exchange 
between the colleges and stations, and which should publish a periodi- 
cal bulletin of agricultural progress, containing in a popular form the 
latest results in the progress of agricultural education, investigation, 
and experimentation in this and in all other countries. Provision was 
also made for a permanent organization by the appointment of a com- 
mittee to cooperate with the United States" Commissioner of Agricul- 
ture in determining the time of meeting and the business of the next 
convention, and in forming a plan for a permanent organization. 

At the next session of Congress the experiment- station enterprise 
was again called to the attention of the House of Eepresentatives by 
the bill which was introduced by William H. Hatch, of Missouri, and 
referred to the Committee on Agriculture. This committee made a 
favorable report March 3, 1886, and nearly a year later the bill was 
passed by Congress, and was approved by President Cleveland March 
2, 1887. 

The Hatch act provides that $15,000 a year shall be given out of 
the funds proceeding from the sale of public lands to each State and 
Territory for the establishment of an agricultural experiment station, 



EDUCATION AND RESEARCH IN AGRICULTURE. 109 

which must be a department of the land-grant college, except in the 
case of those States which had established experiment stations as 
separate institutions prior to the passage of the act. 
The duties of the stations are thus defined: 

Sec. 2. That it shall he the object and duty of said experiment stations to con- 
duct original researches or verify experiments on the physiology of plants and 
animals; the diseases to which they are severally subject, with the remedies for the 
same ; the chemical composition of useful plants at their different stages of growth ; 
the comparative advantages of rotative cropping as pursued under a varying series 
of crops; the capacity of new plants or trees for acclimation; the analysis of soils 
and water; the chemical composition of manures, natural or artificial, with experi- 
ments designed to test their comparative effects on crops of different kinds; the 
adaptation and value of grasses and forage plants ; the composition and digestibility 
of the different kinds of food for domestic animals; the scientific and economic 
questions involved in the production of butter and cheese; and such other researches 
or experiments bearing directly on the agricultural industry of the United States 
as may in each case be deemed advisable, having due regard to the varying condi- 
tions and needs of the respective States or Territories. 

In order that the funds from the national Treasury might be for the 
most part devoted to agricultural investigations, only $3,000 of the first 
year's appropriation for each station was to be expended for buildings, 
and thereafter only $750 a year could be so expeuded. 

That the farmers of the country may receive prompt information 
regarding the work of the stations, it is provided that in addition to 
"full and detailed 77 annual reports of their operations and expendi- 
tures, "bulletins or reports of progress shall be published at said 
stations at least once in three months, one copy of which shall be sent 
to each newspaper in the States or Territories in which they are 
respectively located, and to such individuals actually engaged in farm- 
ing as may request the same and as far as the means of the station will 
permit. 77 The franking privilege is also given for the station publica- 
tions. Financial and other reports of the stations are to be sent to the 
Secretaries of Agriculture and the Treasury, but no provision is made 
for auditing the accounts by officers of the United States or for any 
supervision of their work by the Federal authorities. It is, however, 
made the duty of the Secretary of Agriculture "to furnish forms, as 
far as practicable, for the tabulation of results of investigation or 
experiments $ to indicate, from time to time, such lines of inquiry as to 
him shall seem most important; and, in general, to furnish such advice 
and assistance as will best promote the purpose of this act. 77 In the 
appropriation act for the Department of Agriculture for the present 
fiscal year it is provided that "the Secretary of Agriculture shall 
prescribe the form of the annual financial statement required by 
section 3 of the said act of March 2, 1887 5 shall ascertain whether the 
expenditures under the appropriation hereby made are in accordance 
with the provisions of the said act, and shall make report thereon to 
Congress. 77 



110 YEARBOOK OP THE U, S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 
ESTABLISHMENT OF THE OFFICE OF EXPERIMENT STATIONS. 

On the 18th of October, 1887, the second convention of agricultural 
colleges and experiment stations convened at Washington. A perma- 
nent organization was effected, and the association was named- "The 
Association of American Agricultural Colleges and Experiment Sta- 
tions." George W. Atherton, LL. D., president of the Pennsylvania 
State College, was elected president of the association. This conven- 
tion was deeply interested in securing the coordination of the work of 
the several stations, and indorsed the action of previous conventions 
in urging the establishment of a central bureau. As the result of the 
efforts of this association, an appropriation to enable the Commissioner 
of Agriculture to carry out the provisions of section 3 of the act estab- 
lishing the stations was included in the annual appropriation bill for 
the Department of Agriculture for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1889, 
and the Commissioner of Agriculture instituted in October, 1888, an 
Office of Experiment Stations as a special branch of the Department of 
Agriculture. 

Prof. W. O. Atwater was appointed director of the office, and contin- 
ued in this position until July 1, 1891, when he was succeeded by Prof. 
A. W. Harris, who had been assistant director, and who resigned in 
1893 to become president of Maine State College. 

THE SECOND MORRILL ACT. 

As the organization of the land-grant colleges proceeded and the 
system of technical education in agriculture and other industries was 
elaborated it seemed to Mr. Morrill and other friends of industrial edu- 
cation that the income derived from the land-grant funds, even when 
supplemented by liberal contributions from the States and other sources, 
was inadequate to the demands of modern collegiate instruction in such 
lines. Mr. Morrill, therefore began to formulate plans to secure addi- 
tional aid foi these institutions from the national Treasury. Mean- 
while the subject of Federal aid to the common schools throughout the 
Union was agitated, mainly through the debate which went on for years 
in Congress and in the country over the propositions of Mr. Blair, of 
Kew Hampshire, to extend such aid on the basis of the "relative illiter- 
acy in the several States. When it became evident that a general 
measure of this kind would not receive the sanction of Congress, Mr. 
Morrill introduced a bill to provide for the further endowment of the 
land-grant colleges, and this was passed and received the approval of 
President Harrison August 30, 1890. The second Morrill act provides 
that there shall be annually appropriated to each State and Territory, 
' out of the funds arising from the sale ot public lands, for the more com- 
plete endowment and maintenance of colleges for the benefit of agri- 
culture and the mechanic arts established under the act of 1862, the 
sum of $15,000 for the year ending June 30, 1890, and an annual 



EDUCATION AND RESEARCH IN AGRICULTURE. lit 

increase of the amount of sucli appropriation for ten years thereafter 
by an additional sum of $1,000 over the preceding year, and that then 
the amount shall continue at $25,000. This money can be applied "only 
to instruction in agriculture, the mechanic arts, the English language, 
and the various branches of mathematical, physical, natural, and 
economic science, with special reference to their applications in the 
industries of life, and to the facilities for such instruction.' 7 Provision 
is made for separate institutions for white and colored students in such 
States as may desire to make such an arrangement. The Secretary of 
the Interior is charged with the administration of the law, and is given 
authority to withhold the appropriation to any State or Territory for 
cause, subject to an appeal to Congress. 



PRESENT STATUS OF AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION AND INVES- 
TIGATION IN THE UNITED STATES. 

Having briefly described the origin of different agencies for the edu- 
cation of the farmer and the improvement of his art, it remains to out- 
line the system for agricultural education and research as it now exists 
in this country. In doing this it will be necessary to exclude those 
general educational agencies, such as newspapers, State and local 
societies, farmers' institutes, and the State departments of agriculture, 
which to a greater extent than ever before are disseminating valuable 
information and stimulating or conducting inquiries for the benefit of 
agriculture. No further reference seems to be needed here to the United 
States Department of Agriculture except what is said below regarding 
the Office of Experiment Stations in its relations to the agricultural 
experiment stations in the different States. 

COLLEGES HAVING COURSES IK AGRICULTURE. 

Under the provisions of the acts of Congress of July 2, 1862, and 
August 30, 1890, 65 institutions are in operation in the several States and 
Territories. Of these, about 60 institutions maintain courses in agricul- 
ture. In 14 States separate institutions are maintained for white and 
colored students. The organization of these institutions is so varied that 
an exact classification of them is impracticable. In a general way, how- 
ever, they may be classified as follows: (1) Universities having colleges 
or departments of agriculture ; (2) colleges of agriculture and mechanic 
arts; (3) colleges of agriculture; and (4) secondary schools of agricul- 
ture. In these institutions the college course in agriculture leading to 
a degree covers four or in some cases three years, and in a number 
of institutions is supplemented by post-graduate courses. Shorter 
courses of one or two years or of a few months are also provided in 
many institutions. Special courses in dairying and in other agricultural 
industries have been recently established at a few of the colleges. 



112 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

Some institutions have preparatory classes in which instruction in 
agricultural subjects is given. An attempt is being made to establish 
courses of home readings for farmers under the direction of the col- 
leges, the Pennsylvania State College being the first institution to 
introduce this feature. In a number of States courses of lectures in 
farmers' institutes held in different localities are given by members of 
college faculties during the winter months. 

The total number of officers in the faculties of the colleges having 
courses in agriculture in 1894 is 1,643, and the total number of students 
is 21,195, of whom 3,847 are in the courses in agriculture. The graduates 
from the courses in agriculture in 1894 numbered 229, and the total 
number of graduates in those courses since the establishment of the 
colleges is 3 7 003. 

The total revenue for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1894, was 
$4,458,014, from the following sources: United States — Income of land 
grant of 1862, $618,273; appropriation under act of Congress of 1890, 
$943,837; total, $1,562,110; State, $1,337,928; local communities and 
individuals, $195,914; fees, $357,759; farm produce, $114,167; miscel- 
laneous, $687,067. 

The value of additions to equipment in 1894 is estimated as follows : 
Buildings and land, $998,632; libraries, $72,874; apparatus, $229,499; 
farm implements, $26,346; live stock, $10,857; miscellaneous, $77,284; 
total, $1,415,495. 

Owing to the complicated organization of many of these institutions 
and the fact that the students in agricultural courses are in many sub- 
jects in classes with students in other courses, and that much of the 
equipment is used in common by the students in all the courses, it is 
impracticable to show by statistics with exactness the means and facili- 
ties for strictly agricultural education. 

The following general statements regarding these institutions are 
from the report of the director of the Office of Experiment Stations 
for 1893: 

The reports received from the colleges during the past two years indicate that 
while the facilities for instruction in agricultural courses have heen increased as the 
result of the act of Congress of 1890, the number of students in the regular college 
courses in agriculture still continues to be relatively small in many institutions. 
On the other hand, the short courses are increasingly popular, and wherever special 
courses, as in dairying, have been established they have been well attended. The 
success of the schools of agriculture having a curriculum of lower grade than that 
of the college, in Minnesota, Rhode Island, and Connecticut, is evidence that there 
is a demand for institutions which will receive students directly from the common 
schools and give them training in agricultural subjects along with those ordinarily 
taught in high schools. Experience in agricultural education in this country during 
the past thirty years shows that colleges of agriculture are mainly for those who 
have the means and the leisure to gain that liberal education which will fit them to 
be investigators, teachers, journalists, and managers of large agricultural enter- 
prises. In a word, the colleges are principally useful in training the leaders in 
agricultural progress. This is a high duty, and its successful performance should 
entitle an institution to the gratitude and support of the people. But there is need 



EDUCATION AND RESEARCH IN AGRICULTURE. 113 

that the masses of our agricultural population should have more ample opportunities 
for education in agricultural lines. 

The experiment stations, through their hulletins and reports, are doing much to 
educate the adult farmer. The colleges also are doing more each year in what may 
he called university-extension work through farmers' institutes. As the demand 
for instruction in agriculture increases the colleges will undoubtedly shape their 
courses to meet the needs of the farmers as far as this is practicable. We shall then 
have experiment stations, college courses in agriculture, schools of agriculture, 
special schools in dairying, animal production, etc., farmers 7 institutes, and home 
readings as the complete system of education for the farmer, carried on under the 
auspices of the university or college. ' 

AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS. 

Agricultural experiment stations are now in operation under the act 
of Congress of March 2, 1887, in all the States and Territories. Alaska 
is the only section of the United States which has no experiment sta- 
tion. In each of the States of Alabama, Connecticut, Massachusetts, 
New Jersey, and New York a separate station is maintained wholly or 
in part by State funds, and in Louisiana a station for sugar experi- 
ments is maintained mainly by funds contributed by sugar planters. 
In several States substations have been established. Excluding the 
branch stations, the total % number of stations in the United States 
is 55. Of these 51 receive the appropriation provided for in the act 
of Congress above mentioned. The total income of the stations 
during 1894 was $996,157, of which $719,830 was received from the 
National Government, the remainder coming from State governments, 
private individuals, fees for analyses of fertilizers, sales of farm prod- 
ucts, and other sources. In addition to this, the Office of Experiment 
Stations has an appropriation of $25,000 for the current fiscal year. 
The value of additions to equipment in 1894 is estimated as follows : 
Buildings, $43,822; libraries, $9,286; apparatus, $22,711; farm imple- 
ments, $15,824; live stock, $13,373; miscellaneous, $31,382; total, 
$136,901. 

The stations employ 577 persons in the work of administration and 
inquiry. The number of officers engaged in the different lines of work 
is as follows: Directors, 67; secretaries and treasurers, 26; librarians, 8; 
clerks, 27; in charge of substations, 40; agriculturists, 55; biologists, 
11; botanists, 36; chemists, 124; entomologists, 43; geologists, 5; hor- 
ticulturists, 61; irrigation engineers, 7; meteorologists, 15; mycologists 
and bacteriologists, 7; physicists, 3; veterinarians, 24; dairymen, 11; 
farm foremen, 25. There are also 28 persons classified under the head 
of u miscellaneous," including superintendents of gardens, grounds, 
and buildings, apiarists, herdsmen, etc. 

In 1894, 54 annual reports and 401 bulletins were issued. Besides 
regular reports and bulletins, a number of the stations issue press bul- 
letins, which are widely reproduced in agricultural and county papers. 
The station bulletins are now regularly distributed to half a million 



114 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

persons, who are either farmers or closely identified with the agricul- 
tural industry. Moreover, accounts of station work are given and dis- 
cussed in thousands of newspapers. The New York Cornell Station 
alone estimated some time ago that each one of its publications directly 
or indirectly reached more than half a million readers. Besides this, 
a very large correspondence with farmers is carried on, hundreds of 
public addresses are annually made by station officers before farmers 7 
meetings, and the results of station work are taught to thousands of 
students in agricultural colleges. 

The experiment stations are conducting a wide range of scientific 
research in the laboratory and plant house and an equally large amount 
of practical experimenting in the field, the orchard, the stable, and the 
dairy. Thirty stations are studying problems relating to meteorology 
and climatic conditions. Forty-three stations are at work upon the 
soil, investigating its geology, physics, or chemistry, or conducting 
soil tests with fertilizers or in other ways. Twenty stations are study- 
ing questions relating to drainage or irrigation. Thirty-nine stations 
are making analyses of commercial and homemade fertilizers, or are 
conducting field experiments with fertilizers. At least fifteen stations 
either exercise a fertilizer control in their respective States or make 
analyses on which the control is based. ForCy-eight stations are study- 
ing the more important crops, either with regard to their composition, 
nutritive value, methods of manuring and cultivation, and the best 
varieties adapted to individual localities, or with reference to systems 
of rotation. Thirty-five stations are investigating the composition of 
feeding stuffs, and in some instances making digestion experiments. 
Twenty-five stations are dealing with questions relating to silos and 
silage. Thirty-seven stations are conducting feeding experiments for 
milk, beef, mutton, or pork, or are studying different methods of feed- 
ing. Thirty-two stations are investigating subjects relating to dairying, 
including the chemistry and bacteria of milk, creaming, butter making, 
or the construction and management of creameries. Forty- five stations 
are studying methods of analysis and doing other chemical work. 
Botanical studies occupy more or less of the attention of twenty-seven 
stations; these include investigations in systematic and physiological 
botany, with especial reference to the diseases of plants, testing of seeds 
with reference to their vitality and purity, classification of weeds and 
methods for their eradication. Forty-three stations work to a greater 
or less extent in horticulture, testing varieties of vegetables and 
large and small fruits, and making studies in varietal improvement 
and synonymy. Several stations have begun operations in forestry. 
Thirty-one stations investigate injurious insects with a view to their 
restriction or destruction. Sixteen stations study and treat animal 
diseases or perform such operations as dehorning of animals. At least, 
seven stations are engaged in bee culture, and three in experiments 
with poultry. 



EDUCATION AND RESEARCH IN AGRICULTURE. 115 

In general the work of the agricultural experiment stations, as 
organized in this country, may be classified as follows: (1) They act as 
bureaus of information on many questions of practical interest to the 
farmers of their several localities; (2) they seek by practical tests to 
devise better methods of agriculture and to introduce new crops and 
live stock, or to establish new agricultural industries; (3) they aid the 
farmer in his contest with insects and with diseases of his crops and 
live stock; (4) they help to defend the farmer against fraud in the sale 
of fertilizers, seeds, and feeding stuffs; (5) they investigate the opera- 
tions of nature in the air, water, soil, plants, and animals in order to 
find out the principles which can be applied to the betterment of the 
processes and products of agriculture. 

OFFICE OF EXPERIMENT STATIONS. 

As already stated above, the Office of Experiment Stations was estab- 
lished in the United States Department of Agriculture to render such 
advice and assistance to the stations as would best promote the objects 
for which they were established. Its main business has been the exam- 
ination of the work of agricultural experiment stations in this and other 
countries and the collation and publication of data regarding experi- 
mental inquiries in agriculture for the information of station workers, 
farmers, and others interested in the progress of the science and art of 
agriculture. There are now some 320 experiment stations in operation 
in the different countries of the world. Besides the publications which 
these stations issue, very many reports of agricultural inquiries at these 
and other institutions are published in current periodicals. As far as 
practicable this office seeks to traverse this large mass of literature and 
to cull from it such information as will enable our station workers to 
keep posted regarding the progress of agricultural science, and will 
promptly bring to our farmers the practical outcome of these investi- 
gations in the different countries. 

Up to January 1, 1895, the office had issued 135 documents, including 
5 volumes of the Experiment Station Eecord, 20 bulletins, and 9 Farm- 
ers' Bulletins. 

The Experiment Station Eecord is issued in monthly parts, and con- 
tains abstracts of current publications of all the»American stations, of 
the several divisions of the United States Department of Agriculture, 
and of reports of foreign investigations in agricultural science. Gen- 
eral information is also given regarding the stations and kindred insti- 
tutions in this and other countries, and suggestions regarding methods 
and lines of investigation which may usefully be followed by our sta- 
tions are made in articles by the editors and by distinguished experts 
in the different specialties at home and abroad. A detailed subject and 
author index is published with each volume. As the condensed form 
of the Kecord makes its language necessarily somewhat technical, it is 
distributed only to such persons and institutions as make a special 



116 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OP AGRICULTURE. 

request for it after examination of a sample copy. The fifth volume of 
the Experiment Station Eecord comprises 1,227 pages, and contains 
abstracts of 267 bulletins and 43 annual reports of 55 experiment sta- 
tions in the United States and 67 publications of the Department of 
Agriculture. The total number of pages in these publications is 17,161. 
There are also 227 abstracts of reports of foreign investigations. The 
total number of titles abstracted is 973, classified as follows: 



Seeds 16 

Weeds 8 

Diseases of plants 66 

Entomology 74 

Foods and animal production 119 

Veterinary science 18 

Dairying 89 

Agricultural engineering 18 

Technology 4 

Statistics 69 



Chemistry 46 

Botany 42 

Bacteriology 4 

Zoology 6 

Mineralogy 1 

Meteorology 36 

Water and soils 36 

Fertilizers 72 

Field crops 155 

Horticulture 84 

Forestry 10 

Classified lists of titles of foreign articles not abstracted are also 
given in each number. The aggregate number of titles thus reported 
is 1,514. Special articles contributed by eminent foreign workers in 
agricultural science were translated in the office and published in the 
Eecord. A notable feature of the fifth volume of the Eecord is a review 
of recent work in dairying, prepared by Dr. E. W. Allen, assistant 
director, which serves to show how large and important a feature of 
experiment- station work investigations on dairying are. 

In connection with the exhibit of the experiment stations at the 
World's Columbian Exposition the office prepared a Handbook of 
Experiment Station Work, which contains a resume of the publications 
of the stations during nearly twenty years. 

The office is also engaged in the preparation of a card index of experi- 
ment-station literature, which is freely distributed to the agricultural 
colleges and experiment stations, and is sold to a limited number of sub- 
scribers, the price covering the expense of printing the cards. Other 
indexes of the literature of agricultural science are prepared in the 
office for use in its work. So far as practicable, these indexes will be 
made available to station workers and other investigators. 

Schedules for the financial reports of stations, as now required by 
Congress, are prepared in this office, and the office will also make an 
examination of the work of the stations as the basis of the report of 
the Secretary of Agriculture to Congress regarding the expenditures 
and work of the stations. 

Congress having recently given the Department an appropriation for 
investigations on the nutritive value of human food, the supervision of 
this work has been assigned to this office, and the investigations will be 
carried on in cooperation with the agricultural colleges and experiment 
stations. 



WHAT METEOROLOGY IS DOING FOR THE FARMER. 

By Mark W. Harrington, 
Chief of Weather Bureau, U. S. Department of Agriculture, 

Early in 1891, in view of the impending transfer of the meteorolog- 
ical work of the Government from the Signal Service to the newly cre- 
ated Weather Bureau, and without any suspicion that he would be 
called on to carry out his own suggestions, the writer published in the 
American Meteorological Journal a programme of improvements and 
expansions in the work. These were made with especial reference to 
the needs of farmers, and related to the following points : The improve- 
ment of the forecasts — their more complete distribution, especially to 
the farming communities^ the general dissemination of information 
about the Weather Bureau — its objects and methods, what could or could 
not be properly expected of it; the compilation and publication of the 
climatic data of the United States, especially the data of use in the prac- 
tical pursuit or study of agriculture — x>ermitted by the accumulation of 
twenty or twenty-five years of observations of uniform character; the 
study of the scientific theory of meteorology with especial reference to 
the improvement of its practical application. 

IMPROVEMENT OF FORECASTS. 

That there has been an improvement in the forecasts is best shown 
by the increased popular approval indicated by the comments made on 
the Bureau by the press, by office correspondence, and by the increas- 
ing list of actual services performed in the cases of great storms. This 
is the result of several changes introduced into the administration of 
the Bureau. In the first place, there were only four expert forecasters 
in the Weather Bureau at the time of the transfer (July 1, 1891). There 
are now perhaps forty good ones, and of these there are from half a 
dozen to a dozen who are of very high grade. This has been accom- 
plished by putting all of certain grades of employees, and every other 
employee who wished it, through a rigid course of practice forecast work 
at the central office, by making promotions depend on competitive tests 
in forecasts, and by recognizing by promotion cases of especial success 
in this work. The last two ideas were introduced by the present Sec- 
retary of Agriculture and have had great influence in fixing attention 
on forecasting as the chief duty intrusted by law to the Weather Bureau, 
and in increasing at nearly every station in the service the watchful- 
ness and alertness of employees. Furthermore, the forecasters were 

117 



118 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

given more freedom in the verbal expression of their forecasts, thus 
releasing them from the hard and fast lines in which the former methods 
of verification had bound them, and enabling them to express their 
forecasts for the benefit of the public rather than for the benefit of 
their official records. The time predicted for has been extended, mak- 
ing it for the next day in each of the bidaily forecasts published, thus 
covering thirty-six hours instead of twenty-four. Moreover, careful 
and systematic studies are now pursued in the Forecast Division, the 
purpose of which is exclusively the improved usefulness of the weather 
map in weather prediction. Mechanical improvements to increase speed 
and accuracy in making the weather maps have been adopted, and all 
new devices which promise improvement in this direction are carefully 
tested with reference to their adoption. 

THE DISTRIBUTION OF WARNINGS. 

The distribution of warnings has been improved, but there is yet 
room for enormous expansion. The problem really involved is to place 
the bidaily forecast before each citizen who wishes it, and this may 
include very great numbers who are not within timely reach of the 
daily papers. For this purpose both visible and audible signals are 
used, and bulletins are posted at public places. The chief difficulty 
lies in transmitting the'forecasts to isolated points in time to be of serv- 
ice. This has been much aided by gentlemen of great public spirit, 
often postmasters and editors, who, by means of an ingenious series of 
rubber stamps, rapidly duplicate the forecasts they receive and make 
local centers of distribution for outlying points, and this at an insig- 
nificant expense to the Government. The practice of urgency warn- 
ings has been very much increased and put on such a footing that any 
thickly populated district or frequented coast may be promptly and 
fully warned of the approach of disastrous meteorological changes. 
The problem of reaching, effectively and in time, the more sparsely 
settled districts is still unsolved. For instance, how can we tell the 
isolated overseers of cattle ranges in Wyoming of the approach of a 
blizzard? A scheme for the use of rockets has been saggested, but it 
does not fully meet the requirements. 

DISSEMINATION OF INFORMATION REGARDING THE WORK OF THE 

WEATHER BUREAU. 

For the dissemination of information concerning the work of the 
Bureau there has been employed every agency that presented itself— 
newspaper articles, lectures, public expositions, the most broad and 
general distribution practicable of the weather map, the encouragement 
of its use in schools, etc. The development of interest is especially 
noteworthy in the schools, where the daily interpretation of the weather 
map is becoming common. The annual issue of the weather map is 



WHAT METEOROLOGY IS DOING FOE THE FARMER, 119 

about 3,000,000, and this is nearly the fall capacity of our present appli- 
ances; but this number would be doubled were we able to honor all the 
demands made on us for this characteristic publication, forming as it 
does the basis of our work and the chief means of our usefulness. 

THE COMPILATION OF CLIMATIC DATA. 

Though a knowledge of the climatic character of a region is one of 
the most important elements in estimating its agricultural capacity and 
possibilities, the compilation of the climatic data has gone on very 
slowly and with infinite difficulty. The number of observations 
involved is so enormous, the necessity for accuracy so increases the 
amount of work, and after the compilation the reduction of the results 
into a lucid form, capable of easy reference, is itself so slow a process, 
and such work seems so suitable to be displaced by other work more 
urgent but less important, that progress is very slow. Nevertheless, in 
Bulletin O of the Bureau there is presented the compilation of the data 
relating to rainfall, and wt>rk is progressing on the compilation of the 
statistics of humidity. To indicate the quantity of work involved ifc 
may bo stated that the humidity compilation is estimated to require the 
copying out of 60,000,000 figures now scattered through the records 
of twenty-five years, and that after copying they must be verified, 
arranged, reduced, and averaged, five distinct operations on this mass 
of figures. When the humidity compilation is completed it is proposed 
to take up the temperatures, and with that the three elements most 
important to enlightened agriculture (viz, rainfall, humidity, and tem- 
perature) will be completed. 

THE SCIENTIFIC THEORY OF METEOROLOGY. 

Real, permanent, and marked progress in any art depends on the; 
knowledge of the principles involved, and in such an art as weather 
forecasting this knowledge can be obtained only by scientific methods. 
The relations of terrestrial magnetism to weather changes have long 
been thought to be intimate, and competent students have from time 
to time made brief studies of them. The prolonged study of them by 
a very competent member of our force will soon enable us to tell just 
how intimate are the relations in question. Again, the soil presents 
meteorological relations of great interest. The Weather Bureau follows 
the precipitation to the soil and might go farther and study its distri- 
bution in the soil. The study itself, however, leads to certain physical 
and chemical developments which go somewhat far afield from meteoro- 
logical methods, so that the soil subdivision of this Bureau is about to 
become an independent division of the Department. The relations of 
climate to crops and those of the stages of the seasons to the stages of 
plant life have received a good deal of attention, though in a somewhat 
desultory way. 



120 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

The details of the phenomena occurring when the vapor in the air 
condenses to form raindrops, snowflakes, hailstones, or cloud elements 
are very imperfectly known, though of great importance in meteoro- 
logical theory. We have published the results of one series of brilliant 
researches on this subject, and another is now (February, 1895) going 
through the press. They afford indications of some, in part, unexpected 
but very important laws which are involved. 

Meteorological theory is turning more and more toward the idea that 
further material progress in the science depends on a more exact 
knowledge of what occurs in the higher air. This can be investigated 
by mountain observations and by balloons or other methods of reaching 
the free air. Nearly all government meteorological services have, 
therefore, one or more mountain stations, and even so low an elevation 
as the top of the Eiffel Tower (1,000 feet) in Paris has proved to be of 
considerable value. The Weather Bureau reestablished the station on 
the top of Pikes Peak, but was able to continue it for only two years, 
when it was discontinued, and the observations now await discussion. 

PRESENT AND PROPOSED LINES OF WORK. 

The work of forecasting floods is intrusted to the Bureau by the 
statute which organized it. This duty was first intrusted to one official, 
not a regular forecaster, but later was deputed to the Forecast Division, 
and finally also to individual forecasters and observers along the rivers 
in question. The science has now reached a point where it needs 
more detailed and precise information about the individual river basins, 
their contours and slopes, the possible backwaters of the rivers, their 
capacity at various stages, the more or less permanent bodies of snow 
which form their sources, the relation in time and height between quan- 
tity of rainfall in the basin and the stage of the stream, etc. These 
matters, so far as the data are collected by the Bureau, are now to be 
collated, systematized, and printed, when the path for further advance 
will become more clear. 

Latterly, at the instigation of the Secretary of Agriculture, the col- 
lection of climatic data for the use of sanitarians has been undertaken. 
This appears to open up a broad field of usefulness. 

The systematic study of clouds on new and revised principles has 
been undertaken by all government meteorological services in concert, 
and the Weather Bureau will undoubtedly take its share of the work 
involved. 

Finally, the problem of forecasts for seasons is receiving continued 
attention from meteorologists, and recent developments indicate that 
hope of success in that direction is not so quixotic as it would have 
appeared five or ten years ago. It is quite possible, in the light of our 
present knowledge, that such forecasts, of sufficient accuracy to be of 
use, can be made before many years have passed. 



THE VALUE OF FORECASTS. 

By H. H. C. Dunwoody, 
Assigned as Assistant Chief, Weather Bureau, U. S. Department of Agriculture. 

DIVERSIFIED INTERESTS AFFECTED BY FORECASTS. 

It is the object iii the following pages to set forth as briefly as possi- 
ble the diversified interests affected directly by the forecasts, and to 
give some approximate values of the benefits accruing from judicious 
use of the same. The task is not an easy one, because the interests 
"indirectly" benefited may often exceed in number and commercial 
importance the interests " directly" affected. Again, as a general 
thing, a severe atmospheric disturbance affects an area greater than 
that occupied by any one community or interest, and the returns from 
one or two communities for any one storm may not fully represent the 
benefits received. Again, of the smaller storms, it may happen that 
several prevail at nearly the same time. In such cases losses in out- 
lying districts may escape record. Thus, on February 9, 1894, no less 
than 60 tornadoes were reported in various parts of the United States, 
including Mississippi, Tennessee, Kentucky, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, 
Virginia, $brth Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia. It is estimated 
that on that day some 10,000 buildings were destroyed and 2,500 people 
injured. This estimate, however, is but an approximate one, for there 
undoubtedly occurred great losses in localities distant from centers of 
communication which in the general havoc and distress might easily 
pass without notice. 

INTERESTS DIRECTLY BENEFITED BY FORECASTS. 

Mention will first be made of some of the many interests benefited 
directly by forecasts, of both the ordinary and emergency character. 
After these will be given instances of great savings by special warn- 
ings, then statistics of the value of cold- wave and frost warnings, and 
finally extracts from the annual reports of various stations giving 
instances of special benefits noted during the year. The value of the 
forecast in agriculture is self-evident, and at times of harvest, when the 
labors of the year may be wasted in a day, the importance of the fore- 
cast is strikingly noticeable. The general questions of crop yield in 

121 



122 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

their relation to rainfall, temperature, etc., are treated elsewhere by 
themselves and may be passed over here. 

Bankers and brokers appreciate and watch closely the forecasts. 
Obviously whatever affects crops, commerce, or business industry affects 
them. Commission merchants and shippers of produce of a perishable 
character find the forecasts of the greatest assistance. In February, 
1894, a responsible officer of one of the large beef-shipping companies 
stated that the forecasts were of the greatest help in locating and facili- 
tating the running of beef cars between cities. The cars are regulated 
by the forecasts of temperature, The protection of fruits, vegetables, 
and food products from injury by heat or cold during transportation is 
of such importance that the subject has been specially investigated. 
A car load of fruit, even after it has started, may be detained at some 
point on the way and thus escape extreme and trying temperatures. 
Besides regulating the temperature of freight cars, the forecasts are used, 
especially on through trains, in regulating the temperature of passen- 
ger cars. The following quotation from a letter dated February 7, 1894, 
illustrates the practical use of the forecasts in this direction: They 
"enable us to regulate the length of our trains, to arrange for extra 
fuel supplies, to take precautions in the care of engines and prevent 
freezing of water supply, etc." Engineers, in many ways, put the fore- 
casts to use. In maintaining equable and comfortable temperatures in 
large office buildings, for example, the forecasts are of the greatest 
value. 

The Johns Hopkins Hospital, at Baltimore, Md., covers perhaps as 
large an area heated from a single furnace room as can be found. The 
problem of heating and ventilating so many wards and rooms is far 
from being an easy one. Much is at stake; indeed, sometimes the 
recovery, comfort, and life of the patient, the successful crowning of 
the work of physician and nurse, depends upon this preservation of 
proper temperature. If it can be done in a large hospital it can be 
done elsewhere. Dr. Henry M. Hurd, the superintendent of the hos- 
pital, says : 

This will give a good idea of the systematized method in use here for keeping a 
combined coal and weather account. There is a very direct relation between the 
outside temperature and the amount of coal consumed. The reports which are 
received from the Weather Service are of great benefit to our engineer, as by means 
of the prediction it is possible to give directions as to the amount of hot water 
which will need to be carried in order to make the heating of the wards absolutely 
uniform. You will notice from the temperature of the different wards that the vari- 
ations are very small. This is largely due to the fact that it is possible in many 
instances to prepare for changes of temperature by carrying hot water at a higher 
or lower temperature. 

Kor is it only in large hospitals that the forecasts can be thus sys- 
tematically and profitably used. They can be utilized with great good 
by the individual physician. He will be better qualified to advise pre- 
cautionary measures for the ensuing day in the way of clothing, occu- 
pation, and regimen. 



THE VALUE OP FORECASTS. 123 

THE STORM OF MARCH 27, 1890. 

In an official report of the board of trade relief committee of one of 
our large cities, in almost the opening paragraph, appears this state- 
ment: 

In the afternoon papers of that date (March 27, 1890) there appeared from the 
Weather Service at Washington a notice of warning of severe local storms and 
atmospheric trouble in Louisville and vicinity. Shortly before the tornado there 
came a heavy rain, followed by a hailstorm accompanied by severe lightning. The 
wind began to blow with a mournful sound, which soon increased to a frightful 
shriek as it swept over the doomed portion of the city. The calamity occurred 
about 8.30 p. ra., and was over in a few minutes. 

This tornado destroyed in a few moments 5 churches, the union 
railroad depot, 2 public halls, 3 schools, 260 stores, 32 manufacturing 
establishments, 10 tobacco warehouses, and 532 residences in the city 
limits only. The pecuniary loss was estimated by these gentlemen of 
the board of trade, after careful tabulation, at $2,150,000* There were 
70 lives lost and over 200 people injured by the catastrophe. Such a 
calamity can be paralleled only in some convulsion of nature, fortu- 
nately of infrequent occurrence, such as an earthquake, a volcanic erup- 
tion, or a great tidal wave. 

THE "SEA ISLANDS" AND "TROPICAL" STORMS. 

The storm of August 20, 27, 28, 1803, familiarly known as the " sea 
islands storm," with the accompanying rise in the waters, resulted 
in the loss of nearly 1,200 lives. The story of the devastation caused 
by that storm has been graphically told in the popular magazines, but 
anything like a careful estimate of the actual damage has never been 
published. The value of the warning likewise can not be estimated* 
It may be, though, that the remembrance of this storm had much to 
do with the ready appreciation of the warnings given this year. So 
widely disseminated were these latter warnings, and so promptly and 
intelligently were they utilized in the warned communities, that the 
Weather Bureau can show in the case of the tropical hurricane of Sep- 
tember 24-29, 1894, that 1,089 vessels, valued at $17,100,413, remained 
in port. In the hurricane of October 8-10, 1894, 1,210 vessels, valued 
at $19,183,500, heeded the warning. Within, then, a period of little 
more than two weeks the forecasts and warnings of the Bureau were 
instrumental in saving 2,305 vessels, valued at $30,283,913, or, to be 
somewhat more accurate, but for the warnings these vessels would 
probably have gone to sea, and it is but fair to presume would in such 
event have met with disaster. The records show that in very many 
instances where the warnings were disregarded heavy losses were 
incurred. Even these amounts, vast as they are, are but portions of 
the whole, for, as happened in both of these storms, ripening crops, 
accumulated stores and supplies, goods gathered for shipment and 
goods in transit were removed from exposed places to points of safety. 



124 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

In calamitous storms of the types referred to it is customary to 
promptly institute measures of relief. No work is nobler. Surely the 
duty of giving warning of impending danger, antedating relief work, 
and giving all an opportunity to help themselves and others, is noble 
work, too. 

Tornadoes and West Indian hurricanes are not the only atmospheric 
disturbances destructive to life and property. Though the loss of life 
is perhaps less, the destruction of property by severe wind storms, 
heavy washing rains, scorching hot winds, severe cold waves and frosts, 
being of more frequent occurrence, amounts in the aggregate perhaps 
to a sum in excess of the figures given. 

THE SAVING OF PROPERTY AND LIFE. 

Successful application of the forecasts, then, as the foregoing cases 
show, is quite possible and by no means rare. They can be made of 
service in almost every occupation of life. They can be made to con- 
tribute to comfort or utilized in saving property and protecting life. 
The value of the forecasts in this last respect is strikingly shown at 
times of West India hurricanes and in less degree in some of the 
severe inland storms which sweep over the Great Lakes. The value 
of the warning of the gale of September 22-24, 1894, is well shown by 
the list of vessels held in port: 

Sheboygan 4 

South Haven 5 

Sturgeon Bay 23 

Lake City 1 

Holland 3 

Marquette 4 

Grand Haven 1 

Alpena 14 

Port Huron 28 

Chicago 30 

Sault Ste. Marie 27 

White Fish Point 20 

Grand total 260 



Bay City 1 

Charlevoix 6 

Cheboygan 1 

East Tawas 5 

Houghton 2 

Kewaunee 5 

Kenosha 5 

Ludington 5 

Manistee 20 

Menominee 3 

Mackinaw City 16 

Muskegon 4 

Sand Beach 26 

Saugatuck 1 

In the city of Chicago the owners of the steamer City of Chicago, 
ready to sail with 400 passengers and cargo valned at $15,000, detained 
her in port for twenty-four hours. The Lehigh Valley Transportation 
Company held their steamer Saranae, bound for Buffalo with 2,400 tons 
of merchandise, until word was received that the storm was abating. 
Instances of this service could easily be multiplied. At the life-saving 
station the crew were given all information relative to the storm, and 
extra precautions were taken by the watcher on the tower, which 
resulted in the saving of the lives of four persons. The tug watcher, 
who is employed by all the tug companies and is in telegraphic com- 
munication with the tug offices, had copies of the warning given to tug 
captains and had one of the tugs steam out and warn the schooner 



THE VALUE OP FORECASTS. 125 

Libby Naic, the schooner Miehaelson^ and the light-house supply boat 
Dalia. These boats were heavily laden and were outside of the port. 
Upon receiving the warning they got into port without delay and 
escaped the storm. Inquiry at the clearance depot of the United States 
custom-house showed that about 50 vessels had taken out clearance 
papers on Saturday, and of these boats over 30 heeded the storm signal 
and came to anchor inside the breakwater, where the effects of the 
storm were less felt. In one case where the signal was disregarded 
the steamer stranded at Grand Haven. There are numerous cases 
where mishap has followed a disregard of signal. Along the lakes also 
warnings of severe cold waves are of great financial value. Thus 
during the early frosts of the season of 1891, just at harvest time, when 
the wheat crop of northern Dakota and northern Minnesota required a 
week or ten days to mature, extensive preparations were made by the 
farmers to avert injury from frost. Material for smudge fires was col- 
lected and made ready to be fired upon receipt of the frost warning. 
Through the cooperation of the telegraph service of the Great Northern 
and the Northern Pacific railroads, the warnings were widely dissemi- 
nated, and at the proper time the fires were lighted, and many million 
bushels of wheat saved. This in the far North. In the far South, in 
the same season, 75 per cent of the vegetable and fruit crop was pro- 
tected by smudge fires kindled at the approach of cold weather. 

Not of the least importance are the forecasts to canal interests. A 
large raft of lumber, for instance, is passing through a canal into a 
river. Warning of a cold wave is received ; the raft is drawn back into 
the canal and thus saved from being cut to pieces by the running ice. 
Cattle men find the warnings of great value. Cranberry growers, as a 
class, have special warnings sent to them. Fuel companies, as might 
be expected, find it to their interest to watch carefully the forecasts. 
At Pittsburg the shipment of coal by river, amounting to many million 
dollars, is, to a large degree, controlled by information received from 
the Weather Bureau. In 1890-91 ice was harvested before it had 
reached the average thickness because of warning of a thaw. 

The forecasts of the Weather Bureau may not always be as fully 
verified as the conditions upon which they were based promised, but the 
value of forecasts verified at least eight out of ten times can not be 
deprecated at any time, and when special warnings are sent in times of 
emergency the value is fittingly expressed by the word u incalculable." 

EXTRACTS FROM ANNUAL REPORTS OF VARIOUS STATIONS. 

The extracts which follow are taken from the annual reports of the 
stations enumerated, and furnish convincing evidence of the practical 
value of the forecasts of the Weather Bureau to agriculture, as well as 
a variety of other interests affected by the weather : 
From the annual report of the station at Nashville, Tenn.: 
The cold- wave warnings are probably worth $50,000 to the State. 



126 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 
From the annual report of the station at Savannah, Ga. : 

It is estimated that the money value of property saved by the cold-wave and frost 
warnings during the past year was between $20,000 and $25,000. The warnings have, 
as a rule, given general satisfaction. 

From the annual report of the station at Wilmington, HT. G. : 

"When it is known that the strawberry crop of eastern North Carolina for this year 
was between $250,000 and $300,000, it is thought, and without any attempt to exag- 
gerate, that the money value of this crop saved by the cold- wave warnings is at least 
$25,000. 

From the report of the station at T$ew York Gity, M". Y. : 

It would be difficult to estimate, with any assurance of correctness, the real money 
value of perishable goods and in other ways the saving by the cold-wave warnings ; 
but I do not think $1,000,000 would be the full amount. 

From the annual report of the station at Milwaukee, Wis. : 
It is believed that it is a conservative estimate to state that the amount of money 
necessary to support this office is in each year saved many times over to the com- 
mission merchants by the information furnished them daily. 

The frost warnings from this office continue to give satisfaction to the public and 
to materially add to the popularity of the service. The president of the Wisconsin 
State Cranberry Growers' Association stated before the association, at its annual 
meeting last January, that rather than do without these warnings he would pay the 
expense of telegraphing out of his own pockets ; that at one time during the past 
year he was waiting for the train at his station, prepared to leave on important 
business, but when the train came in it carried a frost signal ; that he returned to 
his large marsh, 7 miles distant, ordered the reservoirs opened, and saved several 
thousand dollars' worth of berries from destruction by frost the following morning. 

From the annual report of the station at Columbus, Ohio: 

As this point is the principal produce-shipping point of the State, I have no doubt 
that the value of the shipments saved by the cold- wave warnings during the season 
was close to $500,000. 

From the annual report of the station at Charleston, S. C. : 

A safe and truthful estimate of the money value of property saved to this com- 
munity this year is fully double that given for last year, as the warnings were dis- 
seminated to a more marked degree than in any other year previous, footing up 
$350,000. This is exclusive of the frost service rendered during February, March, 
and April of this year, for the benefit of those who raise early beans, peas, beets, 
cucumbers, lettuce, potatoes, onions, squash, and corn for shipment to Northern 
markets. 

From the annual report of the station at Cape Henry, Va. : 

Marked benefits result from the work of this Bureau, as in the case of the steam- 
ship Rappahannock, Chesapeake and Ohio Line, which vessel went ashore at a point 
near this place at 7 p. m., January 22. The agents of this line were notified and 
wrecking companies called on for assistance, which was immediately furnished j on 
the 24th information of a cold wave and high westerly to northerly winds was flagged 
by this office to the stranded vessel. The wreckers redoubled their efforts in light- 
ening her cargo so she would float at high- water tide, which she did at 10.35 p. m. 
An unusually severe northerly gale, with cold weather, rain, and a very high sea, 
set in at 12.45 a. m. the 25th. Had the JRappahannock not floated on the last high 



THE VALUE OF FORECASTS. 127 

tide, it is conceded by everyone that vessel and cargo would have been a total loss. 
The vessel and cargo, valued at $600,000, were undoubtedly saved through the efforts 
of this office in getting the weather reports to the stranded steamer. 

From the annual report of the station at Dodge City, Kans. : 

There was about $5,000 worth of stock saved last winter by the cold- wave signals. 
The value of the fruit saved is very hard to determine; a conservative estimate 
places it anywhere from $25,000 to $50,000. 

From the annual report of the station at Alpena, Mich. : 

The island telegraph linos have been in successful operation since July 14, 1893, 
and have rendered great assistance to maritime interests. Their value is being 
recognized by all vessel men. They have been used frequently since their comple- 
tion by vessels in distress, and it would be no exaggeration to say that they have 
fully paid for the money expended in their construction and maintenance. With 
few exceptions there has been uninterrupted communication. The Middle Island 
line was exceptionally beneficial to Gilchrist & Fletcher, of this city, during May 
1894, whose raft of three and one-half millions went ashore near Middle Island. 
The lino was used frequently every day for a week and much assistance rendered by 
it. Mr. Gilchrist visited the office during the time and spoko of the great benefit 
received from this service. Not a stick of the raft was lost, such an unusual occur- 
rence that comment was made about it in the IXetroit daily papers. 

From the annual report of the station at Baltimore, Md. : 

An example of great benefit received was instanced by a Baltimore and Ohio Kail- 
r oad official. A train loaded with wet sand was waiting upon a siding, and, as it 
was not to be used for two or three days, the necessity for unloading was not con- 
sidered immediate. A cold- wave warning was received, and the cars were emptied 
as quickly as possible. Had this not been done without delay, th# sand would have 
been frozen in the cars and could not have been unloaded for several weeks, as the 
cold spell was unusually severe and long. 

From the annual report of the station at Norfolk, Va. : 

The total estimated value of property saved by cold-wave warnings is from 
$30,000 to $40,000. 

During the severe storm of last August the timely storm warnings issued by the 
Weather Bureau were of inestimable value to the vessels then ready to proceed to 
sea, as many of these vessels remained in port on account of the warnings given, and 
rode out some of the severest gales which have been experienced along the Atlantic 
coast in many years. Without these warnings possibly nine-tenths of these vessels 
would have proceeded to sea, and in all probability would havo been lost. 

The reporting of passing vessels in and out at Cape Henry is one of the most 
important features of the seacoast line, and this work is worth thousands every year 
to the steamship lines running to and from Norfolk, as an incoming steamer is 
reported to the agent from two to three hours in advance of her arrival at the dock, 
thus enabling them to have everything in readiness on her arrival, and by this means 
effect a groat saving of time, which is worth everything to those carrying mostly 
perishable freight. 

From the annual report of the station at Montgomery, Ala. : 

The cold-wave warnings of January 23 and February 11, besides being distributed 
by great numbers of bulletins by hand and through the mails, and published in local 
newspapers, were, in addition to being telegraphed to all displaymen, telegraphed at 
Government expense to postmasters of twenty surrounding towns, and from reliable 
information it is thought that these warnings, even though early in the season, saved 



128 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

at least $25,000 to farmers in this State. The warning of March 25, at a low esti- 
mate, saved $50,000 to the truckers of this section, and would have saved more had it 
come any other day than Sunday, which is a had day for distributing information. 
It is safe to say that the money value saved to agriculture and shipping interests in 
this State by these warnings during the past year, if fully known, would aggregate 
over $100,000. 

From the annual report of the station at Louisville, Ky. : 

The warning of January 23 was one of the most beneficial to this section ever 
made in the Weather Bureau. It was of especial value to the railroads, which at the 
time had a large amount of perishable freight on the way from the South, and much 
of which was protected through the warning. 

The most important instance in which the records figured during the past year 
was that of the Phoenix Bridge Company, which claimed that the destruction of two 
of the piers of the bridge being built by it was due to a tornado, and not to faulty 
workmanship, as alleged by its opponents. This case, in which several hundreds of 
thousands of dollars are involved, has not yet been settled, and the Weather Bureau 
records will have a most important bearing upon its final adjustment. 

From the annual report of the station at Memphis, Tenn. : 

My attention was called to a case which happened several years ago which has 
probably not been reported. M. E. Carter & Co., of this city, had an order for eight 
car loads of potatoes to be shipped to points in Arkansas. Just before they began 
to load they called up the Weather Bureau and were informed that an extensive and 
severe cold wave was approaching, and were advised to hold the shipment over till 
Monday, this being Friday. They had one car partly loaded and they decided to 
risk this one car. The result was that every potato in the car was frozen. The other 
seven cars were held over and reached their destination in safety. Mr. Carter stated 
to me that they calculated the value of the seven cars at $2,150, all of which they 
considered saved from the warning of the Weather Bureau. 

From the annual report of the station at Kansas City, Mo. : 

The observer is unable to place a money estimate on the value of this service. A 
very conservative estimate would place it at $50,000, but there are such a variety of 
interests affected it would be impossible to give an intelligent estimate. Fruit and 
produce men place it in the neighborhood of $50,000. 

From the annual report of the station at Buffalo, £T. Y. : 

The records at the station show that not a single storm of any character passed 
over the station during the year, especially in the fall, without ample warning 
having been given at least twenty-four hours in advance. The warnings given were 
heeded by all classes of marine men. Notwithstanding the close proximity of the 
central office of the Canadian Meteorological Bureau at Toronto, during the closing 
months of navigation daily requests by telephone and telegraph for wind forecasts 
were received from Canadian sources. 

On November 24 special forecasts were issued to the marine men, informing them 
that all vessels weather bound here during the past ten days would have fair sailing 
weather to-morrow, and orders were given to get ready to clear. The Buffalo Courier, 
commenting on same, said, Sunday, November 26: "The large fleet of vessels which 
has been sheltered behind the breakwater for a week or more was able to leave port. 
The forecasts of Friday came true, the storm abated, and by noon yesterday nearly 
all the storm-bound vessels were out of sight," These vessels had been held in port 
by the storm warnings. 



SOILS IN THEIK RELATION TO CROP PRODUCTION. 

By Milton Whitney, 
Chief of the Division of Agricultural Soils, U. S. Department of Agriculture, 

TRUCK LANDS OF THE ATLANTIC SEABOARD. 

Truck farming has existed as a separate agricultural industry for 
about thirty years. Previous to that time fruits and vegetables were 
grown in gardens and as part of the regular farm crops on all well- 
regulated farms ; and in market gardens within a few miles of the 
larger towns and cities. People were content then to have the fruits 
and vegetables in the ordinary season in which they matured in their 
immediate locality. In recent years, however, transportation facilities 
have wonderfully improved, and the growing of fruits and vegetables 
for the early markets has developed into a distinct and special branch 
of farming. 

A few years ago tomatoes were not expected in the Baltimore mar- 
kets until the local crop ripened in July. During the winter and spring 
canned tomatoes were extensively and almost exclusively used. Now, 
however, the Florida crop of fresh tomatoes begins to arrive in the Bal- 
timore market early in January in a fresh and healthy condition, as it 
requires only twenty-four or thirty-six hours for transportation — hardly 
longer than is required to bring the local crop on schooners and sjoops. 
from the lower estuaries of the Chesapeake Bay. These early tomatoes 
sell readily for 50 or 75 cents per dozen at the same time that Florida 
oranges are bringing from 15 to 30 cents per dozen, and while canned 
tomatoes are selling for 10 or 15 cents for a 3-pound can. This is fol- 
lowed by successive crops from Georgia, the Carolinas, Virginia, and 
the local crop of Maryland. The season for fresh tomatoes in the Balti- 
more market thus extends over fully nine months in the year. The 
same is true of other vegetables. There is a very great and increasing 
demand for these early vegetables, as they are put on the market in 
much better condition and at a lower cost than ever before, and families 
of very moderate means can afford to purchase them. 

SOME ESSENTIAL FACTORS OF SUCCESSFUL TRUCK FARMING. 

The conditions necessary for the success of this special industry of 
truck farming, in addition to personal qualifications and sufficient 
working capital, are favorable climatic conditions, light, sandy soils, in 
which the vegetables can be planted early, and which will force them 

I A 94 5 129 



130 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

to an early maturity, and quick, direct, and safe transportation facili- 
ties, with arrangements for through cars, and refrigerator cars where 
these are necessary. 

The early truck is grown upon a peculiar class o? very light, sandy 
soils. These soils extend along the Atlantic coast for a distance of 
about 1,500 miles in a narrow strip bordering the coast, bays, and rivers 
from Massachusetts to Florida, the line running approximately north- 
east and southwest. The season advances northward along the coast at 
the average rate of about 13 miles per day. Lands located 100 miles 
south of Norfolk have the advantage of about a week in the maturity 
of the crops, thus commanding a higher market price, so that the 
truckers can afford the higher freight rates for the longer distance 
their products have to be hauled to the Northern markets. Similar land 
situated an equal distance west of Norfolk, with no direct connection 
with the North except through Norfolk, would have no advantage over 
the Norfolk crop by reason of the climate, and the added cost of 'trans- 
portation would make trucking unprofitable. A railroad, therefore, 
running north and south has a great advantage in developing local 
trucking interests over one running east and west. The high prices, 
due to lack of competition in the early market, afford the truck crops 
an opening northward without which the demand would be limited to 
the local market, but with the advantages of climate, quick soils, and 
lack of competition from the heavier and richer agricultural lands, 
these crops are sent to almost any point in the United States or in Can- 
ada with profit. 

Land situated immediately on a railroad is worth several times as 
much as similar land situated 2 or 3 miles away, on account of the 
difficulty and expense of transporting the tender and bulky crop and 
the damage done in handling and hauling. The same is even more 
marked in the case of land situated immediately on the water, partly 
on account of its relation to transportation and partly from its freedom 
from frost. The influence of the proximity to the water is very marked 
in the early spring. Crops a quarter or a half mile inland may be injured 
or destroyed by frost while those immediately adjacent to the water are 
not affected. For this reason crops may be planted earlier in the spring 
on land near water, and consequently will mature earlier on stiffer soils 
at the end of a river neck, with water on two or three sides, than they 
will mature on soils of the same or even of lighter texture farther inland. 
These points must all be considered in judging of the suitability of a 
soil for truck farming. 

The total area devoted to truck farming in the United States in 1889, 
exclusive of market gardening, was, according to the Eleventh Census, 
534,440 acres. Of this about 61.31 per cent was located along the Atlan- 
tic Seaboard, distributed as shown in the* table below. The " peninsular 
district" here includes the Eastern Shore counties of Maryland and 
Tirginia, together with the State of Delaware. 



RELATION OF SOILS TO CROP PRODUCTION. 



iai 



The following table gives the acreage of the principal truck crops 
along the Atlantic Seaboard: 

Acreage and value of land and truck products on the Atlantic Seaooard. 



District. 



Kew York and Philadelphia 

Peninsular 

Baltimore 

Norfolk 

South Atlantic --. 

Total-.,..-..-- 



Number of 
acres. 



108, 135 
25, 714 
37, 181 
45, 375 

111, 441 



326, 816 



Per cent 

of total 

truck area 

in United 
States. 



20.23 
4.81 
G.93 
8.49 

20.85 



CI. 31 



Value of 

land per 

acre. 



$226. 11 
98.76 
97.50 
135. 50 
45. 25 



Value of 
truck prod- 
ucts. 



$21, 102, 521 

2, 413, 648 

3, 781, 696 

4, 692, 859 

13,383,516 



45,177,240 



To produce this track a very intense system of cultivation is prac- 
ticed and the expense of making the crop is very great. The value 
of the land ranges from $40 to $500 per acre, depending upon the 
soil, location, distance from market, and transportation facilities. 
Their average value may be placed at about $200 per acre* Before 
they were used for truck farming they were worth no more than from 
$1 to $5 per acre. Even now, when they are remote from transpor- 
tation lines, good truck lands can still be purchased for this sum. 
The cost of labor on the different crops ranges from about $10 to $30 
per acre,* the cost of seeds and plants from 50 cents to $10 per acre, 
depending upon the kind of vegetable. The fertilizers cost from 
$10 to $50 per acre, while individual planters use as much as $60 to 
$75 worth of high-grade fertilizers per acre. Yery conservative esti- 
mates place the necessary working capital for a small truck farm at 
from $0,000 to $20,000. One large firm in eastern Korth Carolina 
claims that it requires $40,000 a year to make its crop. 

These figures show that truck farming is an industry in which a 
large amount of capital is invested and which carries great risks. A 
successful truck grower requires a large capital as compared with what 
is needed for general farming, while the risks are as great and the 
enterprises are quite as heavy as in ordinary commercial or industrial 
lines. The man who risks $40,000 annually in any business, or even a 
capital of $20,000 or $6,000, must be cautious and must understand 
very well his conditions, opportunities, and powers. 

Truck farming may be started on a very small scale, as with any other 
industry, but competition is so sharp and the margin of profit has 
become so small, while the risks are so great, that there is a distinct 
tendency among the larger planters to form combinations which make 
it more and more difficult for the smaller truckers to succeed. In this 
as in other industries a large planter can work on a narrower margin 
than a small one, providing the enterprise is not too great for him to 
carry with his available capital. 



132 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

Truckers' associations are being organized in local centers, which 
receive daily market reports during the growing season from the prin- 
cipal markets and distributing points throughout the United States 
and Canada. These organizations have very great power and influence, 
and as they understand and appreciate these more they will exercise 
far more influence upon the markets than they do now. Three or four 
of the large planters around Norfolk, by putting their potato crops sud- 
denly upon the New York market, can depress the price to such a small 
margin of profit that the smaller dealers can not afford to sell. Indeed, 
it is no uncommon thing during the harvesting season for the price 
of potatoes in New York to fall $1 a barrel in the course of a day. The 
truckers' associations try to distribute the crops through the different 
markets in the North and West so as to maintain uniform prices, and 
as they become better trained in their responsibilities and have a better 
appreciation of their powers and duties they will undoubtedly main- 
tain more uniform prices than at present. 

So close has competition become and so narrow are the margins of 
profit that it is stated that the difference of a cent a barrel on spinach 
in the present freight rates from Norfolk to New York reduces the 
price below the actual cost of production. The planters claim that 
they have such control over their crops and exercise such careful busi- 
ness methods in their production that the freight rates frequently 
determine the selling price, as is the case with many manufactured 
commodities. 

Another factor which has had much to do with the success of truck 
farming has been the introduction of methods of canning or otherwise 
preserving fruits and vegetables for which there is no present demand, 
so they can be kept for winter use. This ability to preserve the crop 
has more than once saved the planters from what would otherwise have 
been disastrous seasons, when, as occasionally happens, the crops from 
a number of localities mature at the same time. 

In truck growing an early maturity is essential to the profitable con- 
duct of the business, and the yield per acre and quality of the crop are 
minor conditions. With wheat the yield per acre is the most essential 
factor and the quality or time of ripening is relatively unimportant; 
with tobacco the quality and texture of the leaf are the chief factors, 
and the yield and time of ripening are of less consequence; but with 
early truck the time of ripening is by far the most important feature. 

Early maturity is very largely dependent upon the character of the 
soil. Light, sandy lands are most valuable for this industry because 
when properly treated the crop matures much earlier than on the 
heavy lands. The aim of the truck planter is to get the crop to 
market at the earliest possible moment, or else to delay it until tire 
crops from the heavier soils of the State have all matured. The heavy 
grass and wheat lands will produce three or four times as great a yield 
of truck as the truck soils do even under the intense and expensive 
system of cultivation practiced. The latter, however, mature their 



RELATION OF SOILS TO CROP PRODUCTION. 133 

crops six or eight weeks earlier, and thus for the time are free from 
the competition of the richer soils. 

The amount of clay present in these light truck soils has a very 
marked influence upon the development and time of ripening of a crop. 
The nature of the crop itself must be considered, of course, as all of 
the truck crops are not equally well adapted to the same kind of soil. 
Sweet potatoes and melons, for example, require a very light soil, con- 
taining but little clay, for they can not be forced well to an early 
maturity on the heavier soils. Cabbage and spinach, on the other 
hand, do better on the heavier soils and will mature about as early, for 
the reason that they can be planted in the fall and will stand the 
winter well on a soil containing from 8 to 12 per cent of clay in the 
subsoil, while they will not stand the winter so well on a soil contain- 
ing less than G per cent of clay, which is the best soil for sweet pota- 
toes and melons. Tomatoes will ripen a full week earlier on land hav- 
ing no more than 4 or 5 per cent of clay in the subsoil than they will 
on land having 8 or 9 per cent. They will do better and yield more 
per acre on the heavier land, but they are not so early and do not bring 
such high market prices. 

With the qualification just made, soils having the smallest percentage 
of clay are invariably regarded as the earliest truck lands, exqept 
where heavier soils are situated directly at the point of a river iiQck 
and are thus earlier freed from frost, as already explained. 

CONSTITUENTS OF TYPICAL TRUCK SOILS. 

Typical truck soils of the Atlantic Seaboard contain from about 1 per 
cent to 12 per cent of clay in the subsoil. The lighter soils, or those con- 
taining the least amount of clay, are better adapted to the earlier and 
lighter spring vegetables, while the heavier soils are better adapted to the 
later and heavier truck and to those crops which can be planted in the 
fall for the early spring market. The conditions in a soil containing 10 
per cent of clay in the subsoil frequently delay the planting of a spring 
crop from two to three weeks later than on a soil containing only 5 per 
cent of clay. The principal crops may be arranged as follows to show 
the kind of soil best adapted to them: 

Sweet potatoes. . 

Melons.. I Best adapted to lands having from 3 to 9 per cent of 

Asparagus [ clay. 

Irish potatoes.. J 

Tomatoes 

Peas I Best adapted to lands having from 6 to 12 per cent of 

Spinach | clay. 

Cabbage J 

Soils having over 10 or 12 per cent of clay are too heavy and too 
retentive of moisture for the early truck crops. The yield per acre is 
larger than on the truck land, but it has to meet more competition. 
The whole value of the truck soils lies in the relation of these soils to 
moisture and in the relatively small amount of moisture they maintain 



134 YEARBOOK OF THE IT. 8. DEPARTMENT OP AGRICULTURE. 



for crops. The soils are composed mainly of moderately coarse grains 
of sand and contain very little clay. The accompanying illustrations 
show the amounts of the different grades of sand, silt, and clay con- 
tained in 20 grams of two different types of truck land. The different 
grades of sand, silt, and clay were separated by sieves and by slow 
subsidence in water, and were put into small bottles and photographed. 
The lighter soil, represented by figure 1, has only 4.40 per ceiit of 
clay. This is well adapted to the very early truck, such as sweet pota- 
toes, melons, asparagus, Irish potatoes, tomatoes, and peas, but it is too 
light in texture for spinach and cabbage. The heavier soil, represented 
by figure 2, containing 9.16 per cent of clay, represents the heavier 
grade of truck lands, particularly well adapted to tomatoes, peas, spin- 
ach, and cabbage. It is too heavy for the earlier spring vegetables. 



Per Cent. 



Grave/. 



0¥9 




2-1 



Coarse sand. 



¥,96 



1-.5 



Medium sand* 



V0./9 



.6-.25 



*7$? 



.25-X 



VerySnesand. 



M./O 



.1-05 



7.7* 



.05-.01 



Fine silt 



£.<Z3 



Clay. 



V.W 



.01-.005 .006-.0001 



Diameter of the grains in millimeters. 



Fig. 1— Mechanical separation of the gravel, sand, silt, and clay in 20 grams of subsoil of the 
Columbia formation at Marley, Md,, adapted to early truck. 

Wheat can not be economically produced on these light truck lands, 
as the yield per acre under the best treatment would rarely exceed 5 
bushels. A good wheat soil must contain at least 18 per cent of clay, 
unless, indeed, as is the case with many Western soils, they contain 
a large amount of silt. Still less can grass be economically produced 
on these light truck soils, for a good grass land requires at least 30 
per cent of clay in the subsoil to make it sufficiently retentive of 
moisture, unless, indeed, water is supplied through artificial means. 
Within these light, sandy soils, upon which truck farming has been so 
successfully carried on, there is very little resistance to the descent of 
the rainfall, and the soil readily drains itself of all but a small supply 
of water. Grass and wheat lands, on the other hand, contain a large 



RELATION OF SOILS TO CROP PRODUCTION. 



135 



amount of elay and very fine material, and offer a great resistance to 
the descent of the rainfall, and maintain an abundant supply of water. 

As a basis of comparison, an illustration is given in figure 3 of the 
mechanical separation of the different grades of sand, silt, and clay in 
a heavy limestone soil of the Cumberland Yalley, in western Maryland. 
This represents the very finest type of agricultural land for the staple 
agricultural crops. 

It will be seen that this subsoil, which is adapted to both wheat and 
grass, has less than 5 per cent of sand, while a typical truck soil con- 
tains from 70 to 85 per cent of sand. If the same quantity of rain fell 
on this clay soil it would encounter such a resistance and there would 
be so much friction as it percolated through the innumerable small 
openings that the descent would be extremely slow and an abundant 



Per Cent 



BraveL 



Of/ 



& 



24 



Coarse swuf. 



s.?s 



1-.5 



Medium sand. 



JtSJJ 



.5-.25 



Fine stzndj 



4 'J.// 



.25-1 



Yeryfinesand. 



/3.#f> 



.1.06 



Sift 



/*// 



.05-.01 



Fine sift 



M<2? 



.01-.005 



, Clay. 



f./6 



.005-.0001 



Dimeter of the grains in miUimeiers. 



Fig. 2.— Mechanical separation of the gravel, sand, silt, and elay in 20 grams of subsoil of the 
Colombia formation at Marley, Md., adapted to cabbage and early truck crops. 

supply of moisture would be maintained for vigorous vegetative growtn 
of plants. On the light, sandy soils, maintaining a very limited sup- 
ply of moisture, the plants, on the contrary, are thin textured, more 
succulent, yield less per acre, and are forced to a very early maturity. 
It is upon this fact that the success of truck farming ultimately depends. 
Examinations have been made of the soils in a number of localities 
in the truck area of the Atlantic Seaboard, and the character of the 
soil devoted to truck has been found to he remarkably uniform. The 
influence of the texture of the soil on the distribution of the different 
truck crops is very marked. A brief description of the several locali- 
ties, with analyses of some of the typical truck soils, will bring out 
these points very strongly, and will serve as a basis for the estimation 
of the adaptability of other soils in these localities for truck growing. 



136 YEARBOOK OP THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 
TRUCK SOILS OF FLORIDA AND SOUTH CAROLINA. 

Only a few samples have been obtained of the truck soils of the far 
South. The mechanical analyses of three typical truck soils from 



Coarse sand. 




T>er Cent. 



Medium sand. 



O./S 



.6.25 



Fine sand. 



0.2S 



.26-.1 



Very ffne sand. 



1M 



.1.05 



Silt 



/9.0¥ 



.05-01 



Fine silt 



J0.SS 



.01.005 



Clay. 



S/.77 



.005-.0001 



Diameter of the grains in millimeters. 



Eia. 3.— Mechanical separation of the gravel, sand, silt, and clay in 20 grams of the limestone 
subsoil from Frederick, Md., adapted to wheat and grass. 

Florida are given in the accompanying table, together with the analy- 
ses of five soils from South Carolina. 





Table 1. — Mechanical analyses 


of suhsoils of truck lands 








No. 


Locality. 


.sf 
si 

g GO 


1 

B 

1 

o 


s 

E 
rH 

d 
> 


*3 
of . 

«r 

B 

O 

O 


r 


PI . 

GO S 

2~ 


■r 

s& 

u 


e 

© 

© 


i 
© 

© ' 


in 

© . 

© 

p. 




FLORIDA. 


P.ct. 


p. ct. 


P. ct. 


Per ct. 


Per ct. 


Per ct. 


Per ct. 


P.ct. 


p: ct. 


P.ct. 


1622 


Altoona, Etonia scrub 


0.68 


0.63 


0.34 


3.92 


40.39 


44.97 


6.93 


0.79 


0.33 


1.16 


1624 


Eustis, high pine land 


0.25 


0.66 


2.74 


11.70 


42.05 


35.29 


4.50 


0.88 


0.56 


1.23 


1620 


Altoona, high pine land 


0.15 


0.87 


1.61 


4.52 


12.28 


27.58 


48.12 


2.16 


0.81 


1.31 




SOUTH CAROLINA. 


















78 


WedgeSeld 




1 1. 32 


5.88 


31.45 


27.31 


28 14 


3 96 


3.97 

4.78 


86 


James Island, sandy land. . . 




1.06 


0.00 


0.00 


0.67 


90.14 


3.35 


88 


James Island, "provision 




















land" 




1.65 


0. 00 


88 


2 50 


82 97 


6 30 


5.70 
6.63 
7.17 


84 


James IslaDd 




1.76 


59 


3 67 


4 27 


78 88 


4 20 


82 


James Island, "clay land".. 




1.62 


0.00 


0.54 


1.03 


83.20 


6.44 



1 The figures in this column were determined by difference, and include the total organic matter, 
moisture, and loss in the analysis. 



RELATION OP SOILS TO CROP PRODUCTION. 



137 



It will be seen that the Florida soils contain very little silt, fine silt> 
or clay, the whole amount of these three grades being less than 5 per 
cent. They are extremely light-textured ? sandy soils, adapted to the 
earliest spring vegetables. Climatic conditions in south and central 
Florida make it possible, of course, to produce outdoor crops through- 
out the winter, and these lands are well adapted to the forcing of that 
class of vegetables. 

The samples from South Carolina differ more in their content of fine 
material. The sample from Wedgefield has considerable coarse sand, 
but very little silt and clay. This soil is particularly well adapted to 
sweet potatoes, melons, and the forcing of early spring vegetables. 

Of the several samples from James Island, the sandy land (No. 86) 
is considered the earliest, and is better adapted to the forcing of the 
early spring vegetables. The clay land (No. 82) is better adapted to 
the heavier and later vegetables, particularly tomatoes, cabbage, and 
spinach. 

Owing to the difference in the location and in the climate, the truck 
crops of Florida are practically all marketed before the South Carolina 
crops come on, and the latter are harvested before the North Carolina 
and Virginia crops mature. 

TRUCK LANDS OF EASTERN NORTH CAROLINA. 

The accompanying table gives the mechanical analyses of a number 
of typical truck lands in eastern North Carolina: 



Table 2. — Mechanical analyses of subsoils of truck lands. 



No. 



1510 

1524 
1534 
156C 
1517 
1570 
1542 
1514 

1519 
1522 



Locality. 



NORTH CAROLINA. 

Neyrbern , early spring 
truck 

Eden ton 

Hertford 

Elizabeth City 

Newbern 

Camden 

Chapanoke 

Newbern, heavy cabbage 
land 

Elizabeth City 

Edenton, heavy truck land. . 



2 

a 



o 



Per ct. 
0.67 
2.54 



3.14 
1.57 
1.90 
1.18 

1.70 
3.34 
2.35 



Per ct. 
0.00 
0.00 
0.00 
0.00 
0.00 
0.00 
0.00 

0.00 
0.00 
0.00 



Per ct. 
0.30 
0.00 
0.00 
0.00 
3.91 
2.46 
0.00 

2.04 
0.00 
1.13 



d s 



Per ct. 
6.04 
4.74 
6.37 
4.94 

22.60 
5.17 
7.68 

10.57 
2.07 
6.11 



Per ct. 
49.63 
36.16 
38.34 
6.11 
29.03 
19.79 
41.77 

10.65 
4.75 
20.58 



© B 
eg? 



Per ct 
32.39 
38.71 
9.67 
43.61 
22.38 
33. 53 
13.05 

22.75 
39.16 

27.82 



Per ct. 

6.24 
10.27 

7.54 
25.73 

7.03 
19.69 
18.92 

30.22 
30.04 
18.37 



£ s 



Per ct. 
1.93 
4.18 
2.35 
7.27 
3.16 
7.11 
5.03 

8.95 
6.27 
7.79 






Per ct. 
2.80 
3.40 
6.47 
9.20 
10.32 
10.35 
12.37 

13.12 
14.37 
15.85 



1 The figures in this column were determined by difference, and are the total organic matter, moist- 
ure, and loss in the analyses. 

The influence of the texture of the soil on the distribution of different 
truck crops is here also very apparent. Sample No. 1510, containing 
1 A 94 5* 



138 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



2.80 per cent of clay and 6.24 per cent of silt, was taken from a field 
near Newbern adjoining that from which sample Ho. 1514 was obtained. 
This latter, it will be seen, has 13 per cent of clay and nearly 45 per 
cent of the three finest grades, viz, silt, fine silt, and clay. The first 
sample (No. 1510) is admirably adapted to the very early spring vege- 
tables, such as potatoes, peas, tomatoes, sweet potatoes, melons, and 
asparagus. The heavier lands are adapted to the heavier and later 
truck, particularly cabbage, spinach, tomatoes, and peas. Crops planted 
at the same time on these two soils in the early spring would mature 
from six to ten days earlier on the light- textured soil than on the heavier 
soil. Samples Nos. 1524 and 1534, from Edenton and Hertford, are 

,. adapted to the very early spring vegetables. These soils are both too 
light in texture for cabbage. Sample No. 1522 represents the heavier 
soils at Edenton, well adapted to cabbage, although rather too heavy 
even for this crop. Sample No. 1566, from Elizabeth City, is well 
adapted to all truck crops. Sample No. 1519, from near the same place, 
would be classed as a very heavy truck soil, and adapted only to the 
later crops, except that, being adjacent to the water, it admits of plant- 
ing a week or ten days earlier, and so matures its crop about the same 

. time as lighter-textured soils further inland. 

TRUCK SOILS OF VIRGINIA. 

The accompanying table gives the mechanical analyses of some of 
the finest truck soils around Norfolk, Va. The two samples, Nos. 1595 
and 1593, represent the finest type of truck land of that locality. They 
are adjacent to the water and the crops are thus insured against damage 
from late spring frosts. 

Table 3. — Mechanical analyses of subsoils. 







-*9 flQ 


s 


13 
cS 


•i3 




13 

00 ^ 


T 


i 

© 


i 

o 
©^ 


No. 


Locality. 


.ss" 

si 


I- 


O 


CD 


CD 

n 


a 
o a 

1 


o 

© 


sir 

•HHifJ 

•8 


• a 
^a 

o 
c3 * 






o 





^ 


■S 


S 


> 


02 


■:S 


o 




VIRGINIA. 


Per ct. 


Per ct. 


Per ct. 


Per ct. 


Perct. 


Perct. 


Perct. 


Per ct. 


Per ct. 


1505 


5 miles west of Norfolk 


1.36 


0.00 


1.42 


23.27 


38.25 


7.51 


15. 14 


5.90 


7.15 


1593 


4 miles west of Norfolk 


1.26 


0.00 


0.64 


24. 04 


41. 03 


5.71 


11.54 


7.33 


8.40 


1601 


3 miles cast of Norfolk 


4.15 


0.00 


0.27 


42. 12 


12.96 


0.63 


20.20 


4.79 


■8.-88 


1599 


2£ miles east of Norfolk 


2.20 


0.00 


2.67 


25. 17 


5.12 


10.16 


31.45 


8.88 


14.35 



These soils are both adapted to all of the early spring vegetables, but 
they are rather light in texture for cabbage and spinach. These crops 
will not stand the winter well on these light soils and have to be set out 
early in the spring. Sample Mo. 1599, from east of Norfolk, is very much 
heavier in texture than those just mentioned. This is a type of a large 
area of land in that locality admirably adapted to cabbage and spinach, 
and these are the staple crops. They are too lieavy for sweet potatoes 



BEIATIQN OF SOILS TO CBOP PRODUCTION. 



139 



and melons, and. also for Irish potatoes. The Irish potatoes do well, 
but they mature nearly a week or ten days later than on the lighter soils 
west of Norfolk. The heavier soils are more valuable for cabbage for 
the reason that the plants can be put out in the fall and attain some 
growth during the fall and winter, and thus have an advantage over a 
crop which has to be planted on the lighter soils in the spring. 

TRUCK SOILS OF MARYLAND. 

An examination has been made of soils from a number of localities 
in the truck area of Maryland. This area is divided into the West 
Shore, or southern Maryland, and the Eastern Shore, by the Chesapeake 
Bay. The truck lands of southern Maryland occur principally in a 
narrow belt bordering the rivers and bay shore. The nearer the water 
the more valuable the land, both on account of the freedom from frosts 
and the cheapness of water transportation. The samples in this table 
ara arranged according to the amount of clay in the subsoil. As thus 
arranged they are very nearly in the order of their relative agricultural 
value. The lighter soils, that is, those containing the smallest amount 
of clay, are considered the earliest and best adapted for the spring 
vegetables. The lands containing more than or 7 per cent of clay are 
better adapted to cabbage, small fruits, and the later and heavier truck 
crops. The exception to this is where the heavier lands, as is the case 
with No. 573, for example, are situated directly on a point of land nearly 
surrounded by water, which insures them against spring frosts and 
enables the crops to be planted a week or two earlier than would be 
safe further inland. 

To show the effect of texture on the adaptation of these lands to the 
different crops, two samples from Tick Neck may be cited. No. 585 
represents the lightest grade of sandy land of that locality, adapted 
to the early spring vegetables, while No, 587, with the same exposure 
and separated only by a short distance, is much later and adapted to 
the heavier crops because it contains more clay and is more retentive 
of moisture. 

Table 4. — Mechanical analyses of subsoils of truck lands. 



Ko. 



815 



471 
472 
561 



Locality. 



MARYLAND (WEST SHOKE). 

Severn River 

iNear Baltimore 

Cove Point 

Marley post-office 

do 

Armiger 



P.ct. 

3.36 
8.21 
0.64 
€.16 
6.30 
0.30 



P.ct 
0.63 
»4.03 
0.51 
0.28 
6.49 
0.74 



Peret. 
3.73 

20.88 
1.32 
5.42 
4.96 
7.13 



Perct. 
38.01 
41.11 
17. 84 
41. 45 
40.19 
36.21 



Per ct. 
28.69 
14.25 
55.82 
26.73 
27.59 
22.82 



1. 



tp 



Perct. 
10.31 
3.58 
16.75 
12.46 
12.10 
14. 15 



Perct. 

10.26 
2.64 
3.08 
7.22 
7.74 
9.26 



Perct. 
1. 81 
1.61 
0.90 
2.21 
2.23 
4. €8 



>>% 



P.ct. 
3.20 
3.69 
3.74 
4.07 
4.49 
4.71 



1 Including 2.11 per cent larger thaai 2 mm . 



140 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

Table 4. — Mechanical analyses of subsoils of truck lands — Continued. 



No. 



Locality. 



o 



© 



pi s 

ca a 



CD s 

Is 



o 



585 
583 
591 
563 
469 
5C5 
1616 
579 
567 
589J 
473 
270 
.587 
145 
577 
589 
575 
571 
569 
268 
590 

581 

467 
476 
573 



MARYLAND (WEST SHORE) — COIl'd. 

Tick Neck, sandy land 

1| miles northeastof Marley 

1 mile north of Marley 

Armiger 

Glenburnie 

2 miles west of Armiger 

Washington, D. C 

Rock Point 

1 mile west of Armiger 

Marley Neck 

do 

South River Neck 

Tick Neck, loam 

Patuxent River 

Magothy Neck 

2 miles north of Armiger 

Magothy Neck, loam 

do 

Magothy Neck 

South River 

2 miles north of McCubbins' 

Rock Point 

£ mile north of McCubbins' Rock 

Point 

Shipley 

Furnace Branch 

Magothy Neck, ' ' gravelly loam ' ' . 



P.ct. 
0.24 
0.55 
1.05 
0.31 
0.25 
0.50 
3.70 
1.00 
1.09 
6.04 
0.38 
0.51 
3.18 
1.44 
0.97 



0.08 
1.14 
0.90 
2.48 

0.44 

0.71 
1.87 
3.52 
1.55 



P.ct. 
0.45 
0.28 
0.39 
0.39 
3.47 
2.12 
1.27 
0.09 
2.46 
0.97 
0.44 
0.32 
6.06 
1.78 
1.52 
2.33 
1.20 
0.34 
0.87 
0.04 

0.91 

0.56 
0.76 
'2.80 
3.67 



Perct. 

10. 33 
C.09 
5.52 
7.04 

12.05 
8.81 
4.53 
2.31 

13.32 
6.22 
6.40 

%. 81 

22.09 
7.63 
4.50 

26.08 
8.91 
2.97 
5.82 
1.97 

5.45 

4.83 
8.55 
8.36 
11.92 



Perct. 
40.29 
39.48 
36.53 
37.51 
44.00 
31.35 
35.19 
31.18 
39.83 
29.96 
36.73 
40.63 
29.87 
38.35 
29.88 
33.06 
47.84 
21.18 
26.22 
28.64 

28.73 

27.49 
35.04 
20.11 



Perct. 
20.15 
23.00 
24.91 
21.45 
18.02 
22.82 
21.47 
25.49 
14.14 
21.91 
19.54 
28.93 

9.82 
21. 80 
23.77 
10.18 

6.29 
18.19 
17.55 
39.08 

22.81 

16.30 
19.26 
i0.72 
6.35 



Per ct. 
8.17 
14.69 
11.79 
13.45 
9.59 
16.76 
9.19 
16.92 
9.34 
11.57 
10.28 
9.44 
6.52 
6.87 
10.30 
4.71 
6.29 
17.17 
16.34 
11.43 

13.44 

12.51 
8.42 

10.15 
5.56 



Perct. 
7.11 
8.46 
9.89 
10.72 
5.73 
10.19 
15.24 
12.86 
10.17 
12.80 
13.42 
4.60 
10.71 
11.73 
17.10 
13.14 
15.08 
21.05 
16.33 
4.95 



22.39 
11.38 
17.98 
9.91 



Perct. 
2.29 
2.48 
4.51 
3.72 
1.37 
2.08 
4.05 
3.82 
3.29 
4.08 
5.61 
2.04 
3.86 
2.48 
3.83 
3.58 
5.76 
9.57 
7.45 
2.02 

4.29 

5.03 
4.13 
8.76 
6.21 



P.ct. 
4.77 
5.01 
5.41 
5.41 
5.46 
5.47 
5.81 
6.33 
6.36 
6.45 
7.14 
7.63 
7.89 
7.92 
8.01 
8.29 
8.33 
8.39 
8.52 
8.79 

9.16 

10.12 
10.59 
11.60 
12.84 



including 1.08 per cent larger than 2 ram . 

The Eastern Shore of Maryland, included in the peninsula district, 
has been a noted center of truck farming. The crops mature after the 
bulk of the Virginia crop has been marketed. 

Table 5. — Mechanical analyses of truck subsoils. 



No. 


Locality. 


•i • 

8 i 


i 

a 

o 

*3 


f 


a 

e3 . 

©& 


'd 

9 . 

00-— » 
6 

i- s 

52 


CI 

GOrj 


§ . 

s 

**1 


a 

© 

o 


i 

r-t 
© 

■8 


U3 
© 

i 






2 *■* 


3 
o 


1 


e8 v 

O 




S 




43 

9 


© 


c3 * 




MARYLAND (EASTERN 
























SHORE). 






















1190 


1 mile east of Barren Creek 


P.ct 


P.ct. 


P.ct. 


Per ct. 


Per ct. 


Per ct. 


Per ct. 


Per ct. 


Per ct. 


P.ct, 




Springs 


0.22 


1.04 


0.81 


9.60 


53.85 


25.93 


2.77 


2.01 


0.94 


1.46 


1209 




0.14 


0.91 


0.85 


6.29 


38.11 


36.66 


9.77 


4.53 


0.94 


1.76 


1198 


2 miles west of Barren 
























Creek Springs 


0.22 


0.87 


0.48 


6.71 


48.39 


30.27 


2.79 


4.62 


1.21 


2.06 



RELATION OF SOILS TO CROP PRODUCTION. 141 

Table 5. — Mechanical analyses of truck subsoils — Continued. 



No. 



1213 

1192 

1223 
1188 

1234 
1207 
1240 
1238 
1219 
1232 
1228 

1225 
1230 

1215 

1217 

1297 
118G 
123G 
1299 



Locality. 



MARYLAND (EASTERN 

shore) — continued. 

1 mile southeast of Salis- 
bury 

2 miles south of Barren 
Creek Springs 

Concord 

£ mile south of Barren 

Creek Springs 

New Market 

2 miles west of Salisbury. . 
6 miles south of Preston.. 

Cabin Creek 

American Corners 

1 mile west of New Market. 

3 miles west of New 
Market 

Beulah 

2£ miles northwest of New 
Market 

3£ miles southeast of 
Salisbury 

C miles southeast of Salis- 
bury 

Mount Holly 

Linkwood 

New Market 

Mount Holly 



« a 



2* 



P.ct. 
0.33 

0.19 
0.44 

0.01 
0.23 
0.26 
0.32 
0.47 
0.20 
0.42 

0.42 
0.G1 

0.47 

0.25 

1.29 
0.75 
0.85 
1.15 
0.92 



P.ct. 
0.50 

0.85 
2.02 

0.75 
1.29 
0.85 
1.52 
1.G5 
1.07 
1.70 

1.10 
2.25 

1.43 

1.39 

2.84 
1.G5 
1.98 
2.07 
2.03 



P.ct. 
1.91 

0.82 
0.99 

0.32 
0.50 
2.03 
5.78 
4.61 
4.32 
0.72 

2.77 
1.06 

0.89 

1.36 

1.15 
2.21 
0.52 
0.37 
0.69 



no a 
s 



Per ct. 
6.43 

6.64 
6.94 

8.75 
6.47 
7.93 
17.54 
15.31 
12.95 
6.41 

12.02 
8.39 

6.92 

6.02 

6.99 
8.40 
6.11 
6.35 
5.97 



Per ct. 
32.95 

45.21 
33.29 

46.37 
31.07 
38.36 
37.23 
35.66 
39.36 
31.93 

34.53 
21.87 

27.64 

28,52 

33.52 
23.07 
28.43 
24. 27 
22.91 



Per ct. 
33. 69 

29.30 
31.36 

32.44 
15.80 
25.55 
17.04 
18.36 
17.49 
16.70 

24.30 
12.73 

20.48 

27.95 

17.85 
14.03 
18.34 
13.12 
14.68 



Per ct. 
10.22 

3.37 
9.05 

3.45 
7.40 
9.77 
5.71 
4.76 
7.09 
11.04 

7.21 
12.88 

10.98 

11.77 

13.19 
13.54 
9.49 
11.16 
12.17 



Per ct. 
9.15 

9.38 
10.24 

3.01 
26.73 
7.40 
8.40 
10.62 
10.56 
15.82 

9.45 
27.81 

22.04 

9.10 

12.21 
24. 54 
21.97 
22.94 
25.19 



Perct, 

2.08 

1.96 
2.81 

0.78 
4.26 
3.33 
2.16 
3.63 
1.98 
7.51 

2.24 
7.05 

3.28 

3.00 

2.86 
4.41 
4.03 
2.95 



** 



P.ct. 
2.60 

2.87 
2.97 

2.99 
3.50 
4.02 
4.04 
4.22 
4.54 
4.81 

5.33 
5.35 

5.60 

5.61 

7.15 
7.53 
7.84 
9.43 
11.19 



The same marked effect of the texture of the soil on the distribution 
of the different classes of crops is shown in the investigations of the 
soils of this locality. Without considering the influence of the proximity 
of large bodies of water, the lighter soils, that is, those containing the 
least amount of clay, are invariably regarded as the earlier, and as a 
rule the crops mature from six to eight or ten days earlier than on the 
heavier truck soils. Salisbury is one of the principal centers of the 
trucking interest, and it will be seen that the soils around this place are 
very light textured and well adapted to the early spring vegetables. 
Barren Creek Springs is another locality where the soils are well 
adapted to early truck, but the industry has not yet been developed 
there as fully as at Salisbury. 

A number of samples in this table were taken from Caroline County, 
where wheat is still grown on nearly all the farms, as it was grown 
throughout the present truck area until the peculiar adaptation of 



142 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



these lands to truck farming and the improved facilities for transporta- 
tion induced the farmers to abandon wheat and take up this much more 
profitable industry. These samples show that the soils of Caroline 
County which have been examined are well adapted to early truck, and 
nearly all of the county would be greatly benefited if the farmers 
would abandon wheat and turn their attention to this special line of 
farming. 

The accompanying table gives the mechanical analyses of a number 
of samples from one of the most famous centers of truck farming in the 
country, namely, that portion of Long Island adjacent to New York City. 

Table 6. — Mechanical analyses of subsoils of truck lands. 



No. 


Locality. 


u 

"" a 

3 


u 
1 

a 
© 

1 

o 


a 


Pi 

* . 

s 

m l 

e3 
O 

O 


n3 

PI 

a . 

•a 5 

o 


ODi-J 
9 


9 . 


T 
a 

t-H 

O 

i 


i 
© 

«"* 

© 

d 


i 

o 

"-"a 
i-i 

c3 * 




NILW "XOBK. 


P.ct. 


P.ct. 


P.ct. 


Per ct. 


Perct. 


Per ct. 


Per ct. 


Perct. 


Per ct. 


P.ct. 


616 


1 mile south of Jamaica. . . 


1.08 


1.40 


9.09 


21. 40 


35.75 


16.05 


6.18 


5.24 


1.35 


3.29 


558 


1 mile south of Jamaica. . . 


0.10 


1.52 


18.44 


28. 77 


28.86 


7.98 


3.95 


5.50 


1.39 


3.37 


55 


1 J miks east of New Lots. 


0.22 


3.78 


6.15 


18.35 


34.57 


14.18 


7.49 


9.13 


1.87 


4.13 


532 




0.12 


2.74 


4.81 


13.62 


31 58 


10.19 


7.76 


18.51 


3.29 


6.70 


539 


Jamaica - 


0.14 


2.25 


9.59 


19.06 


24.91 


9.65 


10.08 


14.10 


3.29 


7.25 


18 


Flatlands 


1.30 


5.80 


8.G9 


10.86 


20.01 


6.49 


12.15 


23.85 


5.99 


7.56 


31 


£ mile east of New Lots . . 


0.62 


1.88 


11. £0 


22.20 


25.53 


8.70 


7.32 


12.63 


2.32 


7.72 


56 


1J miles east of New Lots. 


0.81 


2.33 


4.61 


15.59 


34.82 


12.94 


10.95 


6.82 


3.35 


8.58 


43 


1 mile east of New Lots . . 


0.84 


2.50 


12.94 


11.52 


28.08 


12.00 


10.72 


10.48 


2.63 


8.60 


23 


New Lots - • 


1.06 


3.32 


6.46 


13.24 


19.14 


8.46 


17.20 


21.57 


3.60 


11.30 


20 


1 mile west of Flatlands . . 


1.24 


4. 06 


1.11 


3.91 


5.98 


4-76 


13.15 


40.15 


12.10 


12. $6 



It will be seen that these soils have the same texture as the samples 
which have already been given from the Southern coast. The influence 
of the texture of the soil on the distribution of the different classes of 
truck crops is very marked here also. The lighter-textured soils are 
adapted to the early spring vegetables^ while the heavier soils are 
better adapted to the heavier crops, such as cabbage and spinach, and 
to small fruits. For example, it is said that spring-planted crops can 
be forced to mature about two weeks earlier on soils represented by 
samples Kos. 616 and 558 than on the heavier soil, No. 539, the expo- 
sure and other conditions being nearly identical in the two places. 



RELATION OF SOILS TO CEOP PRODUCTION. 



143 



The accompanying table gives the mechanical analyses of early 
truck soils from Providence, B. I., and from Boston, Mass. 

Table 7. — Mechanical analyses of subsoils. 







eg <jj 




-r 




1. 






T 


i 

o 


i 
in 






tf'ft 


% 






»r 


s -" 


°r 






o -A 


ffo. 


Locality. 


gl 


3 
o 


d 


CD ,' 




11 


•8? 


o 

r 

in 




o 






Sfr 




1 


o 




.a 




4= 


©O 

Pi ' 


«8 * 






3 


o 


O 


O 


a 


fe 


> 


m 


fr 


O 




MASSACHUSETTS. 


P.ct 


P. et. 


Per cf. 


Perct. 


Perct 


Perct 


Perct. 


Per ct. 


Perct 


P.ct. 


187 


Boston 


0.62 


2.50 


1.64 


3.42 


10.58 


29.32 


43.93 


4.99 


1.03 


1.84 


508 


do 


1.07 


3.58 
•5.94 


0.85 
1.53 


3.56 

6.45 


15.25 
16.06 


30.07 
19.95 


29.31 
22.18 


12.02 
13.57 


1.52 
2.40 


2.64 


05 


do 


7.45 




RHODE ISLAND. 






















523 


Providence l 


0.20 


1.02 


10.70 


15.20 


27.78 


31.07 


10.24 


2.86 


0.53 


1.14 


510 


do 


0.99 


5.94 


7.35 


11.02 


23.17 


24.52 


17.45 


4.79 


1.88 


1.62 









1 Gravel larger than 2 rom 21. 21 

Fine earth 78.79 

100. 00 

The early truck farming of the Atlantic Seaboard is confined to soils 
similar in texture to those whose analyses have been given. The 
climate of course has much to do with the actual time of harvest in 
each locality, but the character of the soils and the proximity to large 
bodies of water determine the distribution of crops in each locality, 
and soils- and transportation facilities together define the area over 
which truck farming can be profitably carried on in any locality. 



TOBACCO SOILS OF CONNECTICUT AND PENNSYLVANIA. 

Tobacco is grouped commercially into classes, types, and grades. 
The class represents the use to which it is adapted, whether for cigar, 
cigarette, smoking, chewing, or export trade. The type is dependent 
upon certain qualities, such as the color, texture, and flavor of the leaf, 
and upon the question whether it is sun-cured, air-cured, flue-cured, etc. 
The grade refers to the degree of excellence of the leaves from the same 
type or even from the same stalk. The different grades are designated 
as low, medium, and good, and also with respect to the use, as fillers, 
binders, wrappers, and the like. 

Different types of tobacco are required for cigars, cigarettes, smok- 
ing, and chewing, and different grades for the wrappers and fillers of 
cigars and for plug tobacco. Furthermore, different sections of our 
own country and several of the importing foreign countries require dif- 
ferent classes, types, and grades of tobacco for their use. 

The English, German, and Italian markets require a coarse, dark, 
heavy type of tobacco, grown extensively in the Olarksville district of 



144 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

Tennessee and Kentucky. The Austrian and Swiss markets require a 
lighter-colored and more leafy tobacco, which is grown upon the lighter 
and poorer soils of the Clarksville district. The French market requires 
a still lighter and coarser leaf. Nearly all of the Maryland tobacco 
and much of the Yirginia and Ohio tobaccos go to France, Holland, 
and Germany for pipe smoking, as it is a mild, sweet-flavored tobacco, 
with free burning qualities, making it specially suitable for this use. 
The cigarette tobacco comes principally from the bright-tobacco soils of 
Yirginia, North and South Carolina, and eastern Tennessee. 

Tobacco can be grown on almost any well-drained soil which will 
produce Indian corn 5 but the climatic conditions and the texture and 
physical properties of the soil so greatly modify the development of the 
plant as to determine the distribution of the different classes and 
types. Climatic conditions control, of course, the general distribution, 
but the influence of the texture of the soil in modifying the effect of 
these climatic conditions determines the local distribution of types. 
Tobacco readily adapts itself to a wide range of climatic conditions, as 
is seen in the distribution of the plant in our own country from Florida 
to Wisconsin. While it adapts itself very readily to the different con- 
ditions of temperature and rainfall which normally prevail during the 
growing season throughout this wide range of territory, seasons which 
are either too wet or too dry very often reduce the yield per acre and 
impair the quality and the value of the product. The plant is, further- 
more, peculiarly sensitive to the conditions of moisture and heat, result- 
ing under existing climatic conditions from the texture and physical 
properties of the different soil formations, and this largely determines 
the local distribution of the different types of tobacco. 

ADAPTATION OF SOILS TO VARIETIES OF TOBACCO. 

Soils adapted to the production of the coarse shipping tobacco, suit- 
able forihe English and German markets, will not produce fine tobacco 
of any variety. Soils containing a large proportion of clay, or which 
otherwise are very retentive of moisture, produce large, heavy plants, 
which cure dark-brown or red, with large quantities of oil or gum in 
the leaves. Light, sandy soils, on the other hand, produce a thinner 
leaf, which cures a very bright red, mahogany, and even lemon yellow. 
So marked is this influence of soil upon the quality of tobacco that a 
fine bright-tobacco land may be separated by only a few feet from a 
heavier clay soil which will produce only a coarse, heavy shipping leaf. 
Varieties which produce an excellent quality of tobacco on soils to 
which they are adapted produce an entirely different type when planted 
on lands of a different character, and frequently fail entirely. Yellow 
Pryor and Orinoco grown upon rich lowlands, especially if well 
manured, produce a strong, heavy type of tobacco, while upon light, 
new land the product of the same varieties is yellow, fine flavored, 
thin textured, and sweet. 



RELATION OF SOILS TO CROP PRODUCTION. 145 

Manures and fertilizers tend to increase the yield per acre, but in 
the case of the fine, bright tobaccos this is usually accompanied by a 
deterioration of the quality of the product, especially if excessive 
quantities of stable manure and other forms of nitrogenous manures 
are added to the land. With the heavier varieties of tobacco, how- 
ever, this increase of yield is often accompanied by a marked improve- 
ment in the quality of the product, as it becomes richer and contains 
more oil and gum, which is an advantage for the purpose to which thi/» 
class of tobacco is adapted. 

The distribution of the principal types of tobacco may be broadly 
stated as follows: The seed-leaf, or Havana, tobacco is produced in 
such quantities and such excellence as to give a distinct character to 
localities in Massachusetts, Connecticut, New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, 
Illinois, Wisconsin, and Florida; the red shipping leaf gives a distinct 
character to localities in Yirginia, Kentucky, Indiana, Tennessee, Iowa, 
and Arkansas; the white Burley gives a distinct character to localities 
in Ohio and Kentucky; heavy shipping tobacco for export gives a 
distinct character to localities in Maryland, Yirginia, West Yirginia, 
Kentucky, and Tennessee ; mahogany and yellow wrappers and smokers 
give a distinct character to localities in Yirginia, North and South Car- 
olina, and eastern Tennessee. 

The best soils for these different classes and types of tobacco are 
very different, ranging from the light, sandy lands of the pine barrens 
for the fine yellow varieties to the heavy clay soils of the limestone 
areas for the heavier grades of tobacco. This must always be borne in 
mind, as otherwise there would be apparent contradictions, since in 
some districts light, sandy loams, and in others strong clay soils, are 
described as best adapted to the variety of tobacco which gives char- 
acter to the locality. 

The writer has endeavored to study during the past season the con- 
ditions maintained by the soils adapted to some of these different 
classes and types of tobacco for the purpose of determining those which 
are essential to the best development of each of these types. This infor- 
mation, with a knowledge of the ordinary climatic conditions, would givo 
a basis for the classification of tobacco soils and for the improvement 
and modification of the conditions in many soils which are not, under 
present methods of manuring and cultivation, well adapted to any par- 
ticular type of tobacco. This work involves considerable preliminary 
examination of the physical conditions of the soils in the localities which 
are to be selected, and then the establishment of observing stations in 
these different areas. It has been impossible, for various reasons, to 
obtain in one year records of the soil conditions from many localities 
and, with respect to the localities from which we have obtained records, 
the data are not yet all available, and will not be until the tobacco is 
cured. 



146 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGEICULTUEE. 



TOBACCO SOILS OF THE CONNECTICUT VALLEY. 

The influence of soil upon the quality of the tobacco grown in the 
Connecticut Yalley is very marked. Where the soil is a heavy clay 
loam j or for other reasons is normally very moist, the tobacco produces 
a thick leaf which has considerable oil and gum in its tissues, cures a 
dark color, and will bear sweating well, but is not well suited for cigar 
wrappers at present because light- colored, thin-textured wrappers are 
in demand at this time. Upon light, sandy soils the quality is very 
fine, the texture of the leaf is thin, and the color is light. It is this type 
of tobacco which is at present in demand for cigar wrappers. A good 
wrapper for our domestic use at present requires a leaf of fine texture 
and small veins, but with plenty of body. It must have elasticity and 
strength to make it pliable in working, and it must have good sweating 
qualities to bring out the flavor and to give it the aroma it needs when 
finally cured. 

Samples of the soils and subsoils have been collected from a number 
of localities representing^ome of the principal types of land adapted to 
tobacco and several soils not adapted to this crop. Observations have 
been taken every day during the growing season to determine the 
amount of moisture in the soils in several places. 

The accompanying table gives the mechanical analyses of three of 
the very finest types of tobacco soil in the State of Connecticut for the 
light-colored, thin-textured wrappers. 

Table 8. — Mechanical analyses of subsoils of tobacco land. 



No. 


Locality. 


ct © 

Cr3 


& 

a 

o 

"8 

a 
If 


'© 

i 


o 


a IP 

-& 
1*7 






T 

B 

© 

© 


J, 
© 

•HJO 

© • 


«5 

© . 
© <j-» 






3 


O 


o 


o 


S 


E 


t> 


m 


ft 


O 




CONNECTICUT. 






















842 


3§ miles east of East Hart- 


Perct 


Perct 


Perct. 


Perct 


Per ct. 


Per ct. 


Perct 


Terct. 


Perct 


Perct. 






0.46 


2.08 


1.05 


5.03 


18.31 


25.83 


32.11 


11.31 


1.15 


2.51 


1254 




0.56 


1.64 


3.22 


7.53 


19.64 


23.76 


34.50 


5.92 


0.78 


2.53 


729 


East Hartford, Podnnk 


























0.49 


2.05 


0.09 


0.30 


1.11 


9.95 


52.47 


27.73 


3.56 


4.00 









The amount of clay in these samples ranges from 2.5 to 4 per cent. 
The soil of the "plains," near East Hartford, is a very light, sandy 
soil, Which grows a tobacco of a, very fine texture and very good color, 
but the yield per acre is naturally low. The conditions which give this 
land its characteristic value are undoubtedly to be found in the small 
content of clay and in the small amount of moisture which these 
"plains" soils maintain. No observations have been made on the 
moisture condition of these soils in their natural condition in the field. 

The subsoil of the Poquonock lands is seen to contain about 2.53 per 
cent of clay, 5.92 per cent of silt, and less than 1 per cent of fine silt. 



EELATION OF SOILS TO CROP PRODUCTION. 



147 



These soils have almost identically the same texture as the " plains" 
soil, and the development, texture, and color of the tobacco crop is 
believed to be about the same. The yield is larger in this particular 
locality, because the lands have been more intelligently cultivated. 
This is believed to represent the finest type of land of the Connecti- 
cut Valley for the light-colored, thin-textured cigar wrapper, which 
approaches the Sumatra grade. When heavy, dark wrappers are in 
style this soil can not compete with the heavy limestone soils of Penn- 
sylvania for the domestic market. 



Per Cent. 



Gravel. 



J.Jg 



2-1 



Coarse sand. 



7.S3 



1-.5 



Medium sand. 



Sf.63 



.5-.25 



Fine sand. 



<23 76 



.25-1 



Veryfinssand. 



3VSO 



.1.05 



Silt 



J?<2 



.05-.01 



tf/^ 



Clay. 



cZS3 



01-.005 .005-.O001 



Diameter of the grains in miilimetets, 



Fig. 4.— Mechanical separation of the gravel, sand, silt, and clay in SO gram3 of subsoil from 
Toquonock, Conn., adapted to tobacco. 

The amount of moisture has been determined in these soils through- 
out the growing season. The results are shown in a diagram, figure 6, 
page 149. The figures on the left-hand side of the diagram indicate 
the percentage of moisture found in the soil to a depth of 12 inches 
from the surface. The dotted portions of the line pass through the 
dates where observations are missing. 

The soils of the Podunk region of East Hartford and Windsor, rep- 
resented by No. 729 ; are seen to have about 4 per cent of clay and 27.73 
per cent of silt, with 3.56 per cent of fine silt. The relatively large 
amount of silt makes these soils more retentive of moisture than the 
soils of Poquonock, and they are said to grow a rather heavier type of 
tobacco. The relative character of the crops of these two soils during 
the past season can not be exactly determined until the crops come out 
of the sweat and are finally cured, which requires nearly a year from 
the time the crop is harvested. 



148 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



It will be seen tliat the soil of the Podunk district contained during 
the season considerably more moisture than the soil at Poquonock, and 
this undoubtedly accounts for the heavier and darker type of tobacco 
produced. 



Per Cent. 



Gravel. 



.OS 



2-1 



Coarse sand. 



.30 



1.5 



Medium sand. 



/// 



.5-.25 



Fine sand. 



s.ss 



.25-1 



Veryfinescnd. 



S2.V7 



.1.05 



*///. 



Z7./3 



.05-.01 



Fine silt. 



3.S6 




Clay. 



¥.00 



01-.005 .005-.0001 



Diameter of the grains in millimeters. 



Fig. 5. —Mechanical separation of the gravel, sand, silt, and clay in 20 grams of subsoil of the 
Podunk district, East Hartford, Conn., adapted to tobacco. 

Hatfield, Mass., is another center for the tobacco industry of the 
Connecticut Valley, and samples have been collected from a number of 
localities in that vicinity. Their mechanical analyses are given in the 
accompanying table. 

Table 9. — Mechanical analyses of subsoils. 



No. 


Locality. 


u 

c3 © 

Aft 

© S 

pi CO 
■+* ►>-. 


1 

"S 

s 

i 

to 

u 
O 


i 

i 


& 
©U5 

02 r 

O 

o 


Ik 

.* 1 

3 


so S 

T-l 


1, 

§8 

© 


T 

B 
© 

© 

m 


i 
© 

si 

•8 

©°. 
Pi 

s 


i 
to 
o 
©,A 

© 




MASSACHUSETTS. 


Perct. 


Perct. 


Perct. 


Perct. 


Per ct. 


Per ct. 


Per ct. 


Per ct. 


Per ct. 


Per ct. 


1039 


Hatfield, "2-acre lot" 


0.21 


1.48 


0.00 


0.00 


2.50 


28.11 


55. 78 


10.71 


0.63 


0.92 


1173 


Hatfield, representing 






















average soils of this lo- 


























0.59 


2.71 


0.00 


0.00 


0.40 


9.00 


42.12 


38.90 


3.07 


3.17 


875 


Hatfield, 100 feet from 






Connecticut River 


0.06 


2.15 


0.00 


0.00 


0.12 


2.31 


4U.30 


45.41 


4.15 


4.50 


901 


Hatfield, 200 feet from 
























Connecticut River 


0.82 


2.90 


0.00 


0.00 


0.21 


2.13 


38.11 


45.09 


4.70 


5.98 




Not suited to tobacco. 






















990 


Hatfield, ' ' heavy loam ' ' . . . 


0.88 


3.45 


0.00 


0.00 


0.10 


0.43 


21.88 


07.00 


3.41 


2.61 


1250 


Hatfield, " meadow land " . 


0.10 


4.75 


0.00 


0.00 


0.05 


0.50 


32.64 


49.32 


5.46 


6.79 



RELATION OP SOILS TO CROP PRODUCTION. 



149 



There are two very different tyj)es of land represented here. Sample 
No. 1039 came from a 2-acre lot in the town of Hatfield, considered to 
be of the very finest type of tobacco land of the locality. The yield 
per acre is small, but the color, texture, and quality of the tobacco are 
very superior, and the wrappers bring a high price. It will be seen 
that the texture of this soil is similar to that of the Poquonock and of 



JUNE. 


JULY. 


16 


17 


18 


19 


20 


21 


222 


324^25 


2627 


28 


23 


30 1 


2 c 


1 4 5 


> 6 


7 


8 9 


1011 


12 


13 


14 15 16 


33 










































32 










































31 










































30 . 










































29 










































28 


































n 








27 


































/ \ 








26 










A 






/ 


< 
















f 








25 . 








1 


f\ 






f 




N 












f 


i 


A 




24 % 


■ % 






f 




« 










i 










/ 






n 


U*v 


23 




\ 




/ 








' 






\ 

■; 


HA) 


r klEl 


0, 




-4 








V y 


22 




\ 






% 












Jl 


4->S. 


"J 














21 






v 








\ , 








1 


^ 


V, 


\ 














20 






V 








\ 












^*< 


*J 














19 














V 




























18 










































17 


































E/ST 


M 


/?7 


FOHD 


16 






















, 




j 


\ 






A 




C 


ONV. 


15 


























J 


v ^ 


t" 


^x 


J^ 






/**-■* 


14 


# 


,— 




















J_ 


*J 








V 


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/ 




!3~* 






















*" * 


"T 












\r 






12 










































II 








































a 


10 








































h 


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f 


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j 


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7 ~ 














-•■^ 






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!. 


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6 
















' s 


V 


r* 


st 










"••"- 


**^ 


*** 


4 




5 










, 
































4 










































3 










































2 










































1 






















































































Fig. 6. — Carves showing the amount of moisture in the tobacco soils at Poquonock, East 
Hartford, and Hatfield, in the Connecticut Valley. 

the " plains" soil at East Hartford. Sample No. 1173 represents about 
the average tobacco soils of the Hatfield district. This is said to pro- 
duce a very fine quality of tobacco. It will be seen from the analysis 
that the texture of this soil is quite similar to that of the Podunk dis- 
trict of Connecticut. Samples Nos. 875 and 901 represent what are 



150 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



called the " river sands," near the edge of the first terrace ^overlooking 
the river. They have a small percentage of clay, but a rather large 
amount of silt. This might make them rather too retentive of moisture, 
but their position on the bank of the river insures perfect drainage, as 
the bluff is 25 or 30 feet high at this place. For this reason these soils 
produce a very fine quality of tobacco, as fine in every way as does 
2STo. 1039. The importance of the bluff in securing thorough drainage 
to these lands is very marked. Sample No. 875 is taken about 100 feet 
nearer the river bank than TSo. 901, and the soil is considered more 
valuable for tobacco than the other, the product being brighter and of 
a finer texture. 
The other two samples were taken from different types of land. 

Sample No. 999 represents what is 
locally known as a "heavy loam" 
and No. 1250 is from a meadow land. 
These two soils are said to produce 
tobacco the leaves of which are 
coarse textured and oily, do not take 
on a good color, and are unsuited to 
the present market demands ; but 
when dark wrappers are in style 
these lands will be taken up and the 
cultivation of tobacco will be aban- 
doned on the light soils. These soils 
do not differ materially from the 
other samples at Hatfield except in 
the large amount of silt they con- 
tain. Owing to this large amount of 
silt and to the peculiar arrangement 
of the silt grains, these soils are very 
close and very retentive of moisture, 
and to these soil peculiarities are 
due the characteristics which unfit 
this tobacco for the present demand. 
The plants show all the symptoms of 
an excessive growth from an exces- 
sive water supply. 
The accompanying diagram (fig, 6) shows the amount of moisture 
maintained during a part of June and July in the soils at Poquonock, 
where the light wrappers are produced, in the soils of the Podunk dis- 
trict, and in this "heavy loam" soil at Hatfield (No. 999), which is 
unsuited to tobacco. 

^Figure 7 shows the actual amount of water maintained, on the aver- 
age, by 20 grams of the soil at Poquonock, and at East Hartford, and of 
this heavy loam at Hatfield, through the season. The excessive amount 
of moisture maintained by the Hatfield soil is strikingly apparent. 




Fig. 7. — Average amount of water maintained 
in 20 grama of tobacco soils at Poquonock, 
East Hartford, and Hatfield, in the Connecti- 
cut Valley. 



RELATION OF SOILS TO CROP PRODUCTION. 151 

It may be asked if this c : heavy loain " from Hatfield is better adapted 
to other types of tobacco. This is undoubtedly so, but just at present 
the heavy, coarse types of tobacco, which in its present condition it is 
adapted to grow, are worth but little. It may also be asked if the con- 
ditions could be modified so as to make the land better adapted to the 
finer types of cigar tobacco. This could undoubtedly be done. The 
first thing needed would be to undercirain the land by tile drains so as 
to remove as much as possible of the excess of water. The tobacco 
should be grown on high beds or -ridges, which would keep the roots 
in drier soil and materially improve the texture and quality of the crop. 
The texture of the soil should be changed by judicious methods of 
cropping, manuring, and cultivation, making it more loamy and less 
retentive of moisture. The excessive growth of the plants could be 
checked by cultivation, or by the use of certain manures and chemicals 
which would prevent the plants from taking up so much moisture not- 
withstanding its abundance in the soil. But all this would be expen- 
sive, and it is a* question whether it could be economically done under 
the prevailing conditions. 

TOBACCO SOILS OF PENNSYLVANIA. 

The characteristic tobacco of Pennsylvania is grown on the heavy 
limestone soils having a stiff red^clay subsoil. These soils represent the 
very finest type of agriculturalland, being well adapted to both wheat 
and grass. They are identical in geological formation, texture, and 
agricultural value with the soils of the Cumberland Valley of western 
Maryland and Virginia and with the soils of the blue- grass region of 
Kentucky. There are, of course, many areas along the river, on the 
islands, and back in other of the geological formations of the hill coun- 
try where sandy soils prevail and where a ligkt^colored, thin-textured 
leaf is produced. This latter type of tobacco at present has a higher 
market value than the crop from the heavier soils, but the type which 
has given character to the tobacco area of Pennsylvania is that grown 
upon these rich and fertile limestone soils of Lancaster and the adja- 
cent counties. These limestone soils produce a heavy, dark type of 
tobacco admirably adapted for wrappers for our domestic use when dark 
cigars happen to be in fashion. 

The fad or fancy for light or dark cigars is difficult to explain. It 
causes prices to fluctuate first in favor of one and then of the other of 
our two principal domestic types of tobacco. 

These conditions should be fully realized by the tobacco planters so 
that they can adapt themselves to the market demands which :they can 
not control. They should fully understand the important influence of 
the character of the soil on their crop. When the fashion calls for light 
cigars they should cultivate only their lighter soils and use their heavier 
lands for other crops. When.dark cigars are in demand the lighter soils 
should be diverted from this use and the heavier soils "be once more 



152 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

taken up. The method of cultivation also should tend to emphasize as 
much as possible the differences in the conditions of these two classes of 
soils; the lighter soils should have perfect drainage and maintain but a 
small amount of moisture, while the heavier soils should maintain at all 
times an abundant and uniform supply of moisture. 

The accompanying table gives the mechanical analyses of two sub- 
soils of tobacco lands from the typical tobacco area of Lancaster 
County. 

Table 10. — Mechanical analyses of subsoils. 







fe 




»d 


^ 


r=J 


n 




^ 


i 






S 
"§ 


a 

s 


pi 


Pi 




9 • 


a 

g 


© 


© . 


*7o. 


Locality. 


a 
1 


*© 
% 


m g 

03 .' 

O 


© w 




fig 
4) 


O 

© 


^ a 
© * 








o 


O 


O 


B 


£ 


>• 


XJ1 


Ph 


o 




PENNSYLVANIA. 


Per ct. 


Per ct. 


Per ct. 


Per ct. 


Per ct. 


Per c*. 


Per ct. 


Per c*. 


P. C«. 


1360 


Marietta 


4.36 
5.34 


0.12 
0.36 


0.22 
0.40 


0.27 
0.93 


0.37 
3.11 


7.48 
11.45 


28.28 
30.55 


16.24 
10.35 


35.80 


1C 


Lititz 


36.30 









6 ravel. 



O./J. 



Per Cent. 



Coarse sand. 



0,J/ 



Medium sand. 



0<27 



..5-.25 



Fine sand. 



(P.J/ 



.26-1 



Veryfinesand* 



Z*f 



.1.06 



S/'/f. 



<££<2f 



.06-.01 



Fine silt 



/6J,#> 



. Clay. 



3 J. to 



.01.006 .005-.00di 



Diameter of the grains in millimeters. 



Fig. 8.— Mechanical separation of the gravel, sand, silt, and clay in 20 grams of subsoil from 
Marietta, Pa., adapted to tobacco. 

It will be seen that these subsoils contain about 3G per cent of clay, 
nearly as much silt, and about half as much fine silt. They contain 
only a very small percentage of sand. There can hardly be a greater 
contrast in agricultural soils than between these heavy limestone soils 
adapted to grass, wheat, and the heavy types of tobacco, and the light 
sandy lands of the Connecticut Valley. 



RELATION OF SOILS TO CROP PRODUCTION. 



153 



The accompanying diagram (fig. 9) shows the amount of moisture 
maintained during the month of July by the soil at Marietta, from 
determinations in samples taken in the field and sent in to the labora- 
tory of the United States Department of Agriculture, compared with 
the moisture determinations at Poquonock and East Hartford, Conn., 
which have been given elsewhere. 



/ 2 


3 4 5 6 7 


8 9 10 


// 12 13 k 


11516 


17 


18 


19 


20 


21 


22 


23 


?4 


?5 


26 


27 


2829 


30 


3/ 


33 








































32 








































3/ 








































30 








































29 








































28 








































27 








































26 








































25 








































24 








































23 








































22 








































21 








































20 


A 






































19 


\ 






















A 
















18 


' i 


< 1 




















l\ 




M< 


\R! 


ET 

M.. 


H 


PA 




17 




\ 


















1 








) 


f 








I6" mm \ 




,J .„ 


3f 








mm 


"S 


V- 


-* 


* 




\ 




f 










15 






















'\ 




V 


4 


f 










14 










'». 


\ 




r 


-•* 






\ 


«4 


H 












13'-* 














V 












\ 


i A 


% 


HA 


?77 


OR 


o, 


12 




























V 


^ 


L C 


ON 


V. 




II 








l 
























\ 








10 






i 


X 
































9 








^\ 












A 




















$ * 








\ 


L 










r 


\ 


















7^\. 


••"-•* «^-v 




J 




V 


U- 


-\ 


k 


J 






\ 




!Si 


ON 


7Ct 


0< 


0/V 


N. 


6 




K4>»a«i 


■*■ -t 










V 




















*• 


A 


5 








































4 








































3 






































— 


2 






































1 














































































Fio. 9.— Curves showing the amount of moisture in tobacco soils at Poquonock and East 
Hartford, Conn., and Marietta, Pa. 

It will be seen that the limestone soil at Marietta maintains nearly 
three times as much water for the jdants as the light soil at Poquonock, 
and this more abundant water supply would be expected to have just 
the effect which is apparent in the darker, heavier type of tobacco pro- 
duced. 



154 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S; DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



P&quonock 
Light Wrappers 

7% 



Marietta 
Dark Wrappers 




The Connecticut Yalley tobacco competes principally with the Suma- 
tra, and the Pennsylvania with the Cuban tobacco. Our planters 
claim that the domestic wrappers from the Connecticut Yalley have a 
better color and a better flavor than the Sumatra tobacco. The latter, 
however, has an exceedingly thin leaf, hardly thicker than tissue paper, 
but remarkably strong, elastic, and pliable. The veins are so delicate 
that they do not need to be removed. The leaves are so thin and yet 
so strong and cut to such advantage that manufacturers can estimate 
very closely how many cigars a pound of wrapper will cover. It is 
said to cover from four to seven times as many cigars as an equal 
weight of the domestic leaf. The cigars also have a smoother appear- 
ance and are thought to make a bet- 
ter appearance in the windows and 
show cases. For these reasons 
manufacturers have been paying 
from $3 to $5 per pound for the 
Sumatra wrapper rather than, pay 
from 25 to 50 cents per pound for 
the domestic leaf. The problem 
before our planters, therefore, is to 
make a smaller and thinner leaf, 
with more elasticity and strength 
and with much smaller veins. The 
peculiar character of the Sumatra 
tobacco must be largely due to the 
climatic conditions of the island, but 
the same result can possibly be ob- 
tained here by close and intelligent 
attention to selection and breeding 
of varieties and by control of the 
soil conditions. 

The Pennsylvania tobacco is well 
adapted for cigar wrappers, but it 
lacks the peculiar delicate flavor 
and aroma of the best grades of 
imported Havana. These qualities are undoubtedly due, in large part 
at least, to the tropical climatic conditions of the island. Whether 
these same qualities can be obtained in the same perfection under the 
existing climatic conditions in Pennsylvania, and if not, whether these 
conditions can be so controlled or changed as to give the desired qual- 
ities, can not be foretold, but offer a legitimate and promising subject 
for investigation. The improvement of the crop should be carried on 
in the lines indicated in this paper by comparing the conditions of cli- 
mate, especially the conditions of moisture and temperature, within the 
range of the best tobacco soils of Cuba, with those conditions prevail- 
ing in Pennsylvania. When these are known they will form a basis, 




Fig. 10.— The average amount of water in 20 
grams of tobacco soils of Poquonock and 
Marietta. 



RELATION OF SOILS TO CROP PRODUCTION. 155 

otherwise wanting, for the intelligent control of the soil conditions or 
the improvement of methods of cultivation and treatment. 

Tobacco is grown in Pennsylvania in rather small patches, the aver- 
age size of the fields being about 3 acres. A small proportion of the 
farmers cultivate as much as 5 acres, but it is rather uncommon to have 
more than this, and there is a disadvantage in having more, as the crop 
can not be so well attended to. The crop is grown under a very inten- 
sive system of cultivation, involving great care, labor, and expense. 
With such small areas as these there is no good reason why planters 
should not insure their crop against injury by drought by having small 
irrigation plants which would render them in a measure independent 
in case of any deficiency in the rainfall. The water could be obtained 
either from springs or streams, of w T hich there are a great many in that 
limestone area, or by pumping with a windmill or small farm engine. 
In the arid regions of Kansas a good windmill, it is claimed, will fill a 
reservoir large enough to irrigate as much as 5 or 10 acres of land, even 
where several applications of water have to be used during the growing 
season. In the tobacco area of Pennsylvania probably one thorough 
irrigation would cany a crop over the most prolonged drought which 
is there liable to occur. A reservoir 100 feet square would be sufficient 
to irrigate the crop, and this reservoir could be stocked with fish, which 
would prove a source of pleasure and profit. If it were kept constantly 
filled it could be drawn upon for the tobacco crop when needed, for the 
garden if it were conveniently located, and for other general farm 
purposes. The cost of such an outfit would be comparatively small; 
it could be made to pay by the amount of fish it would produce, if prop- 
erly attended to, and as a measure of precaution and insurance against 
loss of the crop by drought it would be a wise investment even if it 
were used only once in two or three seasons. 

Where there are no available springs or streams and a windmill can 
not well be used, a small farm engine, such as would run a thrashing 
machine, could be very economically employed. Such an engine 
attached to one of the many forms of irrigating pumps would irrigate 
the entire tobacco field in a day or two at a very inconsiderable cost 
for fuel, labor, and wear and tear of machinery. The advantage of 
this would be that with small driven or bored wells located on different 
parts of the farm the engine and pump could be moved from place to 
place as the different fields were cultivated in tobacco in rotation from 
season to season. 

CONDITIONS IN SOILS OF THE ARID REGION. 

The so-called arid portion of Kansas and Nebraska is, broadly speak- 
ing, that portion of the States lying west of the one hundredth merid- 
ian; between the one hundredth meridian and the ninety- seventh the 
climate is called semiarid; and east of the ninety- seventh is the humid 
portion of the States. The mean annual rainfall of the western or 



156 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

arid portion is from 15 to 20 inches; of the central or semiarid portion, 
from 20 to 30 inches; and of the eastern or humid portion, 30 inches 
and over. There are of coarse no sharp lines separating these divis- 
sions, nor do the boundaries approach a north and south line, for the 
belts of greater or less precipitation have very sinuous courses. 

It is generally conceded that 20 inches of well-distributed rainfall in 
Kansas will make an abundant crop of wheat or corn. That there 
must be some rather anomalous condition here is shown by the fact that 
in much of the humid portion of the eastern United States there has 
never been so little as 20 inches of annual rainfall within the period of 
reliable records, and in years of most disastrous drought the rainfall 
has been greater than this. The fact that a crop can be made in Kansas 
and Nebraska with such a small annual rainfall is particularly striking 
when it is remembered that, owing to the drier conditions of the atmos- 
phere, evaporation is very much greater there than in the East. 

There are localities in the West where the total annual rainfall does 
not exceed 6 or 8 inches. It does not seem possible that with this 
rainfall under ordinary circumstances crops could be produced by any 
system of agriculture, unless water were artificially supplied. How- 
ever, it seems possible, outside of these exceptional cases, that with 
^inaproved methods of cultivation the conditions actually existing can 
i be so ./utilized as to secure reliable and satisfactory crops. 
H Statistics show that in the humid portion of the United States, hav- 
ing a mean annual rainfall of about 40 inches, 50 per cent flows off into 
the streams and is of no direct benefit to agriculture. This excess of 
rainfall reaches the streams partly by flowing over the surface of the 
ground and partly by slow percolation through the soil. Fifty per cent 
of the rainfall, or 20 inches per annum, evaporates directly from the 
surface of the soil or is transpired by plants. 

Practically, therefore, there are about 20 inches of rainfall at the 
disposal of agricultural plants, and the highest art of cultivation con- 
sists in conserving this moisture, reducing that lost by evaporation from 
the surface soil to a minimum, and maintaining a sufficient amount at 
all times at the disposal of crops. 

There is one factor which has a very important bearing upon the con- 
ditions in the humid as compared with those in the arid regions. In 
the humid region of the Eastern States the soil is continuously moist 
from the surface down to a depth at which it is completely saturated 
and from which water is constantly flowing out into wells, streams, and 
rivers. The water descends through the soil both by virtue of its own 
weight and by capillary force. According to capillary laws the water 
is pulled downward when the subsoil contains less water than the soil. 
Gravity and capillary force are both more effective in moving water 
through a moist subsoil than a dry one; hence there is danger in the 
East of the water being pulled down below the reach of plants in time 
of drought, while in the West, where the subsoil at the depth of a few 
feet is continuously dry, this could not happen. 



RELATION OF SOILS TO CROP PRODUCTION. 157 

Plants maybe likened to a pump, which must have a steady and suf- 
ficient stream flowing into the well lest the surface of the water shall 
fall below the valve and the pump become inactive while there still 
remains a considerable amount of water in the well. There must be an 
adequate supply of water in the soil for the plants to draw upon, and 
this supply must be within their reach. To illustrate : A plant may wilt 
in a soil of close texture containing 10 or 12 per cent of moisture, 
because with so little water present in the soil the movement of water 
to the roots of the plant would be comparatively slow, and the volume 
supplied per minute or per day would be insufficient,* the plant would 
quickly exhaust the supply in the immediate neighborhood of its roots, 
and the amount necessary for its continued growth could not be pulled 
up from the surrounding soil rapidly enough to make good the loss. In 
a soil of different texture the same plant may not suffer until the sup- 
ply falls to 4 or G per cent. 

ARID AND HUMID REGIONS COMPARED. 

There must, therefore, be a certain minimum amount of moisture in 
all soils, just as there must be more water in a well than the pump will 
ever use. This minimum amount will depend upon the structure of the 
soil and the rate of movement of moisture and upon the requirements 
of the plant. An ordinary rainfall will have a far more beneficial 
effect upon the crop growing on a soil which contains this minimum 
amount than upon a crop growing on a soil containing less than the 
minimum. It must also be borne in mind, in comparing the soil con- 
ditions of the humid and arid regions, that the excess of moisture in 
the humid regions may often be of indirect value to agriculture by 
increasing the availability of the moisture which is to remain. 

In the arid portions of Kansas, Nebraska, and Colorado, with a mean 
rainfall of nearly or quite 20 inches per annum, statistics of the gauging 
of rivers and streams show that 10 per cent, or 2 inches, of this rain- 
fall flows off into streams and is of no direct benefit to agriculture. 
This gives, broadly speaking, 18 inches of rainfall available for agricul- 
ture in the arid regions as against 20 inches of available rainfall in the 
humid portion of the United States. Statistics show likewise that the 
greater portion of this rainfall in the arid region comes during the grow- 
ing season. From April to the last of August they have an average 
rainfall of between 3 and 4 inches a month. 

It appears at first sight a rather anomalous fact that there is nearly 
as much available rainfall in the arid as in the humid region,* but there 
are several modifying circumstances that must be borne in mind. In 
the first place, the humidity of the atmosphere is very much less and 
evaporation is very much greater in the climate of the arid region. 
Statistics show that the annual evaporation from a free-water surface 
in the arid region is about GO or 80 inches. In the humid portion of 
the United States the evaporation from a free- water surface is equal to 



158 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OP AGRICULTURE. 

about 30 inches per annum. Roughly speaking, therefore, the amount 
of evaporation is twice as great in the arid region under consideration 
as in the humid portion of the country. Relatively more of the rain- 
fall would therefore evaporate from the soil and relatively less would 
be available to plants. It would also seem that plants would transpire 
much more water and would require a more abundant water supply in 
the arid climate. It will be remembered, too, that there is practically 
no excess of water in the soils as in the soils of the humid region 
to make these 18 inches more available to plants. 





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Fia. 11.— Average yield of corn in bushels per acre in Kansas, 16 years, 

The fact remains, however, that in years of normal rainfall well dis- 
tributed over the growing season, small though it is, a good crop is 
obtained throughout the semiarid region, and even on the so-called arid 
plains, where the land is properly cultivated. Statistics compiled by 
the Kansas board of agriculture show that in the sixteen years from 
1877 to 1892, inclusive, the yield of corn per acre in the State of Kansas 
exceeded 30 bushels in eight seasons and the yield fell below 20 bushels 
per acre in three seasons. This is shown graphically in the accompany- 
ing illustration (fig. 11). 



RELATION OF SOILS TO CROP PRODUCTION. 159 

The average yield of wheat during this same period exceeded 15 
bushels per acre during seven seasons and was under 11 bushels per 
acre five seasons. In the arid portion of the State a fairly good season 
occurs about two years in five, the remaining three out of the five 
seasons being too dry for a good crop. The fact that they can make a 
crop at all with an annual rainfall of 20 inches under the conditions 
which have already been considered is surprising, and indicates that 
there must be conditions which are not strictly comparable with those 
in the humid region, and that there are advantages to counteract the 
apparently unfavorable conditions. 

DEPTH OF SOIL MOIST TJRE. 

A considerable portion of the 2 inches of annual rainfall of the arid 
region which finds its way into streams and rivers must flow off over 
the surface and not even enter the soil. The extreme and rapid varia- 
tion in the volume of the rivers, and the frequent torrential showers, 
during which the ground is flooded with water, indicate that this con- 
dition does in fact prevail to a large extent. Some water is retained' 
by local depressions until it sinks, and there are undoubtedly soils of 
loose, light texture into which a considerable amount descends and finds 
its way to the rivers and streams by slow percolation; but as a rule 
there seems to be no connection between the surface moisture and the 
underlying " water table." The natural prairie sod sheds water like a 
roof when it is delivered rapidly and in large volume, and it is only 
with a long continued, gentle rain that the soil and subsoil under the 
sod will absorb any considerable amount of moisture. 

During a recent examination of the conditions in the soils of the 
plains of western Kansas, Nebraska, and eastern Colorado, no trace of 
moisture was found in a number of borings from just below the surface 
to a depth of 3 feet under the natural prairie sod, except on the light 
soils of the sand hills near Garden City and in a few depressions, where 
water had evidently been canght. The season had been exceptionally 
dry, but an inch of rain had fallen about a week before the examina- 
tions were made. Where the sod had been broken and the land had 
been under cultivation during the season the subsoil was quite moist, 
and more moist the more thorough the cultivation had been. 

At Geneva, Nebr., the soil and subsoil immediately under the prairie 
sod was so dry that it was extremely difficult to take a sample with an 
auger, both because it was hard to bore into and because the material 
loosened by the auger was so dry $nd powdery that it ran oif the auger 
like fine, dry dust or sand. In an oat field, which had been thoroughly 
prepared by subsoiling two years before, the subsoil was quite moistj 
although the ground had not been actually cultivated for a year. In 
an adjacent field which had been subsoiled the previous year, and dur- 
ing the present year had been thoroughly cultivated in nursery stock, 
the subsoil down to a depth of 3 feet was so moist that it could be 



160 YEARBOOK OP THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

molded in the hand. These three localities were not over a few hun- 
dred feet apart and had been exposed to precisely the same rainfall, 
but had been subjected to these different methods of cultivation. 

It is a common inquiry in the arid region after a rain, how far the 
moisture has descended, or, generally, how far it is down to dry soil. 
The evidence of well-diggers is that after passing through the upper 
few feet of earth the underlying material is dry until they approach 
the water-bearing layers of sand and gravel. The fact of the accumu- 
lation of alkalies shows that the subsoil is not continuously wet down 
to the u water table," as otherwise these would be leached out and car- 
ried off through the subsoil as they are formed. 

Water descends very slowly and to a very limited extent in a per- 
fectly dry soil, while it will spread out very rapidly in a soil which is 
already moist, but short of actual saturation. Water may fall for days 
upon a pile of dry manure and not wet the mass deeper than a few 
inches. Water may likewise fall upon a dry dust pile and not spread 
through the mass, but be contained near the surface, unless it continues 
to fall, in which case the whole mass of the dusty material may become 
saturated. Water does not readily spread through a previously dry 
soil, because the tension or contracting power of the surface of the 
water is greater than the attraction of the soil grains, which tends to 
ctfttse its diffusion through the mass. One may see, therefore, a nearly 
saturated layer closely adjacent to a perfectly dry and dusty mass. On 
the other hand, if there is any appreciable amount of moisture in the 
soil the tension of the water surface will cause it to contract and pull 
water from above into the subsoil. 

It would follow, therefore, that the moisture would not descend into 
the dry subsoil of the upland prairie until the successive depths had 
become so far saturated that they could no longer hold the water back, 
and it would pass downward very gradually into the lower depths sat- 
urating, or nearly saturating, each successive depth as it progressed. 
Unless the rainfall was so great and so continuous as to saturate the 
soil to a considerable depth, the water would not pass down to a great 
extent in the dry material. The whole supply of moisture absorbed by 
the soil would remain within a short distance of the surface, and when 
evaporation was started again from the surface or the moisture was 
used up by plants the water would be pulled up again from the depths 
to which it had progressed rather than proceed on its downward course. 
There is less force to pull it down into the dry subsoil than its own con- 
tracting power, which pulls it up through the moist soil to the plant or 
to the surface of the ground. 

It appears probable, therefore, that in the more retentive soils of 
the arid regions the whole of the 20 inches of rainfall, or as much of 
this as is absorbed by the soil, will be held within a few feet of the 
surface, within easy reach of the roots of plants. The problem should 
be how to conserve the moisture, diminish the evaporation from the 



RELATION OP SOILS TO CROP PRODUCTION. 161 

soil, and maintain as much as possible of the supply for the use of 
crops. 

Two things suggest themselves at once: The preparation of the soil 
must be sufficiently thorough and deep to insure the absorption of the 
whole amount of the rainfall, and preparation should be so thorough 
and deep that this water will be carried to a sufficient depth to dimin- 
ish the chances of surface evaporation and prevent the saturation of 
the upper soil, which would be prejudicial to plant growth. The water 
must be absorbed as deeply as possible, so as to check surface evapo- 
ration, and at the same time be maintained sufficiently near the surface 
to be available to plants as needed. Where water is of so much value 
and of such vital importance, not a drop of rainfall should be allowed 
to waste by flowing off over the surface. It should all be absorbed by 
the soil. The rains are often so torrential in character that the soil 
must be in a condition to absorb the water very rapidly to prevent 
any loss. 

The conditions actually existing in these soils should be made the 
subject of careful and thorough investigation. The amount of mois- 
ture actually maintained by the soils should be ascertained by daily 
determinations, to give a basis for working out improved methods of 
cultivation or planting for the conservation of moisture. The rainfall 
should be followed and its whole history worked out from the time it 
enters the soil. In the first place, how deep does the rainfall penetrate 
into the different soils of the plains'? This could be ascertained at 
different depths at intervals of a week or ten days throughout the sea- 
son by moisture determinations. Is any of the rainfall drawn so low 
as to be unavailable to plants and lost by percolation into the "water 
table"? How much of the rainfall evaporates from the different types 
of soils, how rapid is this evaporation, and how even are the condi- 
tions which the principal soils maintain'? What part of the moisture 
evaporates from the soil and what part is transpired by the growing 
crop? How much Avater does a plant transpire in the arid regions for 
every pound of dry matter produced as compared with the same class 
of crops in the humid regions'? These are all fundamental questions, 
which will have to be understood in order to secure any intelligent 
improvement of the methods of cultivation and cropping. 

More than half of the annual precipitation in Kansas occurs in the 
four crop-growing months of April, May, June, and July. During May 
and June especially the frequent showers induce a very rank and lux- 
uriant growth, and there is nearly always up to the middle or end of 
June the prospect of a large corn crop. It is not uncommon, however, 
for a dry spell in July to reduce the promised yield by 100,000,000 or 
150,000,000 bushels. These dry spells last from two to four weeks, 
frequently resulting in great damage to the corn crop. 

Wheat is usually harvested before this midsummer drought comes 
on, and there is less variation in the yield of wheat in the State than in 

1 A 94 6 



162 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

the corn crop. Such crops also as turnips, millet, and sorghum do very 
well from the August rains. The drought comes frequently at the most 
critical time of all in the development of the corn plant — just as it is 
tasseling out. It should be possible to breed new varieties, maturing 
earlier or later, so as to secure a crop at a different stage of develop- 
ment during this usual summer drought. 

HOT WINDS. 

The very time when the crop is suffering from drought is the time of 
all others when hot winds are liable to occur. These winds blow at the 
rate of 20 to 30 miles per hour, the temperature of the air frequently 
ranging from 100° to 106°, with only 20 to 30 per cent of relative 
humidity. This vast body of dry, hot air passing over the crop induces 
such rapid evaporation that the roots can not possibly supply sufficient 
moisture, and the plants are completely desiccated, or dried out. The 
cells dry up to such an extent that they die, and the whole leaf struc- 
ture collapses and hangs limp and lifeless. The effect of hot winds 
upon the crop is markedly different from the effect of drought alone. 
In an ordinary drought the fodder dries and is cured much as if it had 
been cut and exposed to the sun and air, the plants, however, remain- 
ing erect. The effect of hot winds is much more quickly fatal to the 
crop 5 two or three days is often sufficient to destroy the most promis- 
ing field of corn. The evaporation from the plants under these condi- 
tions must be enormous. It is so excessive, indeed, that even with 
the soil quite moist the powers of the plant may be taxed beyond 
endurance. 

There are several possible ways to prevent or greatly lessen the injury 
from hot winds. Wind-breaks diminish the injurious effects of hot winds, 
for when* the air is quiet the evaporation from the leaves increases the 
humidity of the air immediately around them, and this diminishes the 
evaporation from the leaf. If this air is removed, however, and quan- 
tities of dry air are rapidly presented to the plant the excessive evapo- 
ration is continued. Anything, therefore, which will retard the rate of 
movement of the wind will tend to diminish evaporation from the plants 
within the area of its influence. The more moist the soil can be kept 
through methods of cultivation the less damage there will be to vege- 
tation, for the roots will have a larger supply of moisture to draw from. 
The hot winds rarely do much damage over irrigated fields when the 
water supply can be properly controlled. The most disastrous effect 
of hot winds, however, frequently follow a rainfall occurring after a 
long period of drought. During the rain transpiration from the plant 
is checked and the cells become excessively turgid and possibly weak- 
ened through distention and possibly by the presence of organic acids. 
When the hot winds immediately follow this abnormal condition of the 
plant, the evaporation is rapidly increased, the cells lose their water and 
collapse and die, as possibly they would not have done if the conditions 
preceding the hot winds had been more normal. 



ADVAOTAGE OF SOILS TO CROP PRODUCTION. 163 

BENEFIT OF TXNBEB,STANBINX> SOIL CONDITIONS. 

It may be asked what advantage it would be to understand soil con- 
ditions and what control of them is possible. As regards the first 
question, this knowledge will make it possible intelligently to classify 
the soils according to the conditions which they maintain and predict 
what classes of crops they will prove adapted to grow. It would sug- 
gest also the way in which the soil conditions should be changed to 
make them correspond still more closely to the requirements of the 
class of crops to which they are most nearly adapted. As regards the 
second question, it is quite possible, through intelligent methods of 
cultivation, of cropping, and. of fertilization, to change the conditions 
maintained by soils by changing their physical texture. It is likewise 
possible that we shall be able in time to control the amount of water 
taken up from a soil and transpired by plants. In a soil containing 
much water it should be possible to prevent the plant taking an 
excessive amount, thus checking the too luxuriant growth of vegeta- 
tion^ or in a soil containing a small amount of moisture to induce the 
plant to take up more water than it otherwise would. This control 
will come through the effect of fertilizers and chemicals upon the roots 
which will stimulate or diminish the transpiration powers of the plant. 

SUBSOILING. 

Where the amount of rainfall is so small it is obviously important 
that the soil should absorb all of the rain whieh falls upon it. It is 
folly to allow water to flow off the farm, incidentally causing damage 
by washing,, and then spend large sums to put in irrigation ditches to 
replace it by water which others have allowed to flow off their land* 
Wherever a drop of water flows off the field it is an indication that the 
soil is not in a proper physical condition. Where this occurs in a dry 
soil the main preparation of the land should be as deep as possible, so 
that the water may be carried down and thus diminish the rapidity 
of the evaporation and loss from the surface. If deep plowing will 
not accomplish this object, subsoiling will be found invaluable in open- 
ing up the close and compact subsoil. A subsoil plow should be as 
small and light in all its parts as is consistent with the great resistance 
it has to encounter. The point should be small and narrow, like the 
point of a pick, somewhat larger at the back than at the front. It is 
not necessary to have this large, for any implement which could be 
pulled through the subsoil would break and loosen it sufficiently to 
change its physical texture. There are some soils where subsoiling 
would not only be of no advantage, but in which it might be a positive 
injury to the land. A light, sandy soil having already an open and 
porous subsoil would not be benefited by having this subsoil made still 
more open. A farmer should judge whether subsoiling is advisable by 
the character and condition of the subsoil, and particularly with a view 
to the question whether any part of the rainfall flows off the surface. 



164 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

The conditions in the arid regions are so different from those in the 
humid portion of the country that the methods adapted to the former 
are not necessarily well adapted to the latter. The act of subsoiling, 
the breaking up and stirring the soil to a depth of 12 or 15 inches, 
tends to dry it out; and unless a rain follows before a crop is put in 
the subsoiling may work positive injury to the first crop, although tbe 
beneficial effects would be felt in the succeeding crops. To secure 
benefit the first season the subsoiling must be done a considerable 
length of time before the crop is put in, in the hope of receiving heavy 
and long-continued rains. It is obvious that the nature of the soil 
itself will largely determine the depth to which the cultivation should 
be extended, and the character of the season should determine at what 
time this cultivation should take place. It is very necessary in this 
deep cultivation of the soils of the arid regions that care be taken not 
to turn under a heavy sod or a quantity of organic matter, especially 
when the season or the soil is dry. In these dry soils a heavy sod or a 
lot of trash or stubble will not readily decay when turned under 5 
indeed, it may remain undecayed for several years. In this condition 
it will break off capillary connection with the subsoil, so that if the 
crop is planted on the upturned sod it may actually perish for lack of 
moisture. It is a very common experience, nevertheless, with farmers 
on the plains that where the sod is broken very shallow, so shallow that 
the crop roots below it, the upturned sod acts as a very efficient mulch 
to prevent evaporation, and so increases the yield of crops. 

After a soil is once deeply prepared, the after cultivation of the crop 
should be as shallow as possible in order to maintain a mulch of loose, 
dry soil over the surface to check evaporation, yet to keep this mulch 
as thin as possible so as not to dry out more of the soil than is abso- 
lutely necessary. While cultivation should thus be very superficial, it 
should be frequent and continued well into the fruiting period of the 
crop. The old rule of giving one cultivation after each rain is not 
sufficient. 

Thorough preparation of the land, with subsoiling where this is nec- 
essary to break up a compact subsoil, followed by shallow but frequent 
cultivation of the surface, will undoubtedly make the crop much safer 
and surer in the arid and semiarid regions of the West. 



WATER AS A FACTOR IN THE GROWTH OF PLANTS. 

By B. T. Galloway and Albert F. Woods, 
Chief and Assistant Chief of the Division of Vegetable Pathology, U. S. Department of 

Agriculture, 

Of all the factors influencing the growth of plants, water is beyond a 
doubt one of the most important. Plant physiologists have long recog- 
nized this fact, but it is only recently that farmers, fruit growers, and 
others interested in the growth of crops have come to fully realize its 
importance. As an indication of the growing interest in this subject 
we may cite the agitation now being made in behalf of irrigation. 
Irrigation at one time was considered for the most part in connection 
with the production of crops in the arid regions or iu sections where 
the yearly rainfall is not sufficient for the best development of our agri- 
cultural crops. Now nearly every section of the country is more or less 
interested in the subject. In Florida, where the average yearly rainfall 
is about 55 inches, or nearly three times as much as in some sections 
of the West, thousands of dollars are being spent every year for irriga- 
tion. The chief reason for this is that although the yearly rainfall is 
sufficient to grow any ordinary crop, yet it is distributed in such a way 
that the best conditions for plant growth are not furnished. It is here 
that irrigation plays an important part, for if just the right amount of 
water can be furnished at the proper time, other conditions being favor- 
able, the plant immediately responds and a better growth is the result. 
The whole problem of the proper use of water and its effect on the plant 
is a complicated one, and until it is better understood by farmers them- 
selves we can not hope to attain the highest development in agricul- 
tural pursuits. 

The plant may be likened to a complicated and exquisitely sensitive 
machine, depending largely for its ability to do work on four factors, 
namely, heat, light, food, and water. If these are furnished in just the 
right amounts and at just the right time there is harmony in all parts 
of the machine, and as a result the greatest amount of work is per- 
formed 5 if, however, any one or all of the factors are deficient or 
excessive, then the perfect working of the machine is destroyed, and 
its ability to do what is required of it is impaired. In other words, 
certain diseases appear; or if the plant does not, strictly speaking, 
become diseased, the growth of the various parts may be unbalanced, 
resulting in a development which is so different from what is wanted as 
to have little practical value. Thus leaves and wood may be produced 

165 



166 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

at the expense of the fruit, or the reverse may be the result of the unbal- 
anced condition of the factors mentioned. 

In field culture, heat and light can not well be controlled, but food 
and water maybe to a certain extent, the latter either directly, by sup- 
plying it artificially, as in irrigation, or indirectly, by selecting soils 
having a capacity for moisture best suited to the crop or crops to be 
grown. Our object, however, is not to discuss these questions, but 
rather to point out the important part that water plays in nearly every 
vital process of the plant, in the hope that what is said may awaken the 
interest of farmers, fruit growers, and others in a much-neglected line 
of study. We shall not give an exhaustive treatise on the subject, nor 
attempt to present any specially new facts. Our purpose is simply to 
bring together some of the knowledge already familiar to vegetable 
physiologists but as yet little known to those interested in the practical 
side of plant production. 

WATER IN GREEN PLANTS. 

The fact that green plants lose a large proportion of their weight in 
drying is familiar to all. This loss is made up largely of water, the 
amount of which, compared with the dry substance found in plants, is 
very great. Thus in every 100 pounds of fresh meadow grass there is 
found 60 to 80 pounds of water. In 100 pounds of red clover there is 
often as high as S6 pounds of water, while in such plants as lettuce, 
cucumbers, cabbage, onions, etc., there is often as much as 95 to 98 
pounds of AYater in every 100 pounds of fresh material. The seeds of 
plants do not contain as much water as the leaves, stems, and other vege- 
tative parts. Wheat, rye, and oats contain about 14 per cent each, while 
corn contains about 12 per cent. This comparatively small amount of 
water contained in the seed is one of the reasons why the latter will 
remain dormant so long. As soon as the seeds are brought into a moist 
place, and other conditions for growth are present, they absorb large 
quantities of water and soon begin to germinate. 

It. is impossible at ordinary temperatures to dry out all the _ water 
held by plants. Most air- dried plants contain as much water as ordi- 
nary seed, and this can be removed only by a prolonged exposure to 
high temperatures. 

We see from the foregoing that water forms a large proportion of 
the actual weight of all plants, and its importance, therefore, in this 
connection is at once apparent. 

RELATION OP ROOT DEVELOPMENT TO WATEB SUPPLY. 

All our agricultural plants obtain their water exclusively through 
the roots. That leaves do not absorb water to any appreciable extent 
under normal conditions of growth has been so fully demonstrated as 
to need no discussion here. Accordingly, it needs little argument to 
prove that a well- developed root system is of the highest importance 



WATER AS A FACTOR IN THE GROWTH OF PLANTS. 167v 

to the welfare of the plant. There is usually a rapid development of 
these organs in the early period of growth, and if the proper moisture 
conditions are present at this time the chances are that a root develop- 
ment favorable to the future growth of the plant will be attained. It 
should be pointed out, however, that the development of the roots and 
the form which they may take will be modified by other conditions, 
and it may be possible to take advantage of these in order to insure 
a proper water supply as the plant grows older. For example, the 
distribution of food in the soil may have a very important bearing on 
the production of roots as well as the position they assume. An 
interesting experiment bearing on this point was made by 2fobbe, a 
German investigator. He grew a number of corn plants in poor clay 
soil, contained in glass cylinders. In each cylinder of soil a certain 
amount of fertilizer was put, in each case in a different position, so as 
to observe its effect on the growth of the roots. When the plants 
were nearly four months old the vessels were placed in water and the 
soil carefully washed from the roots. They were then suspended in 
water and took nearly the same position they had in the soil. Where 
the fertilizer had been uniformly mixed with the soil the roots grew 
equally through the whole mass. Where the fertilizer was placed in 
a horizontal layer about an inch below the surface the roots formed a 
mat in this layer, those that extended through being slender and not 
greatly branched. Where the fertilizer was placed in a horizontal 
layer at about half the depth of the vessel there was a spheroidal 
expansion of the root system at this point, Where the layer was 
placed at the bottom of the vessel the roots were slender and not 
much branched above, but at the bottom they formed a mat. When 
the fertilizer was placed around the cylinder of earth next the sides of 
the jar the external roots were greatly branched, forming a cylindrical 
nest, but the inner roots were not much developed. When the ferti- 
lizer was put in a central vertical core the inner roots were greatly 
developed, while the outer ones were much less so. 

These facts and others of a similar nature show the importance of 
studies in this direction. It would be especially valuable in the West, 
and in other sections of the country liable to great variations in the 
water supply, to be able to control to some extent the character of the 
root systems of our agricultural plants. If this could be done by 
methods of cultivating the soil or of distributing the food, where food 
is used, there is no doubt that the water supply could in a measure be 
controlled. In this connection it is also important to bear in mind that 
the best development of the roots and of the plant as a whole is attained 
only when the water supply approximates a certain amount. This 
amount will vary with different plants, soils, temperatures, etc. For 
example, roots produced in very wet soil will not live when the latter 
dries out to any extent, and in consequence the plants grown under 
such conditions will suffer. On the other hand, roots produced in dry 



168 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

soil will not live long if the latter is made excessively wet for any length 
of time. All these things of course have a marked effect on the devel- 
opment of the plants and the various parts of the same. The total 
product is not only made to vary by the amount of water at the disposal 
of the plant, but the proportional amounts of the various organs are 
also made to vary. Thus in the case of wheat, rye, barley, and other 
similar plants, a certain amount of water will not only produce the 
greatest yield of both grain and straw, but will also influence growth 
so as to give the maximum amount of grain with the minimum amount 
of straw. 

It has been found that when the water in a soil amounts to 80 per 
cent or more of its water-holding capacity it is detrimental to the plants. 
Ordinary plants do best when the water in the soil amounts to from 
40 to 60 per cent of the water-holding capacity. The water-holding 
capacity of a soil is the amount of water that a given weight, say 100 
pounds, of the soil will contain when all the space between the grains 
of soil is filled with water. For example, a cubic foot of a very sandy 
soil has been found to contain about 40 per cent by volume of air space; 
when all this space is filled with water the sand will contain four-tenths 
of a cubic foot of water. A hundred pounds of such soil, when all the 
space between the grains is filled with water, contains about 20 pounds 
of water. In the same way wheat soil has been found to contain about 
31 \ pounds of water in every 100 pounds of the fully saturated soil. 
The amount of water in this soil most favorable to the growth of wheat 
is from 40 to GO per cent of 31£ pounds, or from 12£ to 19 pounds per 
100. The water-holding capacity of heavy clay soils is about 44.2 
pounds of water in 100 pounds of saturated soil. The most favorable 
condition for plant growth in such soils is when they contain from 16 
to 24 pounds of water in 100 pounds of the saturated soil. 

It is easy to see why the conditions in a soil having all or nearly all 
the space between the grains filled with water are detrimental to plant 
growth. Under such conditions the roots are immersed in water and 
the soil is very poor in oxygen. On the other hand, when only a part 
of this space is filled with water the roots are not immersed, and there 
is a sufficient supply of oxygen. These questions, however, more prop- 
erly belong to the realm of soil physics, and therefore need not be dis- 
cussed in detail here. 

STRUCTURE OF THE PLANT AND HOW IT OBTAINS WATER. 

In order to get a clear idea of the absorption of water by the plant 
and its movement in the same, it will be necessary to consider, very 
briefly, its general structure. In all the plants with which we are con- 
cerned the roots consist of a central axis of elongated, rather thick- 
walled cells and vessels, as shown in cross section in figure 12. Around 
this axis is a rather thick cylinder, composed of layers of soft, thin- 
walled cells (jp), which have a great affinity for Avater. Surrounding 



WATER AS A FACTOR IN THE GROWTH OF PLANTS. 169 

these and forming the outer covering of the root is the epidermis (e)j 
many of the cells composing the latter grow out into relatively long 
projections, known as root hairs (h 7i). These adhere closely to the 
particles of soil and absorb the film of water adhering to them. 




Fig. 12.— Cross section of root. 



The absorption of water is well shown in figure 13, taken from Sachs's 
Lectures on the Physiology of Plants ; e, on the right of the figure, is the 




Fig. 13.— Root liair in the soil, showing absorption of moisture. 

epidermis of the root ) li is a root hair forcing its way in between the 
grains of soil, s, shaded dark in the drawing; the larger rounded white 
spaces, a a, represent air y and the waved lines, w, surrounding the par- 
1 a 94 6* 



170 YEABBOO& OF THE XJ. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

tides of soil and inclosing air bubbles, represent water held to tlie 
grains by surface attraction. All are greatly magnified. At the points 
marked c there is close contact of the root hair with the grains of soil. 
The root hairs, like the grains of soil, are also covered with a thin layer 
of water, and their walls are saturated with it. Wherever the particles 
of soil come very close together or touch, the spheres of water sur- 
rounding them unite at these points, thus forming a network of the 
water envelopes of the soil grains. Now, if there is no disturbance in 
the soil due to evaporation or absorption, this network of water will be 
held at rest by the attraction of the soil particles ; but if any portion of 




Fig. H.— Eoot hairs. 

it is removed, the soil particles that have less -will immediately draw 
from those that have more, so that there will be a movement of water 
throughout the whole system toward the point where the water is 
taken away. We will now suppose the root hair, h, gives up a part of 
its water to the cells of the main root ; it then absorbs water from the 
layers with which it comes in contact in the soil, and there is in con- 
sequence a movement of the entire water system in the soil toward the 
root hair until equilibrium is restored. It is evident from this that a 
plant may draw water from a much larger area of soil than that with 
which the root system comes in direct contact. 



WATER AS A FACTOR IN THE GROWTH OF PLANTS. 171 

Figure 14 shows a number of root hairs cut from the root and highly 
magnified. Most of the soil particles have been washed away, but 
some adhere so closely that they can not be removed without breaking 
the hairs. This close connection is partly due to the dissolving action 
which the hairs exercise on the soil grains. 

It must be understood that the water absorbed by roots is not pure, 
but contains in solution small quantities of all the soluble compounds 
in the soil 5 some of these are absolutely necessary to the growth and 
maturation of the plant. Ordinary well water contains all the sub- 
stances absorbed by the plant in about the same degree of concentra- 
tion in which they are found in the soil, viz, one to two parts of solid 
matter to one thousand parts of water. The plant does not neces- 
sarily absorb the solution in this proportion; it may absorb more or 
less, according to circumstances. It may absorb the compounds in the 
soil without taking up any water, or, on the other hand, it may absorb 
water without taking up the compounds, depending upon certain phys- 
ical and physiological conditions. The compounds thus taken up are 
estimated in the plant as ash. The amount of ash varies greatly in 
different species and to some extent in different individuals of the same 
species. Furthermore, it may vary greatly with the age of the plant 
and the organ under consideration. The total amount, however, is 
usually very small compared with the gross weight of the plant. The 
amount seldom runs above 18 per cent (it is usually from 2 to 7 per 
cent) of the dry weight of the plant. However, it is absolutely neces- 
sary that the plant have certain parts of this material, and it can be 
obtained only as it is dissolved in water and absorbed through the 
roots. From the roots it passes by diffusion to all parts of the plant. 
In the parts of the plant above ground, i. e., the stem and branches, 
the woody portions form a framework which supports the other tissues, 
made up of more or less soft-walled cells. The outer layers of these 
cells form the epidermis or outer covering of the plant, and this is 
usually developed so as to protect the underlying cells from injury, 
especially through the loss of water. 

Through the epidermis of the leaves and sometimes also of the stems, 
there are minute openings into the spaces between the inner cells of 
the leaf, for the cells in a plant in a general way may be likened to 
potatoes in a sack, touching only in places, though the union is rela- 
tively very much closer between the cells of a plant than it is between 
potatoes in a sack. The sack represents the epidermis, the potatoes 
the cells, and the spaces between the potatoes are comparable to the 
intercellular spaces. 

Figure 15 shows a piece cut from a common leaf and greatly magni. 
fied; u is the upper and I the lower epidermis; the cells with the dark 
bodies, c c, within are the starch-manufacturing cells ; i i are the spaces 
between them; the little oval openings, s s, in the lower epidermis are 
the breathing pores (stomata); at s' one is shown cut through, opening 



172 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

into an intercellular space 5 the two cells bordering the opening are 
the guard cells. 

The breathing pores allow the entrance into the plant of air and 
certain gases, which, through the intercellular spaces, come in contact 
with every cell. The intercellular spaces and the larger and older 
vessels are usually filled with air. The cells, however, are so closely 
in touch that water and whatever is in solution may pass readily from 
cell to cell by diffusion. If any cell lacks water, sugar, or any other 
material in solution it immediately takes it from neighboring cells, and 
these in turn take from others that have more, so that the equalization 
goes on throughout the whole plant, and different materials are moving 
toward the parts of the plant where they are used. 




Fig. 15.— Section of leaf. 



RELATION OF WATER TO GROWTH. 

The growth of theplaut is nothing more than the growth of the cells 
composing it. The cells may increase in number and they may increase 
in size. Supposing that the cells are supplied with all the necessary 
materials in solution required for growth, and that the external condi- 
tions are favorable, there is still one very essential condition — there 
must be a sufficient supply of water to keep every cell thoroughly dis^ 
tended. The cell at first may be compared to an elastic sack, but 
after a time its wall thus distended becomes more or less thickened, 
loses most of its extensibility, and the increase in size becomes fixed. 
If, however, before this occurs the internal pressure or turgidity of the 
cell is lessened by loss of water the cell shrinks in proportion to the 
decrease, and unless the pressure is again renewed, may become fixed 
in this smaller condition. This loss takes place a$ a result of evapora- 
tion from the foliage and other green parts of the plant, and goes on 
from the very beginning of growth. If the evaporation goes too far the 
cell will pass into a flaccid condition, which causes the plant to wilt 



WATER AS A FACTOR IN THE GROWTH OF PLANTS. 173 

and unless water is furnished, so that the cells may again become tur- 
gid, the plant soon dies. 

It is evident, therefore, that the rapidity of the increase in size of a 
plant depends on the degree of turgidity of the cells, other conditions 
being favorable. The turgidity may be just sufficient to keep the plant 
from wilting, in which case the growth will be very small. Plants may, 
therefore, suffer for water long before they show it by wilting. It has 
been observed that plants growing in certain kinds of sandy soils 
almost cease growing whenever in May or June there occurs a series 
of warm, rainless days, accompanied by dry winds. The development 
of young clover, for instance, on such soils will come almost to a stand- 
still, but it will not begin to wilt for a long time. It wilts on stony 
ground first; then in a few days the whole field wilts, and the crop is 
destroyed. 

On the other hand, plants may, under certain conditions, absorb too 
much water, not only filling and distending the cells, but filtering 
through the cell walls into the intercellular spaces; the plant then 
becomes water-logged and has a more or less transparent look. If this 
intercellular water is not removed by evaporation the plant soon suffers 
from lack of sufficient oxygen and carbonic acid gas. At other times 
too great turgidity causes abnormal swellings on the leaves and stems. 
The walls stretch so far that they break, the water escapes, and the cells 
dry up and die. Occasionally throughout the whole plant the turgidity 
is so great that the cell walls stretch out of proportion to the ability of 
the cell contents to make new walls. The tissues therefore become thin 
and imperfectly formed. Such plants are easily killed by dry weather 
and readily succumb to the attacks of parasitic fungi and other disease- 
producing agents, which are usually active at just such times. In other 
words, the conditions least favorable to the growth of the plant or host 
are as a rule the ones best suited to the rapid development of certain 
of its parasitic enemies. 

From what has been said it is evident that turgidity must depend 
primarily upon the absorption of water from the soil, and as turgidity 
is necessary for growth there is an intimate relation between the latter 
and the absorption of water by the roots. The amount of water neces- 
sary to keep the cells at maximum turgidity would be comparatively 
small if it were not for the fact that evaporation is constantly lowering 
the quantity. The growth of the plant, therefore, depends largely 
on whether or not the roots are able to supply the demands made by 
evaporation from the foliage and at the same time keep the cells in the 
necessary condition of turgidity. 

LOSS OF WATER BY EVAPORATION FROM THE FOLIAGE. 

Under ordinary conditions plants lose very large quantities of water 
by evaporation, it having been shown, for example, that in a dry, hot 
day a grass plant will lose an amount of water equal to its own weight. 



174 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

Ordinary meadow grass is about 70 per cent water, and estimating the 
crop of hay at 2 tons per acre, the weight of the fresh grass, not count- 
ing the roots, would be about 6J tons. This would represent the amount 
of water evaporated by an acre of grass in a dry, hot day. Hellriegel 
estimates from many observations that about 310 parts of water pass 
off by evaporation for every part of dry substance added to a plant. 
In 2 tons of hay there are 3,808 pounds of dry substance. According 
to HellriegePs proportion, therefore, 1 acre of hay would evaporate 
about 527 tons of water during the season of growth. An average crop 
of wheat is 720 pounds of grain and 1,500 pounds of straw to the acre; 
allowing 15 per cent of water in the air-dry material, there would be 
produced 1,887 pounds of dry material. During its season of growth 
this crop would evaporate about 261 tons of water. Other crops will 
lose nearly in the same proportion. One inch of rainfall per acre is 
equal to about 100 tons of water. The hay crop, therefore, evaporates 
an amount equal to only about 5J inches of rainfall, and a wheat crop 
about 2f. This of course is only an average. In v£ry moist times 
either crop would lose less in proportion to the amount of dry substauee 
and in very dry times more. In any case, however, it is seen that plants 
of this class actually evaporate only a small proportion of the water 
that falls during the growing season. 

The problem, therefore, which presents itself is how to make avail- 
able to the plant more of the water which falls. This may be accom- 
plished in four ways: (1) By methods of cultivation and of fertilization 
of the soil in order to keep the water from running to waste,* (2) decreas- 
ing the evaporation from the soil by the same means and possibly also 
by mulching: (3) decreasing the evaporation from the plants; and (4) 
by conserving the water and using it in irrigation. The first two lines 
of investigation and the last belong particularly to the domain of soil 
physics ; the third, while intimately connected with soil physics, belongs 
more especially to plant physiologists for solution. It may not be out 
of place, therefore, to point out some of the means by which evapora- 
tion from plants may be controlled. 

CONTROLLING EVAPORATION. 

As already shown, some of our agricultural plants evaporate 310 
parts of water for every part of dry substance made. It must not be 
concluded from this fact, however, that the plants have to evaporate 
this much water in order to store the normal amount of dry material. 
On the other hand, it has been demonstrated in practice and by experi- 
ment that the amount of dry substance stored and the vigor of the 
plant is greater in proportion as evaporation is decreased, other con- 
ditions remaining the same. 

Most of the water evaporated by growing plants is lost, at least in 
the middle and later stages of growth, through the stomata or breathing 
pores, situated in the epidermis of the leaves and opening into the 



WATER AS A FACTOR IN THE GROWTH OP PLANTS. 17§ 

intercellular spaces, as before described and as shown in figure 15. 
These pores may open and close, under certain conditions, by the con- 
traction or expansion of the guard cells. When the stomata are open, 
as they usually are in bright light, there is free access of the gases in 
the air to the starch-manufacturing cells of the leaf. One of the gases 
(carbon dioxide) taken in this way is the main ingredient of starch and 
sugar, and in fact furnishes the material which makes up the larger 
per cent of the dry^weight of the plant. Vegetable physiologists are 
agreed that the main purpose of the stomata is the admission of this 
gas and one other, oxygen, to the working cells of the leaf. The air in 
the intercellular spaces is always saturated with moisture, especially 
when the leaves are in bright sunlight. When the stomata are open 
the moisture escapes to the dry outside air, just as it may escape from 
a moist greenhouse when the ventilators or doors are opened for ventila- 
tion. We must have fresh air in the greenhouse, but we can not get 
it without losing some of the moisture. The rapidity with which the 
moisture in the greenhouse will pass out depends on the extent to 
which the ventilators are open, the amount of moisture already in the 
outside air, and the rapidity with which the air next to the ventilators, 
and therefore more highly charged with water from the damp air 
inside, is carried away by the wind. The same conditions hold for the 
plant. The evaporation, which may be looked upon as a sort of neces- 
sary evil, will be less rapid in moist air than in dry air, and will be 
increased by air currents or wind. If we can increase the amount of 
moisture in the air we can decrease the evaporation from the plants 
with which it comes in contact. This suggests the use of trees, espe- 
cially in sections where hot, dry winds prevail, as a means of breaking 
the force of the wind and moistening and cooling the air. 

Another direction in which we may possibly hope to gain control 
over loss of water by plants is by increasing the power of the cells of 
the plant to hold on to the water which they contain, and in this way 
to resist evaporation more effectively. For many years it has been 
known through the work of Senebier, Sachs, Burgerstein, Vesque, and 
others that the presence of various salts and acids in the soil has a 
marked influence, under certain conditions, on the evaporation of water 
from the plants whose roots were exposed to the solution of the salts, 
In some cases the effect was to increase evaporation and absorption, in 
others to decrease it. The problem needs to be reinvestigated with the 
practical end in view of increasing absorption and decreasing evapora- 
tion. Some late investigators have claimed that the water-holding 
power of the cells is increased by spraying the leaves with certain 
solutions, especially Bordeaux mixture. This is certainly true under 
some conditions, but not so in all cases. It, however, opens up another 
line in which we may hope to gain some knowledge of the methods of 
controlling evaporation. 



176 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

SUMMARY. 

The facts presented show — 

(1) That water makes up the largest proportion of the weight of 
green plants, indicating at once its great importance. 

(2) That water, with the food which it contains, is obtained by plants 
exclusively through the roots, and therefore a well-developed root sys- 
tem is essential to the best development of the plant. 

(3) That the development of root systems may be controlled in various 
ways, thereby increasing or decreasing their ability to absorb water and 
food from the soil. 

(4) That a saturated soil is detrimental to the growth of roots 5 a soil 
about half saturated is most favorable to their growth and therefore 
favorable to the growth of the whole plant. 

(5) That growth is dependent on the turgidity of the cells, and tur- 
gidity is dependent on the absorption of water by the roots. 

(6) That the water absorbed by roots is continually being lost by 
evaporation from the leaves. If the loss is equal to or greater than the 
absorption, the plants will cease growing, and unless the absorption is 
increased or the evaporation decreased the plants will die. 

(7) That evaporation may be controlled by increasing the amount of 
moisture in the air, by protection from hot winds, and by the use of 
certain substances in the soil or on the leaves to enable the plant to 
hold on to the water that it has. 

Finally, then, an accurate knowledge of the relation of water to the 
growth of plants will enable us to control more fully the development 
of the plant as a whole, and also the relative growth of its parts. It 
will show us how to so modify the growth of the plants that they may 
be able most successfully to withstand adverse conditions and produce 
the most valuable substance for a given amount of labor. 



MINERAL PHOSPHATES AS FERTILIZERS. 

By H. W. Wiley. 
Chemist of the U. S. Department of Agriculture. 

APATITES. 

The earliest forms of mineral phosphate used for fertilizer were the 
apatites. 1 These phosphates occur either iu a crystalline form or 
massive, and are of very wide distribution. In this country they are 
found in Maine, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, New York, New 
Jersey, Maryland, Delaware, and North Carolina. They occur in large 
quantities in Canada, where immense beds exist. Apatite contains, in 
round numbers, 40 per cent of phosphoric acid and about 50 per cent 
of lime, and is usually associated with a certain quantity of fluor spar. 
Some beds contain a considerable amount of chlorine, and nearly all 
contain traces of iron, alumina, and magnesia. Some forms also contain 
considerable quantities of manganese. The mineral known as phos- 
phorite is almost the same in chemical composition as the apatites. 

COPROLITES. 2 

Phosphate of lime occurs very largely in nodules, which are probably 
of organic origin, and these spheroidal masses are called coprolites. 
They sometimes present a spiral or other peculiar structure, due to 
their animal origin. The nodules are of all sizes from minute grains 
up to masses weighing as much as a ton. They consist essentially of 
phosphate of lime, varying from 50 to 60 per cent, and with a greater 
or less quantity of carbonate of lime. They also contain a considerable 
amount of organic matter, derived from animal remains, and the rest 
of the mass is made up of sand and other accidental impurities. These 
nodules often contain remains of marine life, such as sharks' teeth. 
At the present time the coprolite phosphates are found chiefly in 
North Carolina, Alabama, and Florida, though it is probable that they 
will be discovered in many other parts of the United States. 

PHOSPHATE ROCK. 

Immense deposits of phosphate rock, both hard and soft, are found 
in many parts of the United States. The most important of these 
deposits, from a commercial point of view, are those of South Carolina 

^he name " apatite" is derived from a Greek word which signifies to deceive, inas- 
much as, on account of the color of the mineral, which is often of a hlue or green 
tint, it was mistaken by the early mineralogists for other minerals. 

2 The term "coprolite" signifies fossil excrement. It is certain, however, that the 
deposits are not of that character, hut are more likely hone masses rounded by the 
action of water. 

177 



178 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

and Florida, although other deposits of great promise have been found 
in North Carolina, Virginia, and Tennessee. 

The amount of phosphate rock mined in the United States in 1893, 
with the value thereof at the mines, is given in the following table, 
taken from the Mineral Eesources of the United States, edition of 1893 : 





Quantity. 


Value. 


Florida : 


Long tons. 

215, 685 
13, 675 
86, 624 

122, 820 


$1, 117, 732 


Soft rock 


64, 626 




359, 127 




437, 571 






Total 


438, 804 


1, 979, 056 






South Carolina: 


308, 435 
194, 129 


1, 408, 785 




748, 229 






Total 


502, 564 


2, 157, 014 






North Carolina : 

Conglomerate 


7,000 


21,000 






Grand total 


918, 368 


4, 157, 070 







The first phosphate mined commercially in South Carolina was in 
1867, amounting to 6 tons. The largest quantity ever mined in any 
one year was in 1889, amounting to 511,645 tons. The total amount of 
fertilizers, chiefly raw phosphate rock, exported to foreign countries 
for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1893, was 460,062 tons, valued at 
$3,927,343. The countries to which the chief quantities of raw phos- 
phates were shipped were Germany and Great Britain. The amount 
sent to Germany was 149,600 tons, and the amount to Great Britain 
209,065 tons. 

The quantity of crude phosphates and other phosphatic substances 
imported into the United States for fertilizing purposes in 1893 was 
106,549 tons, valued at $718,871. The amount of guano, which con- 
sists largely of phosphate, imported in 1893 was 5,856 tons, valued at 
$97,889. The largest amount of guano imported into the United States 
in any one year was in 1868, amounting to 99,668 tons, valued at 
$1,336,701. The largest amount of crude phosphate and other phos- 
phatic substances, used for fertilizing purposes, imported into the 
United States in any one year was in 1882, amounting to 133,956 tons, 
valued at $1,437,442. 

The average cost at the quarry of the phosphates mined in the 
United States in 1893 was $4.42 per ton. 

The Florida phosphates are of four distinct types, viz, hard rock, 
soft rock, land pebble, and river pebble. The pebble phosphates are 
deposits of spherical masses of varying size, possibly of coprolitic 
nature, which occur either on the land or collected in cavities in the 
water courses, where they have been washed by the streams. Some of 



MINERAL PHOSPHATES AS FERTILIZERS. 179 

the soft rock is of sucli a texture that it can be very easily crushed, 
and thus cheaply prepared, in a finely divided state, either for treat- 
ment with sulphuric acid for the purpose of making superphosphates 
or for direct application to the soil. 

The Tennessee phosphates have been only recently discovered, and 
their exact extent is not yet known. From the mines already opened, 
however, it seems probable that these deposits are the most extensive 
in the United States. They are situated, so far as known at the pres- 
ent time, in the counties of Lewis, Hickman, Perry, and Wayne. The 
center of the deposit is about 70 miles southwest of Nashville. It has 
been estimated that within a distance of 5 miles of the Nashville, 
Chattanooga and St. Louis Eailroad there are 100,000,000. tons of this 
phosphate rock. The daily output at present is about 300 tons, but it 
is rapidly increasing. 

At present most of the output is shipped by rail, but it is the inten- 
tion of some of the operators on the Duck Eiver to open a water route 
to Mississippi and New Orleans by means of the Duck, Tennessee, and 
Mississippi rivers. When this is accomplished it is estimated that the 
rock can be laid down in New Orleans at a cost of transportation not 
to exceed $1.75 per ton. 

The phosphates of Tennessee differ from those of Florida in being 
found in stratified veins instead of pockets and beds. Some of the 
rocks are quite rich in phosphoric acid. In the analyses of 30 samples 
of Tennessee phosphates examined in this laboratory the highest per 
cent of phosphoric acid found was 37.07, corresponding to 80.92 per 
cent of phosphate of lime. The average content was 17.70 per cent of 
phosphoric acid or 38.61 per cent of lime phosphate. 

CONSTITUENTS OF PHOSPHATE HOOK. 

In phosphate rocks the chief constituent from an agricultural point 
of view is phosphate of lime, chemically known as tricalcium phosphate, 
and often spoken of in fertilizer circulars and bulletins as "bone phos- 
phate of lime." Calcium phosphate varies in quantity in commercial 
phosphates from 30 to DO per cent. The latter purity, however, is very 
seldom reached, the great majority of the commercial phosphates rang- 
ing from 10 to 70 per cent of calcium phosphate. 

In addition to this they contain certain quantities of carbonate of 
lime, small quantities of phosphates of iron and alumina, often consid- 
erable quantities of fluor spar, and finally sand and other impurities. 
There are certain phosphates, however, produced largely outside of the 
United States, which consist almost exclusively of the phosphates of 
iron and alumina, viz, such as those known as Eedonda phosphates, 
from the island of Eedonda. It is also reported that large deposits of 
iron and alumina phosphates have been discovered in Virginia, and 
that they exist already in a powdered state, well suited without further 
preparation, for application to the soil. 



180 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

The value of a natural phosphate is largely determined not alone by 
the percentage of phosphoric acid which it contains, but also by the 
amount of other materials therein. Especially is this true when the 
phosphates are to be used for the manufacture of that grade of fertili- 
zers known as superphosphates or acid phosphates, which is accom- 
plished by treating the natural phosphates with oil of vitriol (sulphuric 
acid). If a natural phosphate, for instance, contain a large quantity 
of carbonate of lime, this material will consume an equivalent portion 
of sulphuric acid and thus require a much larger quantity of this acid 
for conversion into superphosphate. Even if the quantity of phos- 
phates of iron and alumina be considerable, the sulphates of iron and 
alumina which are formed" dry poorly and render the residue unfit for 
the market. The fluoride of calcium is likewise decomposed by the 
sulphuric acid and hydrofluoric acid set free. The most suitable 
material, therefore, for making superphosphates is a phosphate rich in 
tricalcium phosphate, containing only a moderate amount of carbonate, 
or one which contains as impurities chiefly sand or silica. The natural 
phosphates of iron and alumina are well suited for direct application 
to the soil when they can be obtained in a finely divided state. There 
is no method of grinding, however, which produces a phosphate as 
well suited to the nourishment of plants as the material which is pro- 
duced by chemical j>recipitation. 

DIRECT APPLICATION OF PHOSPHATES. 

Experiments have been conducted in this country and in Europe for 
many years to determine the applicability of natural phosphates in a 
finely divided state directly to the soil. The greatest difference of 
opinion still exists iu regard to the availability of such phosphates. 
From a great amount of data which has been collected the following 
conclusions may be safely drawn : 

(1) No kind of natural phosphate is of much value applied directly 
to the soil, unless in a very finely divided state. 

(2) Natural phosphates which consist chiefly of the calcium salt are 
of very little value when applied directly to soil deficient in organic 
matter or containing large quantities of carbonate of lime. 

(3) Natural calcium phosphates in a finely ground state can be 
applied with great benefit to soils consisting essentially of vegetable 
mold or very rich in organic matter. 

(4) The natural phosphates of iron and alumina are of a much wider 
application directly than the phosphates of calcium. 

COST OF PHOSPHATIC FERTILIZER TO THE FARMER. 

It has been seen from the data given above that the actual cost of 
ordinary phosphates at the mines is not quite $4.50 per ton. The 
question may then be very properly asked, Why is the cost of phos- 
phates as used by the farmers so high? The increased cost of the 



MINERAL PHOSPHATES AS FERTILIZERS. 181 

phosphates used as fertilizers arises chiefly from three causes : First, 
the cost of grinding the phosphate to a fine powder; second, the cost 
of treating it with sulphuric or phosphoric acid, in order to render the 
phosphoric acid soluble; and third, the cost of transportation. 

It would be impossible to give any rule which would fix the value of 
a ton of phosphatic fertilizer. In mauy of the States the bulletins on 
fertilizers give the cost per pound of phosphoric acid present in any 
given sample. This price, however, must necessarily vary from year to 
year with the cost of production, cost of treatment, and cost of trans- 
portation. In general it may be said that at any considerable distance 
from the mines the value of available phosphoric acid in a superphos- 
phate is about 5 cents per pound. 

WHAT IS MEANT BY "AVAILABLE PHOSPHORIC ACID." 

The term "available phosphoric acid 7 ' is one which is rather difficult 
to define. Presumably, it applies to the phosphoric acid present in a 
given fertilizer which is capable of being directly assimilated by plants. 
It does not include, as a rule, any of the phosphoric acid which is not 
in a state to be directly absorbed, although such phosphoric acid may, 
by natural decomposition in the soil, become ultimately available for 
plant nourishment. It is commonly understood now that available 
phosphoric acid includes all the phosphoric acid soluble in water, 
together with that portion jvhich is sometimes called "reverted phos- 
phoric acid," and Avhich is soluble in a solution of citrate of ammonia 
of given strength and applied in a given way. It is hardly fair, how- 
ever, to reject as of no value at all any additional phosphoric acid 
which the sample may contain. For instance, in the case of ground 
bones none of the phosphoric acid present is soluble in water, and 
sometimes only a very little in citrate of ammonia^ yet the phos- 
phate of the bones is quite available and is easily assimilated by the 
growing plant. A discrimination, therefore, should be made in all 
cases between a bone phosphate and a phosphate prepared from min- 
erals. Again, in mineral phosphates there is a wonderful difference in 
assimilability even in those forms of phosphate insoluble in water and 
citrate of ammonia. Some kinds of soft phosphatic rock appear to be 
much more readily assimilated by plants than others. For instance, 
the apatites seem to have very little power of nourishing plants unless 
they have been decomposed by sulphuric acid, while, on the other hand, 
certain forms of soft phosphates have a considerable nourishing power. 
It is therefore impossible to give any hard and fast rule by means of 
which the availability of phosphates can be determined. In this case 
it is safe, therefore, for the farmer to rely, at least for the present, upon 
the data obtained by chemical analysis, and in the case of mineral 
phosphates to regard those only as beneficial in general which are 
soluble in water and citrate of ammonia. 



182 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OP AGRICULTURE. 

At least this is true for ordinary soils deficient in organic matter or 
consisting largely of sand or carbonate of lime. If, however, the 
farmer have to do with peat or muck soils very rich in humus and defi- 
cient in phosphoric acid, the rule could hardly be regarded as rigid. In 
such cases any form of soft mineral phosphate, finely divided, would 
prove highly beneficial, even if yielding little or nothing to treatment 
with water and citrate of ammonia. 

It is doubtful whether any of the methods now in use by the chemist 
can give an accurate idea of the true availability of phosphoric acid in 
a fertilizer. In the case of phosphoric acid soluble in water, viz, free 
phosphoric acid, or an acid phosphate of lime, it is almost certain that 
when applied to the soil it does not long retain its solubility. This 
should be regarded as a fortunate rather than an unfortunate fact. 
Should the phosphoric acid retain its solubility in water, there would 
be great danger of its being removed through drainage waters by 
excessive rainfall. When applied to a soil which contains the usual 
amount of iron and alumina the soluble phosphoric acid readily unites 
with these bases, forming iron and alumina phosphates, oris converted 
into the insoluble dicalcic phosphate. These phosphates, while not 
soluble in water, yet yield their phosphoric acid readily to the demands 
of the rootlets of plants. The phosphoric acid is thus preserved in a 
state where it is safe from exhaustion by leaching, and yet in a condition 
easily available for plant food. 

From a practical point of view, therefore, there is no advantage in 
applying water-soluble phosphate instead of a phosphate soluble in 
ammonium citrate. The great differences, moreover, in the ease with 
which phosphates insoluble in water and citrate of ammonia are decom- 
posed in the soil render it difficult to form any accurate judgment of the 
actual availability of this form of fertilizer. It is certain that the rule 
which is in force in many of the States, making the insoluble acid 
valueless for fertilizer purposes, is entirely too exclusive. 

On the other hand, these phosphates in most cases can certainly not 
be regarded as equally available as those soluble in water and ammonium 
citrate. The origin of the sample has also much to do with the matter. 
As has already been intimated, finely ground bone, even though insol- 
uble in water and ammonium citrate, will nevertheless yield a part of 
its phosphoric acid very readily to growing plants. 

In general, it may be said that the more nearly the phosphoric acid is 
in an organic state the more readily available it becomes. The mineral 
phosphates, however, show the greatest difference in availability when 
insoluble. On the one hand we have an extreme degree of nonavail- 
ability, as is instanced in the crystallized apatites, and on the other 
hand a high degree of availability, as shown in the finely divided min- 
eral phosphates of iron and alumina. Between these two extremes the 
ordinary mineral phosphates will be found ranged in different degrees 
of availability. 



MINERAL PHOSPHATES AS FERTILIZERS. 183 

Further,, as lias already been stated, the character of the soil to which 
the phosphatic fertilizer is applied has much to do with determining its 
availability. All of these facts must be taken into consideration in 
attempting to fix the availability of a phosphatic fertilizer by chemical 
analysis, and in no case is it safe to enforce a rigid rule which, while it 
might be applicable in one set of circumstances, would be found wholly 
at fault in another. 



A brief statement of the character of fertilizers known by the name 
of superphosphates, or acid phosphates, may prove of utility to farm- 
ers. On account of the high degree of nonavailability of some of the 
phosphates, as mentioned in the preceding paragraphs, it has long been 
the custom among manufacturers to prepare these mineral phosphates, 
previous to their application to the soil, in such a way as to increase 
the availability of the phosphoric acid which they contain. 

The most common method of securing this result consists in treating 
the finely ground phosphate with sulphuric acid (oil of vitriol). A 
large part of the lime contained in the natural phosphate is thus con- 
verted into sulphate of lime (gypsum, or land plaster), while the phos- 
phoric acid which was before in combination with the lime is secured, 
either in a free state or in combination with a lower equivalent of the 
lime. A normal phosphate of lime, such as is found in bones and in 
most mineral phosphates, is composed of three molecules of the oxide 
of calcium (lime) in combination with two molecules of phosphoric acid. 
Represented chemically, a molecule of bone phosphate or mineral phos- 
phate of lime has the composition shown by the formula (CaO) 3 (P 2 5 ). 
The percentage composition of pure phosphate of lime is, therefore, lime 
(CaO), 54.10 per cent, and phosphoric anhydride (P 2 5 ), 45.81 per cent. 

The first step in the preparation of superphosphate consists in reduc- 
ing the mineral phosphate to a condition of fineness which will permit 
its rapid disintegration when treated with sulphuric acid. In practice it 
is customary to grind the phosphate so it will pass a screen with 70 or 
80 meshes to the inch. The finer and more uniform the grinding, the 
easier and more economical becomes the treatment with sulphuric acid. 

Various mechanical appliances are in use for j>reparing the mineral 
phosphates for treatment with sulphuric acid. The phosphates are 
first broken into fine pieces, usually by a Blake crusher. The pieces 
should be the size of an acorn or smaller. They may then be ground 
between French burr millstones and the flour sifted through revolving 
screens, very much as wheat flour is treated. This is the simplest and 
oldest method of grinding the phosphate. Many modern mills have 
been invented for the same purpose, all depending more or less upon 
the same principles. It is estimated by Dr. Francis Wyatt that the 
actual cost of grinding phosphates, including all expenses for repairs, 
wear and tear, and interest on the investment, is about $1.50 per ton. 



184 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

The next step after the grinding of the material is to determine its 
chemical composition, because the amount of sulphuric acid required 
for treatment of the phosphate flour depends essentially upon its chem- 
ical structure. In the chemical analysis there must be determined 
the amount of moisture, the organic matter, the carbonate of lime, the 
magnesia, the amount of phosphates of lime, iron, and alumina, the 
quantity of sulphate and fluoride of lime, and the percentage of insol- 
uble matter, which is chiefly sand and silicates. With mineral phos- 
phates containing about 80 per cent of the phosphate of lime, from 3 to 
4 per cent of the phosphates of iron and alumina, and from 7 to 9 per 
cent of the carbonate and fluoride of lime the quantity of ordinary sul- 
phuric acid required for 100 pounds is about the same in weight. For 
each ton of such material, therefore, 1 ton of the ordinary sulphuric 
acid must be employed. If the amount of carbonate of lime and other 
acid-consuming materials increase above the amount mentioned, then 
the quantity of sulphuric acid required would also be proportionately 
increased. 

On account of the fumes of hydrofluoric acid which are emitted upon 
mixing the ground material containing fluor spar with sulphuric acid, 
the operation must be performed in a well-ventilated shed where the 
acid fumes can be carried away by means of some kind of a ventilator. 
The vessel in which the phosphate flour is mixed with sulphuric acid 
should be lined with lead, which is practically insoluble in sulphuric 
acid. The mixer, which is a revolving shaft carrying paddles made of 
cast iron, is driven by machinery. The appropriate amount of phos- 
phate flour having been placed in the mixer, the sulphuric acid is let into 
it by means of a lead pipe connected with the sulphuric acid tank, and 
the whole is thoroughly triturated. After all the acid and flour have 
been placed in the mixer the shaft is driven rapidly for a few minutes 
until every part of it is thoroughly stirred and the semiliquid mass is 
allowed to flow into an appropriate reservoir. 

The mixers are very conveniently arranged so as to hold about a ton, 
while the reservoir into which their charges run may hold 100 tons or 
more, As it requires only five or ten minutes to mix one charge, when 
all the facilities are properly arranged, the reservoir may be filled in a 
day. The material in the reservoir becomes very hot, due to the 
chemical action taking place between the sulphuric acid and the other 
ingredients. The temperature rises often above that of boiling water, 
and it may reach as high as 240° F. 

After the chemical action has ceased and the mass begins to cool, it 
soon becomes hard, setting something after the manner of cement or 
plaster of paris. At the end of two days it is sufficiently dry and hard 
to be dug out with picks and shovels. When removed from the reser- 
voir it is piled up in heaps, where it is allowed to remain for about two 
days, and then is ready for being broken up and ground. This is 
easily accomplished by appropriate machinery, after which it can be 
placed in bags and it is then ready for shipment. 



MINERAL PHOSPHATES AS FERTILIZERS. 185 

The superphosphates formed in this way usually contain from 12 to 
14 per cent of available phosphoric acid, and this phosphoric acid exists 
in various degrees of combination. First, there is free phosphoric acid ; 
second, phosphoric acid combined with lime in the proportion of one 
molecule of lime and two of phosphoric acid; third, phosphoric acid 
combined with lime in the proportion of two molecules of lime to two 
of phosphoric acid; fourth, a little of the phosphoric acid may be left 
combined in the natural state, in the proportion of three molecules of 
lime and two molecules of jmosphoric acid. The acid salts of lime also 
contain, in addition, water of crystallization. The free phosphoric acid 
and the inonocalcium phosphate are soluble in water, the dicalcium 
phosphate in citrate of ammonia, while the tricalcium phosphate which 
remains undecomposed is insoluble in water and citrate of ammonia. 

In the above processes, which have been outlined in a general way, 
the actual weight of a ton of mineral phosphate is almost exactly dou- 
bled by being converted into superphosphate. If the original material 
contained, therefore, 80 per cent of phosphate of lime, the treated mate- 
rial contains only 40 per cent. Thus the freights are doubled and there 
is secured a material which, in addition to the phosphoric acid, very 
probably does not have a sufficient fertilizing value to warrant the pay- 
ment of so higli a rate of freight. It is true that the sulphate of lime, 
which is always present in large quantities in superphosphates, is 
valuable in some instances as a fertilizer, and in fact is purchased for 
that purpose under the name of gypsum, or land plaster. It, however, 
might be of some advantage to the farmer to apply this substance 
directly instead of indirectly with the phosphate. For this reason manu- 
facturers have sought to make a more concentrated form of superphos- 
phate and thus diminish the freight charge, which is one of the chief 
items of cost in fertilizers delivered to farmers. 

In order to obtain a high-grade superphosphate and thus dimin- 
ish freight charges the decomposition of mineral phosphates may be 
accomplished by the use of phosphoric acid itself in the place of sul- 
phuric acid. This phosphoric acid is obtained directly on the premises 
by the decomposition of the phosphates by sulphuric acid and the sub- 
sequent separation of the phosphoric acid from the product by well- 
known methods which it is not necessary to describe here. When the 
phosphoric acid is concentrated to the proper degree of strength, it 
requires from If to 2 pounds of it to decompose 1 pound of an ordinary 
mineral phosphate. The decomposition by means of phosphoric acid 
and subsequent treatment are very much the same as described for 
the direct decomposition of the phosphate flour by sulphuric acid. 
In this way a phosphate is produced which will yield from 35 to 45 
per cent of phosphoric acid soluble in water and ammonium citrate. 
Such a fertilizer would be of especial value when it becomes necessary 
to ship long distances, especially by rail, and farmers would do well to 
apply to their State chemists and others in charge of the sale of phos- 



186 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

phates and fertilizers to secure for theni in some way a phosphate of 
this description. 

The farmer should remember that it is not always the cheapest phos- 
phate which is the most valuable. What he should especially attempt 
would be to secure available phosphoric acid at the lowest possible 
rate. He may give as high as 6 cents a pound for available phos- 
phoric acid in a phosphate which he gets for $20 per ton, while at the 
same time he might purchase the same material for 4J cents a pound in 
a phosphate worth $40 per ton. 

PHOSPHATE AS BASIC SLAG. 

Another form of phosphate which is coming into extended use in 
this country as well as in Europe is that which is produced as a by- 
product in the manufacture of iron and steel. Many iron ores con- 
tain a notable quantity of phosphoric acid, which renders the pig iron 
made from them unsuitable for the manufacture of high-grade iron or 
steel, when the usual processes of reduction are followed. In order to 
utilize these pigs, which otherwise would not be very valuable, the basic 
Bessemer process has been invented. In Europe the process is known 
as the Thomas process, while in this country it is carried on chiefly 
under the patents taken out by Jacob Eeese. 

The principle of the process depends upon the arrangement of the 
reduction furnaces, by means of which the phosphoric acid in the pig 
iron is caused to combine with the lime which is used as a flux in the 
converters. A general outline of the process is as follows: 

The pigs which contain from 2 to 4 per cent of phosphorus are melted 
and introduced into a Bessemer converter, lined with dolomite powder 
cemented with coal tar, into which has previously been placed a cer- 
tain quantity of freshly burned lime. For an average content of 3 per 
cent of phosphorus in the pig iron, from 15 to 20 pounds of lime are 
used for each 100 pounds of pig iron. As soon as the melted pig iron 
has been introduced into the converter, the air blast is started, the 
converter placed in an upright position, and the purification of the mass 
begins. The manganese in the iron is converted into oxide, the silicon 
into silica, the carbon into carbonic acid and carbonic oxide, and the 
phosphorus into phosphoric acid. 

By reason of the oxidation processes, the whole mass suffers a rise 
of temperature amounting in all to about 1,200° F. above the tempera- 
ture of the melted iron. At this temperature the lime which has been 
added melts and in this melted state combines with the phosphoric 
acid, and the liquid mass floats upon the top of the metallic portion, 
which has by this means been converted into steel. As soon as the 
process is completed the fused slag is poured off into molds, allowed to 
cool, broken up, and ground to a fine powder. The whole process 
occupies only about fifteen minutes. For each 5 tons of steel which 
are made in this way, about 1 ton of basic slag is produced. 



MINERAL PHOSPHATES AS FERTILIZERS. 187 

In another process, in order to make a slag richer in phosphoric acid, 
a lime is employed which contains a considerable percentage of phos- 
phate. Although the slag thus produced is richer in phosphoric aeid, 
it is doubtful whether it is any more available for plant growth than 
that made in the usual way with lime free from phosphoric acid. In 
other words, when a basic slag is made with a lime free from phosphoric 
acid, nearly the whole of the phosphoric acid is combined as tetrabasie 
calcium phosphate. On the other hand, when the lime employed eon- 
tains some of the ordinary mineral phosphate, the basic slag produced 
becomes a mixture of this mineral phosphate with the tetracalcium salt. 
The mineral phosphate is probably not rendered any more available 
than it was before. 

It is easily seen from the above outline of the process of manufacture 
that basic slags can have a very widely divergent composition. When 
made from pig iron poor in phosphorus, the slag will have a large excess 
of uncombined lime, and consequently the content of phosphoric acid 
will be low. When made from pigs rich in phosphorus, there may be a 
deficiency of lime, and in this case the content of phosphoric acid would 
bo unusually high. 

It is found also that the content of iron in the slag varies widely. In 
general, the greater the content of iron, the harder the slag and the 
more difficult to grind. If the pig iron contain sulphur, as is often the 
case, this sulphur is found also in the slag in combination with the lime, 
either as a sulphide or sulphate. No certain formula can therefore be 
assigned to basic slags, and the availability of each one must be judged 
by its individual analysis. 

The value of a basic slag to the farmer depends largely upon the 
quantity of phosphoric acid which it contains soluble in a 5 per cent 
citric-acid solution. Inasmuch as the great value of the basic slags in 
certain soils and for certain crops has increased the demand for it very 
largely, there are many imitations of it placed on the market which will 
be described further on. 

This waste material, or phosphatic slag product, contains varying 
quantities of phosphoric acid, sometimes more than 20 per cent. It is 
reduced to a fine powder, and is then ready for application without 
any further treatment. In addition to the phosphoric acid it contains, 
there are also considerable quantities of lime and iron, usually in a low 
state of oxidation. 

Objections have been made to the use of basic slag for fertilizing pur- 
poses on account of the iron which it contains. There are, however, 
no valid objections which can be based upon this fact. In many soils 
the addition of iron is a positive benefit, while in all cases the quantity 
of iron contained in the slag would be too small to produce any inju- 
rious effects upon growing crops. 

The phosphoric acid in basic slag is different in chemical composition 
from that obtained in natural mineral phosphates and in bone. As has 



188 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

already been pointed out, the phosphoric acid in the substances just 
mentioned is combined in a form which is known to the chemist as tri- 
calcium phosphate, containing three molecules of the oxide of lime ? each 
molecule of it containing three parts of the oxide of lime to two parts 
of phosphoric acid. In the basic slag, the molecule consists ol four 
parts of oxide of lime to two parts of phosphoric acid. It is there- 
fore known chemically as tetracalcium phosphate. Its composition is 
chemically expressed by the symbol (CaO) 4 P 2 5 . This form of combina- 
tion seems to bo much more easily assimilable by plants than the other, 
and extended experiments have shown that, as a rule, in its application 
the phosphoric acid is quite as available as that which is present in 
superphosphates. A large percentage of the tetracalcium phosphate 
present in basic phosphate slags is soluble in citrate of ammonia, and 
a still larger quantity in free citric acid. Thus, by the ordinary chem- 




3Tig. 16.— Effect of fertilizing vegetable soil with phosphates and other substances. 

ical tests, it is shown to be more available than the mineral phosphates, 
and practical experiments in field and pot culture have shown that this 
is the case. 

When basic slags are cooled slowly, they tend to assume a crystal- 
line condition, especially in the interior of the mass, and these crystals 
represent, more nearly than the other portions, their true composition, 
but being harder are not so well suited to fertilization. 

In figures 1G and 17 are shown the results of experimental fertilizing 
with phosphates and other substances on the growth of oats in muck 
soils. In figure 16, pot No. 1 was unfertilized,- pot No. 5 had received 
fine-ground Florida phosphate at the rate of 500 pounds per acre; pot 
No. 9 the same quantity of fine-ground phosphate, and 300 pounds each 
of sulphate of ammonia and sulphate of potash per acre; pot No. 10 the 
same quantity of fine- ground phosphate and 4,000 pounds of lime per acre. 



MINERAL PHOSPHATES AS FERTILIZERS. 



189 



In figure 17, pot No. 23 was unfertilized; pot No. 17 had received 
fine-grouud phosphate, pot No. 18 basic slag phosphate, and pot No. 19 
acid phosphate, all at the rate of 500 pounds per acre. 

In figure 16 it is seen that the phosphate alone, No. 5, produced as 
good results as when mixed with other fertilizers, No. 9, and the addi- 
tion of lime, as shown in No. 10, was a positive injury. In figure 17 it 
is seen that the fine-ground phosphate, pot No. 17, and the acid phos- 
phate, No. 19, gave the best results, closely followed by the basic slag, 
No. 18. 

In such soils as these, therefore, a fine-ground, soft phosphate is the 
only fertilizer necessary for oats. 

The soil used in the experiment shown in figure 1G had been in culti- 
vation for three years, while that used in the experiment shown in 
figure 17 was a subsoil which had never been in use. 




Fig. 17.— Effect of fertilizing muck soil with different phosphates. 

In other soils deficient in lime and iron there is every reason to believe 
that the application of basic phosphate would at times give better 
results than that of a superphosphate, on account of the additional 
quantity of lime and iron conveyed to the soil in the fertilizer employed. 

On account of the fact that the basic slag is a by-product in the man- 
ufacture of iron and steel, and that it requires no treatment with sul- 
phuric or phosphoric acid to render it available; and that the only 
expense connected with its manufacture consists in its grinding and in 
the additional expense of the furnace linings required for its produc- 
tion, it is found that the available phosphoric acid contained therein 
can be placed upon the market quite as cheap, if not cheaper, than 
a similar quantity of available phosphoric acid produced by the old 
process. 



l&O YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. B&PABTMEOT OF AGRICULTURE. 

It must not be forgotten, however, that the quantity of basic phos- 
phate produced is limited, not by the demand for it as a fertilizer, but 
by the market for the iron and steel which is the direct product of Khz 
manufacture of which the basic slag is only a by-product. There is not 
much prospect, therefore, of its ever assuming a place in the markets 
of the world for fertilizing purposes to the exclusion of bone and min- 
eral phosphates. 

The quantity of basic slag manufactured and consumed in Germany 
in 1893 was 750,000 tons, quite equal to the consumption of superphos- 
phates. The quantity of slag produced in England for the same time 
was about 160,000 tons, and in France about 115,000 tons, making the 
total production of central Europe about 1,000,000 tons, a quantity 
sufficient to fertilize nearly 5,000,000 acres. The only place in this 
country where basic slag has been produced is Pottstown, Pa., and the 
factory there is not in operation at the present time. 

In regard to the amount to be used no definite rule can be given, 
but from 300 to 500 pounds per acre will usually be found sufficient. 

ADULTERATION OF BASIC-SLAG PHOSPHATES. 

By reason of the high agricultural value of the basic phosphate slags, 
it has proved to be very profitable to imitate them by the manufacture 
of substitutes. These substitutes are essentially fraudulent. They con- 
sist chiefly of mineral phosphates of lime or of iron and alumina. It is 
true they all contain a greater or less per cent of phosphoric acid, but this 
acid is present in practically an unavailable state. These imitations 
can be distinguished from the genuine by the solubility of the phos- 
phoric acid which they contain and by microscopic examination. The 
farmer should at least insist that 75 per cent of the phosphoric acid in 
a basic slag offered him should be soluble in a 5 per cent solution of 
citric acid. It should not be forgotten, moreover, in this connection, 
that genuine slags may differ very greatly among themselves in avail- 
ability. In one case all the phosphoric acid in the slag may be present 
as tetracalcium phosphate, of which a considerable quantity is soluble 
in ammonium citrate, and nearly all of it in a 5 per cent solution of 
citric acid. Another sample of slag, having the same general appear- 
ance and approximately the same percentage of phosphoric acid, may 
give up only a little of its acid to ammonium citrate, and not more 
than a quarter or half of it to citric acid. The mere fact, therefore, 
that a given sample of fertilizer is composed wholly of basic slag is 
not an absolute guaranty of the complete availability of its fertilizing 
principles- 

Attention has already been called to the importance of the nature of 
the soil when judging of the availability of phosphatic manures in 
general, and this rule applies with equal force to basic slags. 

It is undoubtedly true that these slags are superior in value to super- 
phosphates in all cases where they are to be applied to naturally wet, 



MINERAL PHOSPHATES AS FERTILIZERS. 191 

peaty, or marshy soils. Inasmuch, however, as they are soluble in 
water only to a slight degree, basic slag should in all cases be plowed 
under, so as to be placed in a portion of the soil where the rootlets of 
the plants will have access to it. 

PHOSPHATES IN MARLS. 

The term " marl" itself is of rather wide application. In general it 
is applied to any pulverulent or semipulverulent deposit containing 
notable quantities of lime carbonate and existing in a condition fit to 
apply directly to the field, or to be applied after a simple crushing. 

The chief agricultural constituent of a marl is always lime carbonate, 
although some samples of marl which are placed on the market may 
have only a small per cent of this material. In so far as the fertilizing 
properties are concerned in a general way, however, they must be 
ascribed principally to the carbonate of lime. It is for this reason that 
marls act in such a beneficial way when applied to stiff clay soils and 
other soils deficient in lime. Many of the Virginia marls, however, are 
found to contain, in addition to the lime, considerable quantities of 
potash and phosphoric acid, while marls from other localities contain 
also potash and phosphoric acid, the potash being usually in the form 
of silicate. 

The percentage of phosphoric acid in phosphate-bearing marls varies 
from a mere trace to as much as 4 or 5 per cent. Usually, however, 
the marls contain from 1 to 2 per cent of phosphate. When marls 
contain over 5 per cent of phosphate they can hardly be considered 
under the name of marls, but should then be transferred to the place 
of natural phosphates. As a rule the farmer can not expect much 
benefit from the phosphate content of a marl. On account of the 
small proportion of plant food in marls, they will not bear transporta- 
tion to any great distance. There are very few marls that are worth, 
when placed upon the field, more than $4 or $5 per ton, and in the 
great majority of cases the value is not even so great. 

RULES FOR THE APPLICATION OF PHOSPHATIC FERTILIZERS. 

It is not possible to give any rigid rule for the use of phosphatic 
fertilizers applicable in all cases. The character of the soil is, of course, 
the first thing to be taken into consideration. In most soils there is a 
sufficient quantity of phosphoric acid already present, if it could only 
be secured in an available form. In other cases there may be an actual 
lack of the phosphate in the soil, and this is notably the case in soils 
composed chiefly of sand, such as are found in many parts of Michigan, 
New Jersey, and Florida. 

A chemical analysis, therefore, does not always give an indication of 
the actual need of a soil for phosphorus. The analysis may indicate a 
fair proportion of phosphorus in the soil, and yet it may not show its 
state of composition and degree of availability. A content of from 0.2 



192 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

to 0.5 per cent of phosphoric acid in the soil shows an ample supply of 
that material. It would be useless to state dogmatically a minimum 
content of phosphoric acid which would render absolutely necessary 
the use of a phosphatic fertilizer. In general, however, it may be 
assumed that authorities on analytical chemistry would regard a per- 
centage of less than 0.12 of phosphoric acid as indicating a less than 
minimum amount necessary to proper plant growth. In soils of good 
fertility the usual content of phosphoric acid is from 0.2 to 0.4 j)er 
cent. 

The quantity of a phosphate which is added, however, in a fertilizer^ 
although it might be sufficient for the needs of a growing crop, would 
increase almost innnitesinially the percentage of phosphate in the soil. 
As a rule phosphate fertilizers are applied in amounts varying from 300 
to 500 pounds per acre, except in rare instances of intensive culture, as 
in gardens and truck farming. If the fertilizer employed contain an 
average of 20 per cent of phosphoric acid, which may be allowed as a 
rule, then in the application of 500 pounds there would be only 100 
pounds of phosphoric acid added per acre. When the total weight of 
soil, taken to the depth of G inches, covering an acre, is considered, 
it is seen that this addition of phosphoric acid would add almost infini- 
tesimally to the percentage. The principle of the use, therefore, of 
phosphoric acid in the form of fertilizer is based on the assumption that 
it gives to the rootlets of the plant the phosphate in a form readily 
available, and not that it increases to any appreciable extent the actual 
phosphoric-acid content of the soil. 

It could easily happen that a field might receive annually 100 pounds 
of available phosphoric acid per acre without showing at the end of ten 
years any marked increase in the percentage of this substance in the soil 
itself. The best rule for the farmer to follow, therefore, is to make an 
actual test of the needs of his fields by applying fertilizers of different 
descriptions to small measured areas. It is not possible for every farmer 
to secure an analysis of the soil of his fields, nor would an analysis of the 
soil of one field be a fair indication of the needs of another. Where the 
direct method of experimentation mentioned above, however, could be 
combined with chemical analysis, together with a study of the physical 
conditions of the soil, the farmer would have at hand complete data for 
judging of the actual needs of his fields. It is undoubtedly true that 
thousands of farmers are paying out annually large sums of money for 
phosphatic fertilizers and applying them to fields in which there is no 
deficiency of phosphorus. These phosphatic fertilizers are frequently 
mixed with other fertilizing materials containing potash and nitrogen, 
and the good effect produced by the fertilizers may be due to the other 
materials and not to the phosphorus 5 but by testing small measured 
areas with phosphoric acid, with potash, and with nitrogen, or by com- 
binations thereof, the farmer in a year or two can reach a reliable 
conclusion in regard to the needs of his soil. 



FERTILIZATION OF THE SOIL AS AFFECTING THE 
ORANGE IN HEALTH AND DISEASE. 

By H. J. Webber, 
Assistant in Division of Vegetable Pathology, U. S. Department of Agriculture. 

Probably the most important question which concerns the orange 
grower is how to fertilize his trees. In Florida, where the orange soils 
are mostly very sandy and sterile, and require to be fertilized regularly, 
it is highly important to understand what elements should be used in 
fertilization and in what forms it is best to use them. No plant will 
long withstand improper treatment. In case of slow-growing plants 
like the orange, where proper treatment prolongs growth and produc- 
tiveness for centuries, it becomes particularly necessary that correct 
methods of manuring be used. The condition of tree reflects largely 
the cumulative treatment of years; in crops which are replanted each 
year, however, the effect of improper fertilization is probably less notice- 
able, especially so far as the development of disease is concerned. 

In growing annual plants one can early notice results and may profit 
by experience. A few seasons will suffice to determine about the kind 
and quantity of fertilizer necessary for them on a particular soil. In 
the fertilization of the orange, however, the matter is not so easily 
determined,' only the observations of a series of years will give results 
which can be depended upon. An orange grower may fertilize with 
one element one year and get good results, but this is no evidence that 
the same element used the next year or year after year will prove ben- 
eficial; it may, indeed, in prolonged treatment, lead to deterioration 
and disease. It is this difficulty in experimenting and drawing correct 
conclusions that accounts for the present poor understanding of rational 
methods of manuring the orange. 

The orange appears to be very sensitive to methods of treatment and 
fertilization, and several of the most serious diseases are either caused 
or aggravated by errors in these. The present paper is based largely 
on the experiences of intelligent orange growers and upon such obser- 
vations as the winter has been able to make in the course of investiga- 
tions of orange diseases. 

FERTILIZING FOR GROWTH AND FRUIT. 

Primarily the orange grower desires to know how to fertilize so as to 
stimulate either growth or fruit production. With oranges, as with 
many other agricultural plants, one may fertilize in such a manner that 

1 * A 94 — -7 193 



194 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

excessive growth is stimulated at the expense of fruit production. A 
strong nitrogenous fertilizer results usually in much growth and little 
fruit. This seems to be particularly true if the ammonia is added in an 
organic form. While trees are young it is probably well to favor the 
growth of wood principally, but at an age of seven or eight years from 
the bud, the tree, if it has grown properly, will have attained sufficient 
size to begin to produce a fair quantity of fruit. It should then be given 
a slightly modified fertilizer, containing more potash and phosphoric acid 
and less nitrogen, to stimulate fruit production as much as possible. 
The so-called chemical manures appear to be much more active in 
stimulating fruit production than organic manures. 

EFFECT ON QUALITY OF FRUIT. 

The experience of many orange growers indicates that the quality 
of the fruit may be largely controlled by fertilization. As oranges are 
purchased very largely on their appearance and quality, this becomes 
an important consideration in manuring. Many intelligent growers 
are coming to believe that the best results can be obtained by giving 
the trees an application of that element only which seems to be lack- 
ing, and not using, as the majority do, a complete fertilizer, in definite 
proportions, regardless of whether all the elements are needed by the 
plant or not. If it can be determined by the appearance of the tree and 
fruit what element is lacking, this would seem to be the most rational 
way to fertilize. 

It seems reasonable to suppose that by careful study pathological 
characters induced by starvation might be found, which would serve 
to indicate clearly the lack of any particular element. Some growers 
claim to be able to recognize these characters now, and are fertilizing 
largely on this modified plan, taking advantage of what we might call 
the sign language of the tree. Some of these characters will be men- 
tioned below under the consideration of the different elements used. 

EFFECT ON SOIL MOISTURE. 

In fertilization at least two factors must usually be considered, the 
element of plant food supplied and the effect of this upon the soil as 
aiding it in supplying the plant with moisture. The heavy application, 
in late fall or early spring, of an organic manure, like blood and bone, 
which is extensively used in Florida, is liable to lead to injurious effects 
during the spring drought, if the trees are on high and dry land. On 
the other hand, such soils might be ameliorated by using substances 
which attract water and increase the surface tension of soil moisture. 
Nitrogen, for instance, used in the form of nitrate of soda, and potash, 
in the form of kainit, would tend to draw up the subsoil moisture and 
probably aid largely in supplying the necessary moisture during this 
trying season. The use of organic manures, on the contrary, would only 
exaggerate the damage produced by drought. If groves are on very 



EFFECT OF SOIL FERTILIZATION ON THE ORANGE, 195 

moist land, as is frequently the case in Florida, where the necessity is 
to lessen the moisture rather than to increase it, some form of organic 
manure, as muck or blood and bone, might be found of benefit. 

EFFECT OF FERTILIZERS ON THE ORANGE IN HEALTH. 

The elements which need to be supplied in fertilization to most 
Florida orange groves are nitrogen, potassium, and phosphorus; or, 
using the terms in which they are expressed in most analyses of ferti- 
lizers, ammonia, potash, and phosphoric acid. The application of lime 
would also prove of benefit to many groves. Probably no element of 
plant food used in the fertilization of orange groves should be more 
carefully considered, with respect both to form and quantity, than nitro- 
gen. It is the most costly and at the same time the most dangerous 
element to use, as excessive applications are liable to result in extensive 
dropping and splitting of the fruit or in the production of the serious 
disease known as die-back, which will be discussed below. 

EFFECT OF NITROGEN. 

A grower may with considerable certainty determine by the appear- 
ance of his trees the condition of his grove in respect to the supply of 
nitrogen available in the soil. An abundance of nitrogen is indicated 
by a dark green color of the foliage and rank growth. The fruit shows 
the effect of an abundance of nitrogen by being, in general, large, with 
a thick and comparatively rough rind. If the trees have a yellowish 
foliage, with comparatively small leaves, and show little or no growth, 
there is probably a lack of nitrogen. In this case there is but little 
fruit formed, and that formed is small and usually colors early. If the 
tree is starving from a lack of nitrogen, the foliage will become very 
light yellow and sparse, and the small limbs will die, as will also the 
large limbs in extreme cases. If the starvation is continued, no fer- 
tilizer being added, the tree will finally die back nearly to the ground 
and probably die out entirely. The extreme symptoms of general star- 
vation from lack of all elements are probably nearly the same. The 
nitrogen used in fertilization is commonly derived from mineral or 
organic sources. Of the former, sulphate of ammonia and nitrate of 
soda are the forms most used ; of the latter, muck, dried blood, blood 
and bone, cotton-seed meal, tankage, fish scrap, stable manure, etc., 
are the forms most commonly employed. 

INJURIOUS ACTION OF MUCK. 

Muck is very commonly applied in considerable quantities either in a 
raw state or composted with sulphate of potash, etc. Many growers 
rather fanatically hold to what they term natural fertilization. By this 
is usually meant giving the tree nourishment in the form in which they 
suppose it to be derived iu nature. It is contended by many that muck 
is principally decaying vegetable matter, and that as this is the form 



196 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

of nourishment which the trees obtain in nature, it must be a good fer- 
tilizer to use in cultivation. But it must be borne in mind that orange 
trees as we cultivate them are decidedly not in a state of nature, except 
that by the cultivation of centuries we havemade cultivation and manur- 
ing natural conditions which the plant demands. Trees in nature bear 
fruits for seed to reproduce the species ; on the contrary, we grow fruits 
for market and favor a seedless variety. We want a smooth, thin- 
skinned, tender, juicy fruit that will sink in water. Nature does not 
pay particular attention to these characters, so we watch for freaks and 
sports, abnormal plants, which have the characters we desire, and when 
found we render these characters permanent by budding. Our aim in 
cultivation is not to produce the fruit we find in the wild state, but to 
modify that fruit to suit our purpose. One of the most efficient methods 
of accomplishing this is to vary the fertilization. 

While it can not be denied that muck has in some cases given excel- 
lent results, it must be conceded that its extensive use has usually been 
of doubtful benefit and often has done positive injury. Groves which 
have had liberal dressings of muck are frequently much diseased and 
produce light crops; the oranges are usually coarse, thick-skinned, and 
sour ; the productiveness is often lessened by extensive premature drop- 
ping of the fruit; the tendency seems to be to bring on die-back, a disease 
which is of frequent occurrence in groves heavily fertilized with muck. 
What has been said of muck applies to a greater or less extent to the 
various forms of organic nitrogen used. The tendency of all organic 
manures rich in nitrogen is to produce a large growth which is weak 
and sickly. Growth and not fruit is stimulated, and the fruit resulting 
is usually of poor quality, inclined to be large and rough, with a thick 
rind and abundant rag. 1 

STABLE MANURE OF DOUBTFUL UTILITY. 

Barn manure is largely used by many growers, who still hold to the 
tradition that chemical manures are injurious to the plants. The ben- 
efits of barn manure in an orange grove are in serious question. The 
fruits produced by nitrogen from this source are, as above stated, usually 
large, coarse, thick-skinned, with abundant rag, and of inferior flavor. 
If barn manure is used — and most growers have a limited quantity 
and desire to use what they have — it should be spread over the grove 
lightly, so that each tree receives only a small amount. Where such 
manure is depended upon as the main element of fertilization, liberal 
dressings of potash should be occasionally applied; this will tend to 
correct the evils of an overbalanced nitrogenous fertilizer. What has 
been said as to the effect of muck and barn manure on the quality of 
the fruit applies equally to the effects produced by cotton-seed meal, 
blood and bone, tankage, etc. 

1 A term applied to the pithy axis of the orange fruit and the membranes separating 
the sections. 



EFFECT OF SOIL FERTILIZATION ON THE ORANGE. 197 

In general, organic fertilizers do not stimulate fruiting to the same 
extent as the mineral fertilizers. It is probably better economy to 
apply such fertilizers to annual crops, cereals, garden truck, etc. 

MINERAL NITROGEN. 

The mineral nitrogen manures, nitrate of soda and sulphate of 
ammonia, apparently stimulate production of fruit more than organic 
manures and yet promote a fair general growth. The fruit produced by 
fertilization with these salts, used in correct proportions with the other 
elements which it is necessary to apply, is usually of good quality, being 
solid, juicy, and rich, with thin skin and little rag. Sulphate of am- 
monia has the effect, growers testify, of sweetening the fruit to a consid- 
erable extent. There seems to be little doubt as to the correctness of 
this view, but why it is so remains in question. The sweetening is prob- 
ably more marked if there is a slight deficiency of potash. The use of 
very large quantities of either sulphate of ammonia or nitrate of soda may 
result disastrously, acting as "chemical poison," killing the trees out- 
right and causing them to throw off their leaves. Here again the exact 
action is not, to my knowledge, understood. The following may be the 
explanation : It is well known that plants growing on the seacoast, in 
soil saturated with the salty sea water, are, in some respects, under 
almost the same conditions as in deserts, having great difficulty in 
obtaining sufficient water, though surrounded by water. The root hairs 
have difficulty in extracting the water from the strong salty solutions. 
The plants thus have various devices to prevent excessive evaporation 
or transpiration of water from the leaves, similar to those developed by 
desert plants. The injurious effect of the nitrogen salts may in this 
case be caused by simply producing such a strong solution of the salt 
in the vicinity of the plant that the roots are not able to absorb the 
necessary moisture, and thus the plant is compelled to cut off- its leaves 
to prevent the transpiration of the water which can not be replenished 
by further absorption. 

Sulphate of ammonia has been very widely used among orange grow- 
ers. Mtrate of soda has been but little used thus far, but is apparently 
growing in favor. Its insecticide and water-attracting properties are 
probably much greater than those of sulphate of ammonia. 

POTASH FERTILIZERS. 

In fertilizing the orange, potash is most frequently used either in the 
form of the sulphate or of wood ashes. While sulphate of potash has 
been most widely used, there is apparently little evidence that it is in 
any way superior to other forms. Muriate of potash, containing the 
equivalent of about 50 per cent of actual potash, the form probably 
most used in the apple and peach orchards of the North, has been little 
used in orange groves. Apparently those who have used this form 
have obtained uniformly good results. Kainit, or German potash salt, 



198 YEARBOOK OF THE TJ. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

which is a crude double salt of magnesium sulphate with calcium chlo- 
ride, containing the equivalent of from 12 to 14 per cent of actual pot- 
ash, is a form much used in Northern orchards and is promising for use 
in orange groves. Its very active effect in increasing the surface ten- 
sion of the soil moisture and thus attracting water to the trees, might 
make it an excellent form to add in early spring to aid the plant in 
withstanding the spring drought, which is so frequently injurious to the 
orange tree, and sometimes fatal to the fruit crop. Growers not sup- 
plied with facilities for irrigation would, undoubtedly find it profit- 
able to consider carefully points of this nature in fertilization. The 
noticeable effect of potash on the orange tree appears to be its aid 
in completing and maturing the wood. Apparently an insufficient 
amount of potash is shown by an excessive growth of weak, immature 
wood, which does not harden up as winter approaches and is liable to 
be injured by frost. 

An abundance of potash, in the form of sulphate of potash or tobacco 
stems, is said by many growers to produce excessively sour fruit. 
That potash is very necessary in fruit production is shown by the fact 
that the fruit contains a large percentage of this element. An average 
of fifteen analyses of different varieties of Florida oranges shows 52.05 
per cent to be about the usual amount of potash in the ash of the 
orange fruit. The ash in these fifteen analyses averaged 0.916 per cent, 
or less than 1 per cent of the total weight of the fruit. 

PHOSPHORIC ACID. 

Phosphoric acid, which is a very necessary element of fertilization on 
Florida orange lands, is mostly used in the form of dissolved bone- 
black, acidulated bone or phosphate rock, soft phosphate, raw bone, 
guano, etc. The immediate effect of phosphoric acid on the orange tree 
and fruit is little understood. Several intelligent growers claim to be 
able to recognize the effect of phosphorous starvation by the appear- 
ance of the. new growth of leaves. If these, when they first push out 
or while they are still young and tender, present a slightly variegated 
appearance, mottled with light and dark green, it is claimed that they 
are suffering from lack of phosphorus, and that if a liberal application 
of some soluble phosphate is applied this appearance may be checked. 
If this can be shown to be true it will prove a valuable index to the 
available quantity of phosphoric acid in the soil. A similar appear- 
ance, may, however, appear in light cases of the so-called "frenching," 
a disease, or x>robably more properly a symptom of disease, which is 
not uncommon. Phosphorous starvation, it is true, may have some 
effect in inducing this disease. 

LIME. 

Lime, it is usually supposed, is present in sufficient quantities in most 
of our soils. It may be questioned, however, whether the common high 
pine land and scrub land, and indeed much of the flat woods and ham- 



EFFECT OF SOIL FERTILIZATION ON THE ORANGE. 199 

mock of the interior of Florida, might not be benefited by dressings of 
lime. From the superiority of oranges grown on soils which are known 
to be rich in lime it would seem that this is probably a very desirable 
and necessary element for the production of superior fruit. The fine, 
smooth-skinned, and deliciously flavored Indian and Halifax Eiver 
oranges, with their characteristic aroma, are grown largely on soils rich 
in lime from shell mounds and coralline and coquina rock. The oranges 
produced in the noted Orange Bend Hammock, which are of distinctive 
quality, with delicate, rich aroma, and thin, smooth rind, are produced 
on a soil underlaid by a marl rich in lime. Lime soils are in many orange 
countries considered superior for orange growing. Dr. A. Stutzer, in 
his work on the Fertilization of Tropical Cultivated Plants, writes: 
"The orange and citron fruits desire a deep, porous, dry soil, rich in lime. 
If sufficient lime is not present the fruit will be thick-skinned and not 
have a fine aroma." It appears also that the effect of abundant lime 
is to hasten to some extent the time of ripening. Fruits grown on soils 
rich in lime appear to color and become suitable for shipping some- 




Fig. 18. — Orange twigs showing effects of die back. 

what earlier than those grown on soils containing but little Jime. To 
secure a good quality of fruit the regular application of lime may be 
found very desirable in many groves. 

FERTILIZATION AS AFFECTING DISEASE. 

Probably the most common cause of injury to orange trees is a lack 
of fertilization, yet it is not infrequent for disease to be induced or 
aggravated by excessive or improper fertilization. This may, indeed, 
be of much more importance than we are at present inclined to believe. 
One of the forms of die-back, a common and destructive disease of the 
orange, is quite evidently due to errors in fertilization. In other cases 
the disease appears to be caused by planting in improper soil. 

DIE-BACK. 

Die-back manifests itself by a number of striking characters. The 
foliage becomes very dark green, the vigorous growth remains angular 
and immature and frequently becomes strongly recurved, and the tips 
turn up slightly, forming S-shaped curves. In the spring trees affected 



200 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

with this disease start out a very vigorous growth, which may con- 
tinue for several months. Finally a reddish brown resinous substance 
exudes on the twigs, forming the so-called die-back stain, which is very 
characteristic, and they begin to die back. This death of tissues may 
include the entire new growth or only a portion of it. Under the bark 
of the young limbs gum pockets form and burst out, causing large, 
unsightly eruptions on the twigs, as shown in figure 18. 

Larger gum pockets frequently form at the nodes, producing large 
swellings. If a tree is badly affected no fruit is formed; if moderately 
affected an abundance of fruit sets, but the larger portion of this 
turns to a lemon-yellow color before half grown, becomes stained by the 




Fig. 19. — Orange fruit showing effects of die-back. 



characteristic reddish exudations like that occurring on the branches, 
and prematurely falls. Fruit which hangs on the tree till nearly ripe 
is large and coarse and is frequently stained. It usually splits and 
falls before thoroughly ripe. The fruit on a slightly affected tree is 
very large aii'd coarse, with very thick, rough rind. Much of it is ren- 
dered unsalable by the reddish die-back stain. It is very prone to 
split and fall before mature. A split fruit of this character, showing 
also the die-back stain, is illustrated in figure 19. 

Frenching, or variegation of the foliage, frequently accompanies die- 
back and seems to be a symptom of the disease. The very dark green 
coloration which some growers believe to be an indication of a healthy 
grove, may, on the contrary, denote a condition verging on die-back. 
A lighter green would probably indicate better general health. 



EFFECT OF SOIL FERTILIZATION ON THE ORANGE. 201 
DIE-BACK A DISEASE OF INDIGESTION. 

Die-back appears to be a form of indigestion, due to an overfed con- 
dition of the plant. It occurs apparently wherever excessive quanti- 
ties of nitrogenous manures from organic sources are applied or become 
available to the plant. Trees near closets or barns or in barnyards 
almost invariably have die-back. When chickens roost on a tree for 
any length of time, so that the droppings fall on the soil beneath, the 
disease usually results. Many cases are known to the writer where it 
has apparently been caused by excessive applications of cotton-seed 
meal, blood and bone, barn manure, etc. Indeed, all organic manures 
in excessive quantities appear to give rise to it. If organic fertilizers 
are used they must therefore be applied with considerable caution to 
avoid an excess. No safe rule can be given as to the amount of 
manure that can be used with safety 5 this depends upon the size and 
condition of the tree, previous treatment, and soil conditions. 

Whether the chemical manures, nitrate of soda and sulphate of 
ammonia, will produce the disease if used in excessive quantities, is 
questionable. We have not been able to learn of any instance where 
this has occurred. Several cases are known where nitrate of soda was 
used of sufficient strength to cause the leaves to fall without producing 
any sign of this disease. Frequently the method of cultivation has 
considerable to do in causing die-back, excessive cultivation appearing 
to aggravate it very greatly. 

MAL-DI-GOMMA. 

The much-dreaded disease of foot rot, or mal-di-gomma, is probably 
not produced primarily by improper methods of fertilization, but seems 
to be considerably affected by the use of fertilizers and methods of 
cultivation. Groves in which cow-penning 1 has been practiced to a 
considerable extent are frequently affected with foot rot. This is so 
generally the case as to admit little doubt that this practice has con- 
siderable to do in inducing the disease. The extensive application of 
organic manures appears also to aggravate the malady to some extent, 
and their use in infected groves should be discouraged. 

INSECT DISEASES. 

With regard to the effect of fertilization upon insects which infest 
the orange, it may be said that the question is little understood. A 
general impression exists among the growers of the State that groves 
fertilized with blood and bone or barn manure are more liable to be 
badly infested with injurious insects than those fertilized exclusively 
with chemical manures. This appears to be especially true in the case 
of the six-spotted mite (Tetranychus 6-maculatus) and the purple scale 

1 A term used to designate the practice of penning cattle in orange groves over 
night, using a movable pen, the position of which is changed every few days. 
1 A 94—7* 



202 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

(Mytilaspis citricola)) judging from observations on many groves which 
have been fertilized with chemical manures only, it certainly seems that 
this belief is well founded. There is some evidence that the muriate of 
potash aids to some extent in preventing the ravages of the rust mite. 
Dr. Smith, of the New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station, has 
found nitrate of soda and kainit to be very active insecticidal fertilizers. 
These have not been used to any extent in fertilizing orange groves in 
Florida, and no data have been obtained as to their effect on orange 
insects. It is probable that they would prove more effective than sul- 
phate of ammonia or sulphate and muriate of potash, and they should be 
thoroughly tested to determine their value as fertilizers tor the orange. 

SUMMARY. 

Summarizing, it may be said: 

(1) By a proper combination of the various elements used in fertiliza- 
tion one can undoubtedly largely govern the quality and flavor of the 
fruit. 

(2) To obtain a fruit with thin rind, use nitrogen from inorganic 
sources in moderate quantities, with considerable potash and lime. 

(3) To sweeten the fruit, use sulphate of ammonia in considerable 
abundance, decreasing the amount of potash. 

(4) To render the fruit more acid, increase the amount of potash and 
use nitrogen from organic sources. 

(5) If it is desired to increase the size of the fruit, as is sometimes the 
case, apply a comparatively heavy dressing of nitrogen in some organic 
form and slightly decrease the other elements. In the case of the tan- 
gerine and mandarin, where a larger size is usually desired, a heavy 
dressing of nitrogen fertilizers would favor this end, and is not objec- 
tionable unless carried to excess. 

(6) Fertilization has an important bearing on diseases. 

(7) Die-back, a serious malady, is in all probability the result of over- 
feeding with nitrogenous manures from organic sources. These manures 
if used at all should be applied with great caution. 

(8) Foot rot, although not primarily due to improper methods of fer- 
tilization, is no doubt considerably influenced by this cause. 

(9) Insect diseases are also apparently influenced by the use of fertili- 
zers, organic manures rendering the trees more liable to injury from this 
source than chemical fertilizers. 



THE GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION OF ANIMALS AND 
PLANTS IN NORTH AMERICA. 1 

By C. Hart Merriam, 
Chief of the Division of Ornithology and Mammalogy, U. S. Department of Agriculture. 

IMPORTANCE OF A KNOWLEDGE OF THE GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION 

OF SPECIES. 

An accurate knowledge of the areas which, by virtue of their climatic 
conditions, are fitted for the cultivation of particular crops is of such 
obvious importance to agriculture that the lMvision of Ornithology and 
Mammalogy was early led to make a special study of the geographic 
distribution of the land animals and plants of North America; for the 
boundaries of areas inhabited by native species were believed to coin- 
cide with those suited to the production of particular kinds of fruit T 
grain, and tubers, and for the rearing of particular breeds of domesti- 
cated animals. 

When the boundaries of the life zones and areas are accurately 
mapped, the agriculturist need only ascertain the faunal area to which 
a particular crop or garden plant of limited range belongs in order to 
know beforehand just where it may be introduced with every prospect 
of success, soil and other local modifying influences being suitable ; and, 
in the case of weeds and of injurious and beneficial mammals, birds, 
and insects, he would know what kinds were to be looked for in his 
immediate vicinity, and could prepare in advance for noxious species 
that from time to time suddenly extend their range. Persons living 
within the area likely to be invaded could escape by planting crops not 
affected, while those living outside might largely increase their rev- 
enues by giving special attention to the cultivation of the crops that 
are affected in the adjacent life zone. 2 In short, a knowledge of the 

1 A review of the work undertaken and ®f the results accomplished by the Division 
of Ornithology and Mammalogy. 

2 This prediction was made in the annual report of the Ornithologist for 1888 (pp. 
482-483), and has been recently verified in a most gratifying manner. The distribu- 
tion of certain noxious insects has been mapped by the Division of Entomology; 
the resulting areas conform to those of particular life zones as previously mapped 
by the Division of Ornithology. For instance, in writing of the San Jose orange 
scale insect, Mr. L. O. Howard states: "It may prove to be a significant fact that, 
although nursery stock affected by this scale has for six or seven years back been 
sent to all the fruit-growing regions of the Eastern States, according to our present 
information the scale has established itself only in regions contained within the so- 
called Austral life zone. Mapping the points of establishment, it is very interesting 

203 



204 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

natural life areas of the United States and of their distinctive species 
and crops would enable our farmers and fruit growers to select the 
products best adapted to their localities, would help them in their battle 
with harmful species, and would put an end to the present indiscrim- 
inate experimentation by which hundreds of thousands, if not millions, 
of dollars are needlessly expended each year. 

The division has undertaken to furnish this information. When it 
began the study, ten years ago, little was known of the number or 
extent of the natural life areas of the country or of the laws limiting 
the dispersion of species. The faunal areas east of the Mississippi 
Valley had been recognized and in a general way defined, and attempts 
had been made to divide the country as a whole into areas of higher 
grade. Most zoological writers had agreed in apportioning the United 
States into three primary provinces or regions — an Eastern, reaching 
from the Atlantic to the Plains; a Central, from the eastern edge of 
the Plains to the Sierra Nevada and Cascade Eange; and a Western 
or Pacific, from the latter to the Pacific Ocean — but botanical writers 
were at variance both as to the number and boundaries of the divisions 
they sought to establish. The division began by collecting all avail- 
able data on the distribution of North American mammals and birds. 
The facts brought together were platted on maps as the first step in the 
investigation. 

AN EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

It soon became apparent, however, that in order to gain a clear con- 
ception of the facts and phenomena of distribution a careful study of 
the subject must be made in the field, where the actual range of mam- 
mals, birds, reptiles, insects, and plants could be ascertained and the 
distinctive areas contrasted. With this object in view, and with the 
sanction and approval of the Hon. J. M. Rusk, Secretary of Agriculture, 
and the Hon. Edwin Willits, Assistant Secretary, an experimental 
biological survey was made in the summer of 1889. The area selected 
was the San Francisco Mountain region in Arizona, which, because 
of its isolation, altitude, southern position, and proximity to an arid 
desert, was believed to offer unusual facilities for a successful study of 
the problems involved. That this expectation was more than realized 

to see how accurately this distribution has been followed. * * * This fact will 
relieve New England fruit growers north of southern Connecticut; those inhabiting 
the greater portion of Pennsylvania, except in the southeastern one-fifth and a 
western strip ; those in New York, except for the strip up the Hudson River, and 
the loop which comes in from the northwest and includes the counties bordering 
Lake Ontario on the south, as well as those inhabiting the northern portion of the 
lower peninsula of Michigan and all of northern Wisconsin, from any fear of this 
insect. Such a condition of affairs would seem almost too good to be true, but the 
possibility of its truth is suggested by what we know up to the present time." 
(Insect Life, VII, No. 4, March, 1895, p. 292.) 



GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION OF ANIMALS AND PLANTS. 205 

may be seen by reference to the report of the expedition. 1 The area 
of which a careful survey was made comprises about 5,000 square 
miles, and enough additional territory was examined to make in all 
nearly 12,000 square miles, of which a biological map was published. 

One result of this first survey was the complete overthrow of the 
principal faunal areas previously recognized in the United States, and 
a radical change in our conception of the principles involved. In 
ascending the mountain a succession of climatic belts were traversed, 
similar to those encountered in journeying northward from the Southern 
States to the polar sea, and each belt was found to be inhabited by a 
distinctive set of animals and plants. 

The more important results of the survey may be briefly summarized 
as follows: 

(1) It was demonstrated that terrestrial mammals, birds, reptiles, 
insects, and plants coincide in distribution, so that a map showing the 
boundaries of an area inhabited by an association of species in one 
group serves equally w r ell for the other groups. 

(2) Seven distinct belts or zones of animal and plant life were recog- 
nized between the Desert of the Little Colorado and the summit of 
San Francisco Mountain : A Desert area, a Pinon belt, a Pine belt, a 
Canadian belt, a Hudsonian belt, a Timber-line belt (afterwards merged 
with the Hudsonian as a subdivision), and an Arctic- Alpine area. No 
attempt was then made to propose a system of nomenclature for these 
several zones, but the important fact was recognized that they should 
be classed in two principal categories, a northern or Boreal, and a 
southern or Sonoran. The Alpine, Timber-line, Hudsonian, and Cana- 
dian were referred to the Boreal, while the Pine, Pinon, and Desert 
were referred to the Sonoran. 

(3) On comparing the principal facts of distribution on this mountain 
with corresponding facts over the country at large, three important 
truths became apparent: (a) That the several life zones of the mountain 
could be correlated with corresponding zones long recognized in the 
eastern United States; (b) that these same zones are really of trans- 
continental extent, though never before recognized in the West; and 
(c) that the faunas and floras of North America as a whole, and, for 
that matter, of the Northern Hemisphere north of the tropical region, 
are properly divisible into but two primary life regions, a northern or 
Boreal, and a southern or Austral (then termed Sonoran), both stretch- 
ing across the continent from ocean to ocean. 

The report of the expedition was accompanied by colored maps show- 
ing in detail the geographic and vertical distribution of animals and 
plants on the mountain, and also by a colored provisional biological 
map of North America showing the general facts of distribution then 
available, arranged in accordance with the principles discovered in 
studying the San Francisco Mountain region. 

'Results of a Biological Survey of the San Francisco Mountain Region in Arizona. 
North American Fauna, No. 3, September, 1890. 



206 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

The results of this experimental biological survey were so important 
and far reaching as to completely revolutionize current notions of dis- 
tribution. It was perceived that the Austral as well as the Boreal 
elements in the fauna and flora are distributed in transcontinental 
belts ) hence the arbitrary and irrational division of the United States 
into Eastern, Central, and Western " provinces » gave way before a 
rational system, based on a knowledge of the actual facts of distribu- 
tion, which were found to conform to the general principle of temper- 
ature control early recognized by Humboldt and others. 

PROVISION FOR A SYSTEMATIC BIOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

Since the primary object of mapping the geographic distribution of 
species is to ascertain the number, positions, and boundaries of the 
natural life areas — areas fitted by nature for particular agricultural 
productions — the practical importance of the subject outweighed, if pos- 
sible, its scientific interest. This was clearly set forth in the annual 
report of the division for 1889, and Congress was urgently recom- 
mended to enlarge the scope of the work so that the division might 
carry on a systematic biological survey. The work on distribution 
had been previously restricted to a study of mammals and birds. In 
compliance with this recommendation, the restriction was removed by 
Congress, and in 1890 the division was authorized to undertake a 
comprehensive investigation of the geographic distribution of animals 
and x^lants. Congress having thus in effect established a biological 
survey, the task of mapping the distribution of species and ascertaining 
the boundaries of the natural life zones was given greater prominence 
and has been pushed as rapidly as the means at hand permitted. 

In 1890 a biological reconnoissance was made of south -central Idaho, 
the area covered comprising about 20,000 square miles. The zones 
recognized were the same as in the San Francisco Mountain Survey, 
except that the lowermost was absent. In the report on this expedi- 
tion 1 the courses of the several zones were described and the charac- 
teristic species of animals and plants enumerated. The Pine or Neu- 
tral Zone of the San Francisco Mountain Survey was named the 
Transition Zone, and the upper division of the Sonoran was formally 
recognized as the Upper Sonoran Zone. 

THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 

In 1891 the most comprehensive and thorough biological survey ever 
undertaken was made by the division. An area embracing 100,000 
square miles, stretching from the Pacific Coast to the one hundred and 
thirteenth meridian and from latitude 34° to latitude 38°, was chosen as 
the field of operations. 

1 Report on a Biological Reconnoissance of South- Central Idaho. North American 
Fauna, No. 5, July, 1891. 



GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION OF ANIMALS AND PLANTS. 207 

This area comprises the greater part of southern California and 
Nevada, southwestern Utah, and the northwestern corner of Arizona, 
thus including all of the torrid desert valleys and ranges between the 
Sierra Nevada and the Colorado Plateau. It embraces also the highest 
and lowest lands within the United States — from Death Yalley, nearly 
500 feet below the level of the sea, to the lofty snow-capped peaks of the 
high Sierra, culminating in Mount Whitney at an altitude of nearly 
15,000 feet. The region was selected because of the exceptional advan- 
tages it offered for studying the distribution of animals and plants in 
relation to the effects of temperature and humidity at different altitudes. 
The close proximity of desert valleys and lofty mountains brings near 
together species which in a more level country are characteristic of 
widely remote regions. Thus, in one place on the east side of the Sierra 
all of the life zones of North America, from the tableland of Mexico to 
the polar sea, may be crossed in a distance of only 10 miles. 

The expedition, which came to be known as the Death Yalley expe- 
dition, determined the distinctive species of each zone, traced the 
courses of the several zones from California to the Colorado Plateau, 
and made large collections of the mammals, birds, reptiles, insects, and 
plants, which are now deposited in the United States National Museum. 
One of the special objects of the expedition, and one early accomplished, 
was the location of the northern boundary of the Lower Sonoran Zone, 
a matter of considerable importance, because it marks the northern 
limit of successful raisin production and of profitable cultivation of 
cotton and several " subtropical" fruits. The valleys and deserts of 
this zone were determined from a study of the native animals and 
plants, and were enumerated in the annual report of the division for 
the same year (1891). 1 The results of this biological survey fill three 
volumes, two of which have been published and distributed; 2 the third 
has not yet gone to press. 

CORRELATION OF THE LIFE ZONES. 

A sufficient body of facts had now been brought together to justify 
a more comprehensive treatment of the subject than had before been 
possible. Therefore, in the spring of 1892 the writer published an 
essay on "The geographic distribution of life in North America, with 

2 The valleys and deserts of the Lower Sonoran Zone in California, Nevada, and 
Utah are : In California, the San Joaquin Valley, the whole of the Mohave and 
Colorado deserts, the San Bernardino, San Gabriel, and Santa Ana valleys, and the 
coast region to the southward except the mountains, the southern end of Owens 
Valley, Saline, Salt Wells, Panamint, and Death valleys ; in Nevada, the Amargosa 
Desert, Pahrump, Indian Springs, Vegas, Ivanpah, and Virgin valleys; and in Utah, 
the St. George or lower Santa Clara Valley. (Rept. Ornith. and Mam. for 1891, 
p. 270.) 

2 North American Fauna, No. 7, May, 1893 ; and Contributions from the United States 
National Herbarium, Vol. IV, November 29, 1893. 



208 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

special reference to the mammalia." l In this essay the continuity of all 
the zones, Austral as well as Boreal, was clearly established, tables of 
distinctive species were published, and the actual courses of the zones 
were shown on a colored map — the author's second provisional biogeo- 
graphic map of North America. The following statement was made 
respecting the affinities and transcontinental character of the several 
zones and areas : 

The time has now arrived when it is possible fco correlate the Sonoran zones of the 
West with corresponding zones in the East, as was done two years ago in the case of 
the Boreal zones, and as was intimated in the case of the Neutral or Transition Zone. 
It can now he asserted with some confidence, not only that the Transition Zone of 
the West is the equivalent of the Alleghanian of the East, but also that the Upper 
Sonoran is the equivalent of the Carolinian and the Lower Sonoran of the Austro- 
riparian, and that each can be traced completely across the continent. Thus all the 
major and minor zones that have been established in the East are found to be unin- 
terruptedly continuous with corresponding zones in the West, though their courses 
are often tortuous, following the lines of equal temperature during the season of 
reproduction, which lines conform in a general way to the contours of altitude, rising 
with increased base level find falling with increased latitude. 

The zones were segregated into the two great transcontinental re- 
gions — Boreal and Sonoran 2 — that had been recognized two years pre- 
viously, except that the Transition Zone was allowed to stand between 
the two without being referred to either. This latter action was criti- 
cised on the ground that it was illogical to interpose a belt of minor 
rank between two major regions, although it was conceded that the belt 
was one in which northern and southern types overlap. At the same 
time its affinities with the Austral seemed closer than with the Boreal, 
and it was afterwards allowed to go with the former, as its northern- 
most subdivision. The arid and humid subdivisions of all of the south- 
ern or Austral zones were recognized and shown on the map. 

RECENT FIELD WORK. 

In 1892 the northern boundary of the Lower Sonoran Zone was traced 
from New Mexico eastward across Texas, Indian Territory, and Arkan- 
sas to the Mississippi River, and sporadic field work was done in other 
States. 

'Presidential address before the Biological Society of Washington, delivered Feb- 
ruary 6, 1892. <Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., Vol. VII, April, 1892, pp. 1-64, with colored 
map. 

2 The term " Sonoran" was still used for the Austral element in the fauna and flora 
which enters the United States from the table-land of Mexico, to avoid the introduc- 
tion of a new name, the consideration of the nomenclature of the zones and regions 
being purposely deferred. The next year, however, the term "Austral" was formally 
used for this region, and the term tl Sonoran " was restricted to its arid or western 
division. The first public use of the word "Austral " in the sense of a primary life 
region, was on the models and maps accompanying the exhibit of the Division of 
Ornithology at the World's Fair at Chicago in May, 1893, and in the annual report of 
the division for the same year (p. 228). 



GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION OF ANIMALS AND PLANTS. 209 

In 1893 a biological reconnoissance was made of Wyoming, a large 
part of which was found to be from 1,000 to 3,000 feet lower than repre- 
sented on current maps, and consequently to have a warmer summer 
climate than was supposed, and to belong to the Upper Sonoran instead 
of the Transition Zone. The Wind Biver and Big Horn basins and the 
plains east of the Big Horn Mountains were found to be Upper Sono- 
ran. Other work was done on the Great Plains in Kansas, Nebraska, 
and the Dakotas, and also in Utah, and on the table-land of Mexico. 
, During the year now drawing to a close (1894) a biological recon- 
noissance was made of the larger part of Montana, with special refer- 
ence to the determination of the boundary between the Upper Sonoran 
and Transition zones. Other work was done in South Dakota and in 
the plateau region of Arizona. In the latter region two sections were 
run from the plateau southward to the Lower Sonoran deserts. 

THE SEVEN LIFE ZONES OF NORTH AMERICA. 

Ill the annual report of this- division for 1893 the seven life zones of 
North America, including the tropical, were characterized with special 
reference to eastern North America, and some of the more important 
crops adapted to each were mentioned. Beginning at the north, these 
zones may be described as follows : 

(1) The Arctic or Arctic- Alpine Zone lies above the limit of tree 
growth, and is characterized by such plants as the Arctic poppy, dwarf 
willow, and various saxifrages and gentians. The snow bunting, snowy 
owl, white ptarmigan, x>olar bear, arctic fox, and barren-ground caribou 
or reindeer are characteristic animals. The zone is of no agricultural 
importance. 

(2) The Hudsonian Zone comprises the northern or higher parts of 
the great transcontinental coniferous forest — a forest of spruces and 
firs, stretching from Labrador to Alaska. It is inhabited by the wol- 
verine, woodland caribou, moose, great northern shrike, pine bullfinch, 
white-winged crossbill, white crowned sparrow, and fox sparrow. Like 
the preceding, this zone is of no agricultural importance. 

(3) The Canadian Zone comprises the southern or lower part of the 
great transcontinental coniferous forest. It comes into the United 
States from Canada and covers the northern parts of Michigan, Ver- 
mont, New Hampshire, and Maine. Farther south it is restricted to 
the summits of the higher Alleghanies. Among the characteristic 
mammals and birds are the porcupine, varying hare, red squirrel, 
white-throated sparrow, and yellow-rumped warbler. Counting from 
the north, this zone is the first of any agricultural consequence. Here 
white potatoes, turnips, beets, the Oldberg apple, and the more hardy 
cereals may be cultivated with moderate success. 

(4) The Transition Zone is the belt in which Boreal and Austral 
elements overlap. It covers the greater part of New England, New 
York, Pennsylvania, Wisconsin, and southern Michigan, and pushes 



210 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

south along the Alleghanies to extreme northern Georgia. Here the 
oak, hickory, chestnut, and walnut of the south meet the maple, beech, 
birch, and hemlock of the north. The same overlapping is found among 
the mammals and birds, for the southern mole and cottontail rabbit, 




the oriole, bluebird, catbird, thrasher, chewink, and wood thrush live 
in or near the haunts of the hermit and Wilson's thrushes, solitary 
Vireo, bobolink, red squirrel, jumping mouse, chipmunk, and star-nosed 



GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION OF ANIMALS AND PLANTS. 211 

mole. In tins zone we enter the true agricultural part of our country, 
where apples (Oldberg, Baldwin, Greening, wealthy, seek* no-farther, 
and others), blue plums, cherries, white potatoes, barley, and oats 
attain their highest perfection. 

(5) The Carolinian Zone covers the larger part of the Middle States 
except the mountains ; on the Atlantic coast it reaches from near the 
mouth of Chesapeake Bay to southern Connecticut, and pushes still 
farther north in the valleys of the Hudson and Connecticut rivers. It 
is the region in which the sassafras, tulip tree, hackberry, sweet gum, 
and persimmon first make their appearance, together with the opossum, 
gray fox, fox squirrel, cardinal bird, Carolina wren, tufted tit, gnat- 
catcher, and yellow-breasted chat. In this zone the Ben Davis and wine- 
sap apples, the peach, apricot, quince, sweet potato, tobacco, and the 
hardier grapes (such as the Concord, Catawba, and Isabella) thrive best. 

(6) The Amtroriparian Zone covers the greater part of the South 
Atlantic and Gulf States, beginning at the mouth of Chesapeake Bay. 
The long-leafed pine, magnolia, and live oak are common on uplands, 
and the bald cypress and cane in swamps. Here the mocking bird, 
painted bunting, red-coekaded woodpecker, and ehuck-wills^widow are 
characteristic birds, and the cotton rats, rice-field rats, wood rats, little 
spotted skunks, and free- tailed bats are common mammals. This is the 
zone of the cotton plant, sugar cane T rice, pecan, and peanut; of the 
oriental pears (Le Conte and Kieffer), the Scuppernong grape r and of 
the citrus fruits — the orange, lemon, lime, and shaddock. In its west- 
ern continuation (the Lower Sonoran) the raisin grape r olive, and almond 
are among the most important agricultural products, and the fig ripens 
severarerops each year. 

(7) The Tropical Region, within the United States, ia restricted to 
southern Florida, extreme southeast Texas (along the lower Bio Grande 
and Gulf coast), and the valley of the lower Colorado River in Arizona 
and California. Among the tropical trees that grow in southern Florida 
are the royal palm, Jamaica dogwood, manchineel, mahogany, and man- 
grove; and among the birds may be mentioned the white-crowned 
pigeon, Zenaida dove, quail doves, a Bahaman vireo r Bahama honey- 
creeper, and earacara eagle. The banana, coeoanuty date palm, pine- 
apple, mango, and cherimoyer thrive in this belt. 

FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF ANIMAL AND PLANT DISTRIBUTION. 

It now remains to discuss the causes of distribution, or rather the 
causes, other than absolute geographical barriers, that restrict species 
to definite areas or belts. t The fact has been long recogni zed — since the 
time of Humboldt at least — that animals and plants are not univer- 
sally distributed over the earth, but disappear along certain more or less 
definite lines, which lines indicate a change in temperature uncongenial 

l Bj permission of the Hon. J. Sterling Morton, Secretary of Agriculture, a prelim- 
inary announcement of the "Laws of temperature control of the geographic distribu- 
tion of terrestrial animals and plants " was published in the National Geographic 
Magazine, Vol. VI, December 29, 1894, pp. 229-238, illustrated by 3 colored maps. 



212 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

to the species; but exactly what temperatures exert the controlling 
influence, and how they can be measured, have only recently been dis- 
covered. Until the past year the mistake was made of assembling all 
the temperature data in accordance with a single hypothetical law. 
Then a radically different plan was tried: The temperature data were 
platted in accordance with two widely different principles — one with 
reference to the northern, the other the southern, boundaries of the 
zones. This departure was suggested by a somewhat tardy recognition 
of the fundamental facts of distribution discovered in 1889, namely, that 
animals and plants are themselves distributed from two directions — 
Boreal species from the north, and Austral species from the south. It 
seemed reasonable to infer, therefore, that northward distribution 
should be governed by one set of temperatures, and southward distri- 
bution by another. The temperature selected as probably fixing the 
limit of northward distribution is the sum of effective heat for the entire 
season of growth and reproduction, for it has been proved experiment- 
ally and long recognized by phenolo gists that many species of plants 
require a definite sum total of heat in order to successfully perform the 
several vital functions of leafing, blossoming, and fruiting, and that 
such plants can not mature their seeds until a particular sum of heat 
is attained. Since plants are unaffected by temperatures below and 
imn.ediately above the freezing point, a minimum of 6° O. or 43° F. was 
assumed to represent the inception of the period of physiological activity 
in spring, and hence was used as a starting point in adding the normal 
daily temperatures for the entire period in question. Beginning at 43° 
F., all mean daily temperatures in excess of this were added together, 
the end of the period in fall being the time when the temperature fell 
to the same initial point. In this way it became possible to ascertain 
the total quantity of heat requiied for each species experimented upon. 
When the sums of the positive temperatures for a large number of 
localities in the United States were platted on a large scale map it was 
found that isotherms (lines showing an equal quantity of heat) could be 
drawn that correspond almost exactly with the northern boundaries of 
the several zones. In the case of the southern boundaries a greater 
difficulty was encountered, for no data had been published bearing on 
the temperature control of southward distribution. At the same time it 
seemed evident, from data previously collected by the division, that 
species are limited in their southward distribution by the mean temper- 
ature of a brief period during the hottest part of the summer. For 
experimental purposes the mean normal temperature of the hottest six 
consecutive weeks of summer was assumed to be the factor desired, and 
this temperature was platted for a large number of localities. Isotherms 
were then drawn which marked the southern boundaries of the several 
zones along the Atlantic coast, and it was found that in ranging west- 
ward these isotherms conformed throughout to the tortuous boundaries 
of the Boreal, Transition, and Upper Austral zones, previously mapped 
from a study of the actual distribution of animals and plants. 



GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION OF ANIMALS AND PLANTS. 213 

While it is not for a moment supposed that the subject has been dis- 
posed of in all its details, it is confidently believed that the principles 
controlling the geographic distribution of terrestrial animals and plants 
have been discovered and that they may be expressed as follows : 

In northward distribution terrestrial animals and plants are restricted 
by the sum of the positive temperatures for the entire season of growth 
and reproduction. 

In southward distribution they are restricted by the mean tempera- 
ture of a brief period during the hottest part of the year. 

It is believed that these two principles cover the fundamental facts 
of distribution. 

RECAPITULATION. 

When the division undertook the study of the geographic distribu- 
tion of life in North America, the transcontinental or zonary character 
of the principal life areas was not recognized, and the laws governing 
distribution were unknown. Zoologists and botanists had always 
worked independently 5 the maps each had published differed radically 
among themselves, and no agreement could be found between the two 
series. The divisions commonly adopted by zoologists were three — an 
Eastern, a Central, and a Western or Pacific province or region. In 
addition to these, some authors had recognized a transcontinental 
Boreal region, which was clearly shown on a map published by Dr. A. 
S. Packard in 1878. 1 , 

The first biological survey undertaken by the division (in 1889) estab- 
lished the important facts that the same laws govern the distribution 
of both animals and plants, and that the resulting areas of distribution 
are essentially coincident. It showed also that the life areas of North 
America and of the Northern Hemisphere as a whole take the form of 
a definite number of circumpolar or transcontinental belts, and that 
these belts or zones naturally arrange themselves in two principal cat- 
egories or regions — a northern or Boreal and a southern or Austral. 

The work accomplished by the division up to the present time may 
be briefly summarized as follows : The continent of North America has 
been divided into three primary life regions — Boreal, Austral, and 
Tropical — each of transcontinental extent. Their boundaries are sin- 
uous, conforming to the distribution of temperature. 

The Boreal Region stretches from Nova Scotia and Newfoundland 
westward to the Pacific Ocean, and from northern New England and 
the Great Lakes northward to the pole and southward over the prin- 

] Dr. Packard's map was a decided advance over those of his predecessors, inas 
much as it showed the Boreal region to extend southward over the three great 
mountain systems of the United States— the Alleghanies, Rocky Mountains, and 
Sierra-Cascade. TWremainder of North America, as shown on Dr. Packard's map, 
was divided between the three commonly recognized regions above mentioned — the 
eastern, central, and western or Pacific — to which were added on the south a Central 
American region and an Antillean regiou. 



214 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

cipal mountains of the United States and Mexico. It is subdivided 
into three principal belts or zones, Arctic, Hudsonian, and Canadian. 

(1) The Arctic or Arctic- Alpine belt comprises Arctic America above 
the limit of tree growth, including Greenland and a narrow strip along 
the coast of Labrador and Newfoundland, and also the summits of the 
higher mountains above timber line throughout the United States and 
Mexico; (2) the Hudsonian Zone embraces the northern half of the 
great coniferous forest that reaches across the continent from Labrador 
to Alaska; (3) the Canadian Zone embraces the southern half of the 
great coniferous forest, stretching westward from northern New 
England and Nova Scotia to British Columbia. 

The Austral Region is likewise subdivided into three transconti- 
nental zones: (1) A Transition Zone; (2) an Upper Austral Zone; (3) a 
Lower Austral Zone, all stretching from the Atlantic to the Pacific 
and winding about sufficiently to cover areas of equal temperature. 
Each of the three Austral belts may be subdivided in an east and 
west direction into two or more areas, some of which are based on 
humidity instead of temperature. The eastern ends of these three 
belts have been long recognized by zoologists, and are known as the 
Alleghanian, Carolinian, and Austroriparian faunas. It was early 
shown by the division that the Austroriparian is the direct continua- 
tion of the arid Lower Sonoran fauna of the table-land of Mexico and 
the southwestern United States, and that this same faunal belt occu- 
pies the interior valley of California and most of the peninsula of 
Lower California. 

The Tropical Region comprises Central America, the greater part of 
the coastal lowlands of Mexico, and the Antilles. It enters the United 
States at three points, southern Florida, the lower Eio Grande region 
in Texas, and the valley of the lower Colorado Eiver in western Ari- 
zona and southeastern California. 

The various zones have been studied in the field by the division and 
their boundaries located and mapped over extensive areas. 

Summary. — The principles of geographic distribution of terrestrial 
animals and plants in the Northern Hemisphere were clearly recog- 
nized in 1889; the correlation of the life zones was completed in 1892; 
the laws of temperature control were formulated in 1894. The work 
remaining undone relates to details and may be classed under four 
heads: (1) Completion of the boundary surveys of the several zones; 

(2) subdivision of the zones into minor faunas and floras; (3) tabulation 
of the distinctive species of each zone and its subdivisions; (4) formu- 
lation of the subordinate law r s governing the restriction of species to 
particular areas within the principal zones. 

It appears, therefore, that in its broader aspects the study of the 
geographic distribution of life in North America is completed. The 
primary regions and their principal subdivisions have been defined 
and mapped, the problems involved in the control of distribution have 
been solved, and the laws themselves have been formulated. 



HAWKS AND OWLS AS RELATED TO THE PARMER. 

By A. K. Fisher, M. D., 
Assistant Ornithologist, U.S. Department of Agriculture. 

CAUSE OF THE PREJUDICE AGAINST BIRDS OF PREY. 

The old saying that " a little knowledge is a dangerous thing" is 
exemplified in the way our hawks and owls are looked upon by a large 
majority of mankind. The farmer sees a hawk strike a fowl which has 
wandered from the farmyard; the sportsman, while planning the cap- 
ture of a covey of quail, finds the mutilated remains of a game bird and 
feels sure it is the unlawful prey of a thieving owl — without further 
investigation both men condemn birds of prey as a class, and lose no 
opportunity to destroy them and their eggs and young. 

The ill feeling has become so deep rooted that it is instinctive even 
in those who have never seen any depredations. How are we to account 
for this hatred against birds of prey by the class of men who should 
be the first to clamor for their protection ? The prejudice is largely due 
to lack of discrimination. Since they know that hawks and owls attack 
poultry, they do not stop to think that these depredations may be made 
by a few species only, but make a sweeping condemnation of the whole 
family. The reasoning is much the same as that of an Indian or fron- 
tiersman, who, being wronged by one individual, condemns a whole 
race. It would be just as rational to take the standard for the human 
race from highwaymen and pirates as to judge all hawks by the deeds 
of a few.* Even when the industrious hawks are observed beating 
tirelessly back and forth over the harvest fields and meadows, or the 
owls are seen at dusk flying silently about the nurseries and orchards, 
busily engaged in hunting the voracious rodents which destroy alike 
the grain, produce, young trees, and eggs of birds, the curses of the 
majority of farmers and sportsmen go with them, and their total extinc- 
tion would be welcomed. How often are the services rendered to man 
misunderstood through ignorance! The birds of prey, the majority of 
which labor day and night to destroy the enemies of the husbandman, 
are persecuted unceasingly, while that gigantic fraud — the house cat — 
is petted and fed and given a secure shelter from which it may emerge 
in the evening to spread destruction among the feathered tribe. The 
difference between the two can be summed up in a few words — only 
three or four birds of prey hunt birds when they can procure rodents for 

215 



216 YEARBOOK OP THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

food, while a cat seldom touches mice if she can procure birds or young 
poultry. A cat has been known to kill 20 young chickens in a day, 
which is more than most raptorial birds destroy in a lifetime. 

It is to be lamented that the members of the legislative committees 
who draft the game laws of various States have not a better knowledge 
of the life histories of raptorial birds. It is surprising also that gun 
clubs should be so far behind the times as to offer prizes to those who 
kill the greatest number of birds of prey; for in clubs of any impor- 
tance, there must be naturalists whose counsel ought to prevent such 
barbarity. That the beneficial species of hawks and owls will eventu- 
ally be protected there is not the slightest doubt, for when the farmer 
is convinced that they are his friends he will demand their protection; 
and already the leading agricultural papers and sportsman's journals 
are deprecating their indiscriminate slaughter. 

SOME CHARACTERISTICS OF RAPACIOUS BIRDS. 

The rapacious birds are slow breeders, rearing only one brood a year, 
though of course if the first set of eggs is destroyed another will be 
deposited. The young grow slowly and need a relatively large amount 
of food to develop properly. To satisfy their enormous appetite requires 
constant foraging on the part of the parents, and the strain of bringing 
up the family is probably twice that of any of the other land birds. 
Even the adults are large eaters, gorging to the utmost when the 
opportunity presents; and as digestion is very rapid and assimilation 
perfect, a great quantity of food in relation to the body weight is con- 
sumed each day. Taking more food than necessary for immediate 
wants enables them to store up force for future emergencies, for they 
are often required to withstand great exposure and long-protracted 
fasts, especially during inclement weather. 

Hawks and owls are complementary to each other. While hawks 
hunt by day and keep diurnal mammals in check, owls, whose eyesight 
is keenest during twilight and the early hours before dawn, capture 
nocturnal species which the former is not apt to obtain. Again, the 
owls are less migratory than the hawks, and during the long winter 
nights they remain in the land of ice and snow to wage incessant war- 
fare against the little enemies of the orchard, garden, and harvest fields. 

Although much may be learned about the food from observing the 
habits of the live birds, the only way to find out the full range and 
relative percentages of the food elements is by examination of the 
stomach contents. Sometimes, in the case of birds of prey, a moder- 
ately complete and reliable index to the food can be obtained by exam- 
ining the "pellets." Hawks and owls often swallow their smaller 
victims entire and tear the larger ones into several pieces, swallowing 
each fragment as it is detached. After the nutritious portion of the 
food has been absorbed, the indigestible parts, such as hair, feathers, 
scales, bones, and other hard parts, are rolled into a solid ball by the 



HAWKS AND OWLS AS RELATED TO THE FARMER. 217 

action of the muscles of the stomach. These masses, known as " pel- 
lets" are regurgitated before fresh food is taken. The movements of 
the stomach so shape the " pellets" that the sharp pieces of bone which 
might otherwise injure the mucous membrane are carefully enveloped 
in a felty covering of hair or feathers. The pellets contain everything 
necessary to identify the food, and in the case of some of the owls which 
have regular roosting places the vast number of pellets that collect 
underneath give an almost perfect record of the results of their hunting 
excursions. 

FOOD HABITS OF THE PRINCIPAL BIRDS OF PREY. 

It is the object of the present paper to review more or less briefly the 
food habits of the principal birds of prey of the United States, so that 
those who are most interested in the subject may be able to distinguish 
between enemies and friends, and hence be saved the humiliation of 
wronging the latter while endeavoring to destroy the former. 

Hawks and owls may be divided arbitrarily into four classes, accord- 
ing to their beneficial and harmful qualities: 

(1) Species which are wholly beneficial. 

(2) Those chiefly beneficial. 

(3) Those in which the beneficial and harmful qualities about balance. 

(4) Harmful species. 

It should be stated here that several of the species may belong to 
one or another class according to the locality they frequent. A hawk 
or owl may be locally injurious because at that place mice, squirrels, 
insects, and other noxious animals are scarce, and consequently the 
bird has to feed on things of more or less value to man, while in other 
regions where its favorite food is obtainable in sufficient quantity it 
does absolutely no harm. A good example of this kind is given under 
the head of the great horned owl in a subsequent part of this paper. 

To the wholly beneficial class belong the large rough-legged hawk, 
its near relative, the squirrel hawk or ferruginous roughleg, and the 
four kites — the white- tailed kite, Mississippi kite, swallow- tailed kite, 
and everglade kite. 

The chiefly beneficial class contains a majority of the hawks and 
owls, and includes the following species and their races: Marsh hawk, 
H arris's hawk, red-tailed hawk, red- shouldered hawk, short- tailed hawk, 
white- tailed hawk, Swainson's hawk, short- winged hawk, broad- winged 
hawk, Mexican black hawk, Mexican goshawk, sparrow hawk, Audu- 
bon's caracara, barn owl, long-eared owl, short-eared owl, great gray 
owl, barred owl, western owl, Eichardson's owl, Acadian owl, screech 
owl, flammulated screech owl, snowy owl, hawk owl, burrowing owl, 
pygmy owl, ferruginous pygmy owl, and elf owl. 

The class in which the harmful and beneficial qualities balance 
includes the golden eagle, bald eagle, pigeon hawk, Eichardson's hawk, 
Aplomado falcon, prairie falcon, and great horned owl. 



218 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

The harmful class comprises the gyrfalcons, duck hawk, sharp- shinned 
hawk, Cooper's hawk, and goshawk. 

HARMLESS SPECIES OF HAWKS AND OWLS. 

We will now take up each class and examine the species more or less 
in detail so as to show briefly the character of the food. The harmless 
species include the four kites, which, if not as beneficial as some of the 
hawks, are at least perfectly harmless. The everglade Hte is found 
within our borders in Florida only, where it is restricted to the middle 
and southern portions. It feeds exclusively on a large fresh-water snail, 




Fig. 21.— Swainson's Hawk (Buteo sivainsoni). 

which abounds in the shallow lakes and overflowed sections grown up 
with grass and other herbage. The swallow-tailed, Mississippi, and 
white-tailed kites feed largely upon reptiles and insects, and never as 
far as known attack birds. The swallow-tailed is reported as feeding 
quite extensively on the cotton worm during the summer and early falL 
If this is a common habit, it brings the bird at once into prominence as of 
economic importance and of great value to the Southern planter, the 
Mississippi Jcite and its white-tailed ally devour large numbers of lizards, 
small snakes, and insects; of the latter, grasshoppers and beetles are 
most frequently taken. 



HAWKS AND OWLS AS BELATED TO THE FARMER. 219 

WHOLLY BENEFICIAL HAWKS. 

The rough-legged hawlc^nd the ferruginous roughleg, or squirrel hawk, 
as it is sometimes called on account of its great fondness for tbe 
ground squirrels so destructive in the West, are among our largest 
and at the same time the most beneficial hawks. The former breeds 
wholly north of the United States, migrating south in September and 
October and remaining until the following April. The latter breeds 
extensively through the Great Plains region. The winter range of the 
roughleg is determined more by the fall of snow than by the intensity 
of cold, the main body advancing and retreating as the barrier of snow 
melts or accumulates. Meadow mice and lemmings form the staple 
food of this bird. In this country the lemmings do not reach our terri- 
tory except in Alaska, but in the north of Europe they occasionally 
form into vast, migrating, devastating hordes whieh carry destruction 
to all crops in the country passed over. The vole, or meadow mouse, 
is common in many parts of this country, and is, east of the Missis- 
sippi River, without doubt, the most destructive mammal to agricul- 
ture. It destroys meadows by tunneling under them and eating the 
roots of grass. In many meadows the runways form networks which 
extend in every direction, giving an idea of the animal's abundance. 
This mouse also destroys grain and various kinds of vegetables, espe- 
cially tubers, but probably does even more damage by girdling young 
fruit trees. In 1892 considerable areas in southeastern Scotland were 
overrun by meadow mice and a large amount of property was destroyed 
during the u vole plague." Just such invasions might be expected in 
any country where predaceous mammals and birds are reduced to a mini- 
mum in the supposed interest of game preservation. This wholly upsets 
nature's balance, and the injurious rodents are left practically without 
an enemy to control their increase* We have little reason, however, to 
exult over the older country, for in many portions of the United States 
the people, if they had the power, would follow the same shortsighted 
policy, causing inestimable damage to the agriculturist. Attempts have 
been made in some States to reduce the number of hawks and owls by 
offering bounties for their heads, but fortunately the work has not been 
carried far enough to do the harm that has been done by the long- 
continued efforts of gamekeepers in Great Britain. 

The roughleg is one of man's most important allies against meadow 
mice, feeding on little else during its six months' sojourn in the United 
States. It thus renders important service in checking the ravages of 
these small but formidable pests. The roughleg is somewhat crepuscu- 
lar in habits, being on the alert during twilight and early dawn, when 
small mammals are most active. Other mice, rabbits, and ground- 
squirrels are taken occasionally, and some of the older writers state that 
waterfowl are captured by this bird. The writer has made careful 
inquiries of a considerable number of persons who have had extensive 



220 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

field experience where these birds are common and in no instance has 
he heard of their attacking birds. Even better evidence is found in the 
fact that stomachs of specimens shot in locations teeming with water- 
fowl contained nothing but the remains of meadow mice. 

The ferruginous roughleg is as fully beneficial as its relative, though 
the character of its food differs somewhat. In many parts of the coun- 
try inhabited by it, the meadow mice which play such an important 
part in the economy of the other bird are scarce or wanting, but are 
replaced by nearly as destructive rodents, the ground squirrels. Upon 
these this large and handsome hawk wages a continuous warfare, and 
great is the service it performs in keeping their numbers in check. 
Rabbits, prairie dogs, and occasionally pouched gophers are eaten. It 
is humiliating to think how many of these two noble hawks are ruth- 
lessly murdered, and to reflect that legislators put bounties on their 
heads to satisfy the ignorant prejudices of their constituents. 

HAWKS AND OWLS MOSTLY BENEFICIAL. 

Nearly two-thirds of the birds of pi;ey inhabiting the United States 
belong in the second class, which comprises such hawks and owls as are 
mainly beneficial. A few of the most useful and well-known species 
will be considered in detail. 

The marsh hawJc is one of the most valuable in the class on account 
of its abundance, wide distribution, and peculiar habits. It is more or 
less common throughout the United States and may be easily recog- 
nized by its white rump, slender form, and long, narrow wings, as it 
beats untiringly over the meadows, marshes, and prairie lands in search 
of food. If it were not that it occasionally pounces upon small birds, 
game, and poultry, its place in the first class would be insured, for it is 
an indefatigable mouser. Rodents, such as meadow mice, rabbits, 
arboreal squirrels, and ground squirrels, are its favorite quarry. In 
parts of the West the latter animals form its chief sustenance. Liz- 
ards, snakes, frogs, and birds are also taken. Among the birds most 
often captured are the smaller ground-dwelling sparrows, of least use to 
the farmer. 

From its abundance, wide distribution, and striking appearance, the 
red-tailed hawJc is probably the best known of all the larger hawks. 
Since it is handicapped by the misleading name "hen hawk," its habits 
should be ckrefuily examined. There is no denying that both it and 
the red-shouldered hawk, also known as "hen hawk," do occasionally eat 
poultry, but the quantity is so small in comparison with the vast num- 
bers of destructive rodents consumed that it is hardly worth mention- 
ing. While fully 66 per cent of the red-tail's food consists of injurious 
mammals, not more than 7 per cent consists of poultry, and it is prob- 
able that a large proportion of the poultry and game captured by it 
and the other buzzard hawks is made up of old, diseased, or otherwise 
disabled fowls. It is well known to poulterers and owners of game 



HAWKS AND OWLS AS RELATED TO THE FARMER. 221 

preserves that killing off the diseased and enfeebled birds, and so pre- 
venting their interbreeding with the sound stock, keeps the yard and 
coveys in good condition and hinders the spread of fatal epidemics. It 
seems, therefore, that the birds of prey which catch aged, frost-bitten, 
and diseased poultry, together with wounded and crippled game, are 
serving both farmer and sportsman. 

Abundant proof is at hand to show that the red-tail greatly prefers 
the smaller mammals, reptiles, and batrachians, taking little else when 
these can be obtained in sufficient numbers. If hard pressed by hun- 
ger, however, it will eat any form of life and will not reject even offal 
and carrion ; dead crows from about the roosts, poultry which has been 
thrown on the compost heap, and flesh from the carcasses of goats, 
sheep, and the larger domesticated animals being eaten at such times. 
The immature birds are more apt to commit depredations, the reason 
probably being that they lack skill to procure a sufficient quantity of 
their staple food. A large proportion of the birds captured consists of 
ground-dwelling species, which are probably snatched up while half 
concealed in the grass or other vegetation. Among the mammals most 
often eaten and most injurious to mankind are the arboreal and ground 
squirrels, rabbits, voles and other mice. The stomachs of the red- tailed 
hawks examined contained Abert's squirrel, red squirrel, three species 
of gray squirrels, two species of chipmunks, Say's ground squirrel, 
plateau ground squirrel, Franklin's ground squirrel, striped ground 
squirrel, harvest mouse, common rat, house mouse, white-footed mouse, 
Sonoran white-footed mouse, wood rat, meadow mouse, pine mouse, 
Cooper's lemming mouse, cotton rat, jumping mouse, porcupine, jack 
rabbit, three races of cottontails, pouched gopher, kangaroo rat, skunk, 
mole, and four kinds of shrews. The larger insects, such as grasshop- 
pers, crickets, and beetles, are sometimes extensively used as food. 

The red-shouldered hawk, or, as it is sometimes incorrectly called, the 
"hen hawk," is a common bird, and a very valuable one to the farmer. 
It is more omnivorous than most of our birds of prey, and has been 
detected feeding on mice, birds, snakes, frogs, fish, grasshoppers, cen- 
tipedes, spiders, crawfish, earthworms, and snails. As about 90 per 
cent of its food consists of injurious mammals and insects, and hardly 
1£ per cent of poultry and game, the reader may draw his own conclu- 
sions as to the appropriateness of the title "hen hawk," so often mis- 
applied to this species. A pair of these hawks bred for successive 
years within a few hundred yards of a poultry farm containing 800 
young chickens and 400 ducks, and the owner never saw them attempt 
to catch a fowl. Besides mice, squirrels, shrews, and insects, which 
form their principal food, frogs, snakes, and crawfish are also taken. 

Such facts as these must convince intelligent persons not only that 
it is folly to destroy this valuable bird, but that it should be every- 
where fostered and protected. 



222 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

The food of Swainson's hatch (fig. 21) is of much the same character as 
that of the two preceding species, except that more insects and fewer 
birds are taken Soon after the breeding season the hawks collect in the 
foothills and on the plains of the West, forming flocks, some of which 
contain hundreds of individuals, and feed almost exclusively on grass- 
hoppers and crickets. If we assume that 100 grasshoppers, which is 
only three-quarters of the number actually found in a stomach after a 
single meal, is the daily allowance for one hawk, we have a grand total 
of 900,000 for the work of a flock of 300 birds in one month. The 
weight of this vast number of insects, allowing 15.4 grains for the 
weight of each, amounts to 1,984 pounds. An average of a number 
of estimates given by entomologists places, the quantity of food daily 
devoured by a grasshopper as equal to his own weight; consequently 
if these grasshoppers had been spared by the hawks the farmer would 
have lost in one month nearly 30 tons of produce. The above estimate 
is probably much too low; for each hawk doubtless eats at least 200 
grasshoppers daily, which would double the amount, making the loss 
00 tons instead of 30. This is the work of a month for only 300 hawks. 
What estimate can be placed on the services of the hundreds of 
thousands which are engaged in the same work for months at a time! 
In many places hawks are all that are left of the mighty army which 
once waged war against these insect pests and so kept them in check. 
The game birds, such as the wild turkey, prairie chicken, grouse, and 
quail, have been swept away by the ruthless hand of man, and even 
the skunks, foxes, and snakes are rapidly following. To make matters 
worse, at least one Western State passed a bounty act which paid for 
the destruction of hawks and owls, as a result of which thousands of 
grasshopper-eating hawks were destroyed at the public expense. Is it 
a wonder that after their enemies were reduced to a minimum the grass- 
hoppers increased and spread destruction before them? 

All naturalists who have written on the habits of Swainson's hawk 
affirm that it is a great enemy to the ground squirrel and other inju- 
rious rodents which infest the West and torment the farmer. The 
evidence shows that it rarely touches poultry, game, or small birds. 
In the Southwest the writer has often seen the nests of small birds in 
the same trees and in close proximity to the nests of the hawks, the 
birds apparently living in perfect harmony. Other observers have 
noticed the same thing. 

The broad-winged hawk, a medium-sized species, common throughout 
the eastern United States, feeds largely on insects, small mammals, 
suakes, toads, and frogs, and occasionally on small birds. It is espe- 
cially fond of the larvae or caterpillars of the large moths which feed 
upon the leaves of fruit and shade trees. These insects are too large 
and formidable for the smaller insectivorous birds to attack; hence 
their principal enemies are the hawks, of which the one under consid- 
eration is the most important. It also feeds extensively upon grass- 



HAWKS AltfD OWLS AS RELATED TO THE FARMER. 223 

hoppers, crickets, cieadse, May beetles and other coleoptera. Like the 
other buzzard hawks (Buteo), it is fond of meadow mice, and also takes 
considerable numbers of chipmunks, shrews, red squirrels, and occa- 
sionally rabbits and moles. Probably the greatest damage done by 
this hawk is the destruction of toads and snakes, which are mainly 
insectivorous and hence beneficial to the farmer. 

The sparrow haivfc, which is found throughout the United States, is 
the smallest and handsomest of our birds of prey, and, with the pos- 
sible exception of the red- tail, the best known. It is the only one of 
the true falcons which can be placed in the u mainly beneficial" class. 
At times it follows the example of its larger relatives and attacks small 
birds and young chickens, but these irregularities are so infrequent 
that they are more than outweighed by its usual good services in 
destroying insects and mice. Grasshoppers, crickets, and other insects 
form its principal food during the warm months, while mice predomi- 
nate during the rest of the year. In localities where these insects 
are abundant it congregates, often in moderate-sized bands, and feeds 
almost continuously on them. Terrestrial caterpillars, beetles, and 
spiders are also eaten to a considerable extent. As might be expected, 
a very large proportion of the birds captured is taken while the hawks 
are busy hatching their eggs and rearing the young, thus having less 
time to procure their favorite food. It is also at this time that we hear 
complaints of their depredations in poultry yards. During the late 
fall and winter months the meadow mice and house mice form a large 
part of their food, the former being taken in the fields and meadows, 
and the latter around the corn stacks and about the barns and out- 
buildings. On account of the sparrow hawk's confidence and lack of 
fear, it is one of the species which suffers most from the unjust bounty 
laws. Any vandal who can carry a gun is able to slaughter this little 
hawk. Mr. W. B. Hall, of Wakeman, Ohio, writes us that while the 
hawk law was in force in Ohio he was township clerk in his native 
village and issued 86 certificates, 46 being for sparrow hawks. He 
examined the stomachs and found 45 of them to contain the remains 
of grasshoppers and beetles, while the remaining one contained the 
fur and bones of a meadow mouse. Mr. H. W. Henshaw, visiting 
Colorado in 1883, after the bounty act had been in force for some time, 
found that the sparrow hawks had been almost exterminated in districts 
where several years before he had found them exceedingly numerous. 

It is a question whether the slightly harmful owls should not be 
placed among the wholly beneficial species, for the injury done in 
destroying birds and poultry is insignificant compared with their good 
work. The barn owl is a southern species, rarely occurring with regu- 
larity in the northern half of the United States except west of the 
Sierra Nevada. Its food is made up almost entirely of mammals, with 
now and then a few insects, and occasionally a bird. Among the 
former are several species of rodents which, from their great numbers 



224 YEARBOOK OF THE U, S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

and destructive habits, are a curse to the country they inhabit. Of 
this group the pouched gopher is one of the most destructive, not only 
to vegetables and grain crops but also to shade and fruit trees. The 
injuries to trees are the most serious, as the animals sometimes gnaw 
off the roots and destroy entire groves and orchards. In California, 
where this mammal is common, the barn owl feeds very extensively on 
it. In the South Atlantic and Gulf States the owl feeds extensively 
on the cotton rat, a mammal of destructive habits found abundantly 
in the bottom lands and near water. The common rat is also greedily 
devoured. The writer has examined the contents of 200 pellets taken 
from the nesting site of a pair of these Owls in one of the towers of the 
Smithsonian Institution. Of the total of 454 skulls contained in these 
pellets there were 225 meadow mice, 2 pine mice, 179 house mice, 20 
rats, 6 jumping mice, 20 shrews, 1 starnosed mole, and 1 vesper spar- 
row. This examination gives a pretty complete index to the class of 
food taken by this species in the East, along the northern border of its 
range. 

The long-eared owl is an industrious mouser, and molests compara- 
tively few birds. Several years ago we examined 107 stomachs of this 
owl, of which 15 were empty. Of the 92 remaining, 86, or over 93 per 
cent, contained the remains of small mammals. As the bird occurs in 
suitable localities all over the United States and is one of the com- 
monest owls, the good it does must be very great. Like the sparrow 
hawk, this owl is easily destroyed, and so is one of the greatest suf- 
ferers when laws are enacted for the destruction of birds of prey, and 
many a bounty has been paid for its head. 

The short-eared owl is another common species, but is not so well 
distributed as the preceding. It is found in more open country, and 
in fall and winter often congregates in large bands about meadow lands 
and the larger marshes. Fully 75 per cent of its food consists of mice; 
as many as six of these mammals have been found in one stomach. It 
probably also feeds on the smaller ground squirrels in the West, but 
we have been unable to procure much positive data on the subject. 
Among birds, the sparrows inhabiting the meadows and prairies are 
most often taken. In an interesting article by Mr. Peter Adair, in the 
Annals of Scottish Natural History for October, 1893, on the disap- 
pearance of the short-tailed vole, which caused the vole plague in Scot- 
land in 1890-1892, the statement is made that farmers and shepherds 
attribute its disappearance largely to the action of its natural enemies, 
stress being laid on the services of the ow r l, kestrel, rook, and black- 
headed gull among birds and the stoat and weasel among mammals. 
These men are also of the opinion that the recent vole plague is a result 
of the destruction of birds of prey. When the plague first commenced 
the short- eared owl was hardly known in the district, but, swarming 
thither, it bred till it was so numerous that it became an important fac- 
tor in reducing the number of voles. In speaking of an enemy of the 



Yearbook U. S. Department of Agriculture, 1894. 



Plate I. 




/ 



J*L* 



Red-tailed Hawk (Buteo borealis). 



Yearbook U. S Department of Agriculture, 1894. 



PLATE II. 




' 



Sparrow Hawk (Falco sparverius). 



Yearbook U. S. Department of Agriculture, 1894. 



Plate 111. 



tmjmmmm zwWi i l^W: 



mmm%% 




i 



Barred Ov/l (Syrnium nebulosum). 



HAWKS AND OWLS AS RELATED TO THE FARMER. 225 

owl, Mr. Adair recorded an interesting fact. A fox which had acquired 
a taste for lamb bad to be disposed of. In the lair with its 5 young 
were found 76 dead short-eared owls, a number of grouse, black game, 
partridges, ducks, curlew, plover, rats, voles, and lambs. This was in 
May, and of this great number of owls 8 were adults and 68 were 
young. During a number of vole invasions of Great Britain in previous 
years short-eared owls had been observed to increase rapidly and do 
good work in destroying the pests. 

The barred owl is one of the larger common species in eastern North 
America. It has the reputation, especially among the older writers, 
of being very destructive to poultry. Our examination of 100 stomachs 
shows that about 4£ per cent of its food consists of poultry and game. 
Half-grown fowls which roost among the trees and bushes away from 
the farmyards are the ones that suffer. If the chickens were shut up in 
the yard at night the owl would not be tempted to depart from its regular 
diet. The barred owl is more given to cannibalistic habits than any of 
the other species. Of 109 stomachs which passed under the writer's 
notice, 7 contained the remains of smaller owls. Numerous accounts 
of similar instances have appeared in various journals.. Insects, such 
as grasshoppers, crickets, May beetles and other coleoptera, are fre- 
quently taken. In some localities crawfish form a considerable portion 
of this owl's food, and frogs and fish are occasionally taken. The major- 
ity of its food, however, consists of small mammals, among them some 
of the most destructive rodents the farmer has to contend with. The 
following list shows the species of mammals positively identified in the 
stomach contents: Meadow mouse, pine mouse, short- tailed shrew, 
chipmunk, red squirrel, flying squirrel, cottontail rabbit, golden mouse, 
white-footed mouse, red-backed mouse, common mole, Cooper's lemming 
mouse, and common rat. In summing up the facts relative to the food 
habits of this owl, it appears that although it occasionally makes inroads 
upon poultry and game, it destroys large numbers of injurious mammals 
and insects, and hence should occupy a place on the list of birds to be 
protected. 

The little screech owl is well known throughout the greater part of 
the United States. With the exception of the burrowing owl, it feeds 
more extensively on insects than any of the other species. It is also a 
diligent mouser, and feeds more or less frequently on crawfish, frogs, 
toads, scorpions, lizards, and fish. Of 254 stomachs examined, birds 
were found in about 15 per cent. Fully one-third of these consisted of 
English sparrows, and a large proportion of the rest were ground-dwell- 
ing sparrows, which feed largely on seeds and are of little economic 
importance. Among insects, grasshoppers, crickets, beetles, and cut- 
worms are most often eaten. As many as 50 grasshoppers have been 
found in one stomach, 18 May beetles in another, and 13 cutworms in a 
third. During the warmer parts of the year it is exceptional to find a 
stomach not well filled with insect remains. Meadow mice, white- 

X 4 94 8 



226 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

footed mice, and house mice are the mammals most often taken, while 
chipmunks, wood rats, flying squirrels, and moles are less frequently 
found. The screech owl is fond of fish and it apparently catches many, 
especially in winter. At this time it watches near the breathing holes 
in the ice, and seizes the luckless fish which comes to the surface. 
Most of the birds destroyed by this owl are killed either in severe 
winter weather or during the breeding season, wlien it has hard work 
to feed its young. As nearly three-fourths of the owPs food consists 
of injurious mammals and insects, and only about one-seventh of birds 
(a large proportion of which are destructive English sparrows), there is 
no question that this little owl should be carefully protected. 

The snowy oivl is a large arctic species which m winter occasionally 
occurs in considerable numbers in the United States. On account of 




Fig. 22.— Burrowing Owl {Speotyto cunicularia hypogoea). 

its large size it is capable of doing great good in destroying nox- 
ious mammals. The stomachs which we have examined were collected 
between the last of October and March, and make a very good showing 
for the bird. Although a number of water birds were found, a large 
proportion of the contents consisted of mammal remains. One stomach 
contained 14 white-footed mice and 3 meadow mice, and in others as 
many as 5 to 8 of these little rodents were found. The common rat 
occurred in a number of stomachs and appears to be considerably sought 
after. It is a lamentable fact that this useful bird is slaughtered in 
great numbers whenever it appears within our limits. According to 
Mr. Euthven Deane, as many as 500 were killed in New England during 
the winter of 1876-77. 



HAWKS AND OWLS AS RELATED TO THE FARMER. 227 

Although the little burrowing owl is i)reeminently an insect-eating 
bird, it also feeds on small mammals and rarely on birds. It is common 
throughout the plains of the West, where it is usually a permanent resi- 
dent. During the warmer months it feeds almost exclusively on insects 
and scorpions, and at other times on small mammals. In regard to its 
habit of eating scorpions, Mr. George H. Wyman, of St. George, Utah, 
states, in Forest and Stream for March 3, 1887, that during the summer 
the owl comes quietly about the house at dusk and picks up the scor- 
pions by scores. Usually it has a place near by where it retreats to eat 
such portions as are desired. It devours the soft parts of the scor- 
pion, leaving the head, claws, and tail, until a quart or more of such 
remnants may be found at the place of banquet. Among insects, grass- 
hoppers, crickets, beetles, and caterpillars are taken in large quantities, 
and the birds may be seen pursuing the more agile species even at mid- 
day. The burrowing owl (fig. 22) is a beautiful, harmless bird, and 
should be protected by law. 

The golden eagle, bald eagle, pigeon hawk, Kichardson's hawk, Aplo- 
mado falcon, prairie falcon, and great horned owl belong to the third 
class, which includes those whose beneficial and noxious qualities about 
balance each other. Still at times any one of them may become decid- 
edly beneficial in localities infested by some of the numerous rodents 
which injure crops. The golden eagle, an inhabitant of the Northern 
Hemisphere, is found in most parts of the United States, though it is 
more common in the West. The food consists of game, such as fawns, 
rabbits, woodchucks, prairie dogs, and ground squirrels, among mam- 
mals, and turkeys, grouse, and waterfowl, among birds. At times it 
also troubles the young of domesticated animals, notably lambs, pigs, 
goats, and poultry. It has been known to attack calves and colts, but 
these instances must be exceptional and when the birds are hard 
pressed by hunger. Over extensive areas of the West the golden eagle 
and other birds of prey unite in keeping many species of noxious 
rodents in check, and must be considered beneficial. In the more 
thickly inhabited regions, however, where such food is scarce, they 
often do great damage by carrying off lambs, young pigs, kids, and 
poultry. As many as four hundred lambs are reported to have been 
taken from contiguous ranges in one season. It thus will be seen that 
in one instance the bird should be protected, and in the other kept in 
check. 

The bald eagle, the emblem of our country, is found in suitable 
localities throughout the United States, though it is more common near 
large bodies of water than elsewhere. Its favorite food is fish, and 
when they can be obtained either by capture or in the shape of offal it 
will touch little else. A considerable proportion of the fish secured is 
taken from the osprey or fishhawk; still the eagle is fully capable of 
fishing: for itself when necessity demands. Where fish are scarce or 
for any reason hard to procure, it will feed on waterfowl from the size 



228 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

of large swans down to the smaller ducks and coots. Like the golden 
eagle, it preys on many of the destructive rodents in the West and is 
there considered a beneficial bird. Unfortunately, it is fond of lambs, 
pigs, and x^oultry, and probably does as much damage as the golden 
eagle in the more thickly inhabited regions. A great deal of sensa- 
tional matter has appeared from time to time in the various newspapers 
about eagles attacking and carrying off children. Few of these stories 




Fig. 23— Great Horned Owl (Bubo virginianus). 

have any foundation in truth, though in olden times, when eagles had 
less fear of man, they may have picked up an unguarded infant. 

The pigeon hawk, Richardson's hawk, and Aplomado falcon are all 
true falcons. Though they feed on the flesh of birds, they destroy 
enough insects and noxious mammals to partially offset the injury they 
do. The prairie falcon inhabits the dry Western plains and neighbor- 
ing mountains, in the cliffs of Avhich it builds its nest. Throughout a 
large portion of the country inhabited by this species, poultry is scarce, 
as most of the ranchers do not yet attempt to raise it. Although this 



HAWKS AND OWLS AS RELATED TO THE FARMER. 229 

falcon feeds extensively upon waterfowl, quail, prairie chickens, and 
other game, it also attacks various kinds of injurious mammals, notably 
the smaller ground squirrels, such as the striped, Franklin's, Eichard- 
son's, Harris's, and the allied species, which abound in many sections of 
the country included in its range. In this respect it is of considerable 
service to the agriculturist, and probably offsets the injury done by 
destroying game 5 but, unfortunately, the data at hand are insufficient 
to show just how extensively it preys on these' animals; hence the 
benefit done can not be correctly estimated. 

One or other of the races of the large and handsome great horned 
owl is found throughout the United States where suitable timber exists 
for its habitation. It is a voracious bird, and its capacity for good or 
evil is very great. If we could pass over the more thickly settled dis- 
tricts where poultry is extensively raised and see the bird only as it 
appears in the great West, we would give it a secure place among the 
beneficial species, for it is an important ally of the ranchman in fight- 
ing the hordes of ground squirrels, gophers, prairie dogs, rabbits, and 
other rodents which infest his fields and ranges. Where mammals are 
plenty it does not seem to attack poultry or game birds to any con- 
siderable extent, but in regions where rabbits and squirrels are scarce 
it frequently makes inroads among fowls, especially where they are 
allowed to roost in trees. Undoubtedly rabbits are its favorite food, 
though in some places the common rat is killed in great numbers; we 
have one record of the remains of over one hundred rats that were 
found under one nest. The following is a list of the mammals we have 
found in the stomachs examined: Three species of rabbits, cotton rat, 
two species of pouched gophers, two species of wood rats, chipmunk, 
two species of grasshopper mice, white footed mouse, plateau ground 
squirrel, Harris's ground squirrel, muskrat, fox squirrel, five species of 
meadow mice, one short-tailed shrew, the house mouse, common rat, 
black bat, red-backed mouse, flying squirrel, shrew, and kangaroo rat. 
Besides mammals and birds, insects (such as grasshoppers and beetles), 
scorpions, crawfish, and fish are also taken. The great horned owl 
(fig. 23) does a vast amount of good, and if the farmers could be induced 
to shut up their chickens at night instead of allowing them to seek 
shelter in trees and other exposed places, the principal damage done 
by the bird would be prevented and the beneficial effects increased 
accordingly. 

HARMFUL HAWKS AND OWLS. 

We come now to the fourth class, the species of which are harmful, 
feeding, to a marked degree, on poultry and wild birds. In olden times, 
when falconry was a fashionable pastime, there were two types of hawks, 
each of which had its devotees. One, the true falcon, represented by 
the large gyrfalcon and the peregrine falcon, captured their quarry by 
superior power of flight in open country; while the other, the accipi- 



230 YEARBOOK OF THE U, S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



trine hawks, represented by the goshawk, although strong fliers, suc- 
ceeded in capture less by long flights than by short rapid dashes or by 
skillfully turning upon its unsuspecting prey. In the United States 
the injurious hawks belong to these two classes and are represented by 
closely allied species. The gyrfalcon and duck hawk are true falcons; 
while the goshawk, sharp- shinned, and Cooper's hawk are accipitrines. 
The gyrfalcons will not be considered, as they are northern species 
which very rarely enter the United States. The duck hawk also is so 




\ l i - 

Fig. 24. — Cooper's Hawk. ( A ccipiter cooperi). 

uncommon, except about large bodies of water, that it plays an unim- 
portant part in dejjredations upon poultry and upland game birds* 
During the migration of waterfowl along the seacoast, estuaries, large 
rivers, and lakes, the duck hawk has an abundant supply of food, feed- 
ing upon ducks, coots, waders, and even at times on gulls and terns. 
It is only during the breeding season that this falcon is ever trouble- 
some to the farmer. An isolated pair may nest among the cliffs or in 
the giant trees of river bottoms near enough the agricultural districts. 
to make daily inroads upon the farmyard. These cases are uncom- 



HAWKS AND OWLS AS RELATED TO THE FARMER. 231 

mon, however, and usually by patient watching- the robber can be cap- 
tured before much harm is done. 

One may find in the group of hawks embracing the goshawk, Coop- 
er's hawk, and sharp-shinned hawk the probable cause for the unjust 
hatred and suspicion with which our birds of prey, as a whole, are held. 
All three species feed very largely upon the flesh of birds, of which 
game and poultry form a considerable part. As above mentioned, they 
capture their prey not so much by swift, long-continued flight in the 
open as by quick turns and rapid dashes from cover, the victim being 
grasped before the hawk's presence is really suspected. Fortunately, 
the goshaivk, the largest of the three, is a northern species, and conse- 
quently is rare in most parts of the United States, except in fall and 
winter. It is a large, powerful bird, easily killing and carrying off a 
full-grown fowl, rufled grouse, or hare. Many are the accounts told of 
its audacity in attacking poultry, taking it almost from under the very 
feet of the owner, and even entering inhabited houses in pursuit of its 
intended victim. It also has been known even to attack a person. A 
case of this kind happened to Dr. C. Hart Merriam, in northern New 
York. While in pursuit of a warbler with a small 22-caliber rifle, loaded 
with a light charge of dust shot, he heard a hen cry out in distress 
from behind a pile of stones. Guided by the sound, he soon reached 
the spot, and found a goshawk perched upon an old hen, not more than 
10 feet distant. Aiming at its breast, he fired, but with no other effect 
than to arouse its wrath, for it immediately darted at his head with 
great fury. He struck at the hawk while on the wing and loosened a 
tail feather, but failed to knock it down. Meanwhile, the hen was mak- 
ing off, so, leaving the doctor, the hawk gave chase. She ran into 
some bushes which were so thick that the hawk could not fly between 
them, when, closing its wings and dropping to the ground, it followed 
in a succession of long, rapid hops, and quickly overtook her and 
pounced upon her back. She ran, carrying the hawk for nearly 100 
feet. The doctor soon caught up and struck at the hawk with his 
empty gun, which it dodged by dropping on its back, after which it 
escaped to a neighboring tree and flew off. From the persistency with 
which this species hunts the ruffed grouse in many of the Northern 
States, it has received the name u partridge hawk." Mammals from 
the size of a full-grown hare down to the smaller mice are also captured, 
and it is stated that in the far north it feeds largely on lemmings. 

Cooper } s liawlc is preeminently a u chicken hawk," and is by far the 
most destructive species we have to contend with, not because it is 
individually worse than the goshawk, but because it is so much more 
numerous that the aggregate damage done far exceeds that of all other 
birds of prey. Although not so large as the goshawk, it is strong 
enough to carry away a good-sized chicken, grouse, or cottontail rab- 
bit. It is especially fond of domesticated doves, and when it finds a 
cote easy to apx>roach without being observed, or near its retreat or 



232 YEARBOOK OF THE U. 8. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

nesting ground, the inmates usually decrease at the rate of one or two 
a day until the owner takes a hand in the game. Some of these hawks 
have learned that safe and easy foraging is to be found in many of the 
large cities, where the use of firearms is prohibited. This is particu- 
larly the case in winter, when they congregate among the evergreens 
of the parks or shrubbery in the suburbs and sally forth upon the 
unsuspecting doves and English sparrows. If they confined their 
attentions to the pesky little sparrow they would be public benefactors, 
as the problem of keeping that imported nuisance in check might be 
easily settled. Among the mammals which are eaten by Cooper's hawk, 
the arboreal and ground squirrels appear to be most frequently taken. 
Remains of chipmunks, red squirrels, and gray squirrels have been 
found in the stomachs. 

The sharp-shinned hawk, an almost perfect miniature of Cooper's 
hawk, is fully as destructive to bird life as its larger congener. Although 
rarely attacking full-grown poultry, it is very partial to the young, and 
often almost exterminates early broods which are allowed to run at 
large. No birds, from the size of doves, robins, and flickers to the 
smallest warblers and titmice, are safe from its attacks. In our previ- 
ous examinations of the stomachs of this hawk, the remains of nearly 
fifty species of birds were recognized, and the list is of so much interest 
in showing the variety of kinds that it is here repeated : Arizona quail, 
mourning dove, downy woodpecker, red-shafted flicker, yellow- shafted 
flicker, chimney swift, cowbird, orchard oriole, grackle, housefinch, 
goldfinch, savanna sparrow, western savanna sparrow, white- throated 
sparrow, field sparrow, chipping sparrow, tree sparrow, junco, song 
sparrow, fox sparrow, English sparrow, Abert's towhee, red-eyed vireo, 
black and yellow warbler, black-throated green warbler, yellow-rumped 
warbler, bay-breasted warbler, blackpoll warbler, pine-creeping war- 
bler, ovenbird, Maryland yellowthroat, blackcap, western blackcap, 
Canada warbler, mockingbird, catbird, crissal thrasher, cactus wren, 
Carolina wren, red-bellied nuthatch, chickadee, ruby-crowned kinglet, 
gray-cheeked thrush, hermit thrush, robin, and bluebird. To show 
how universally this species feeds on small birds, it is only necessary 
to say that of 107 stomachs containing food, 103, or 9G^ per cent, con- 
tained the remains of birds. Mammals and insects seem to be taken 
rarely, and when they are, mice and grasshoppers are the ones most 
frequently chosen. This species, like the Cooper's hawk, has increased 
during recent winters about the large cities of the East, doubtless 
because it finds the sparrows numerous and easy to procure. 



THE CROW BLACKBIRDS AND THEIR POOD. 

By F. E. L. Beal, 
Assistant Ornithologist, U. S. Department of Agriculture. 

GEOGRAPHIC BANGE. 

Throughout the'Eastern States and Mississippi Valley the grackleor 
crow blackbird is one of the most familiar and conspicuous birds. It 
appears in spring and early summer about farmhouses and villages, 
where it finds its favorite nesting places. Five different kinds occur 
within our borders, but the present paper is concerned only with the 
common purple grackle {Quiscalm quiscula) and its two subspecies, 




Fig. 25.— The Crow Blackbird. 

the bronzed grackle ( Quiscalus q. ceneus) and the Florida grackle (Quia- 
calus q. aglwus). The purple grackle is abundant in the region east of 
the Alleghanies as far north as New York, and is found sparingly in 
New England. The Florida grackle is distributed over the region ex- 
tending from the coast of South Carolina southward into the peninsula 
of Florida and westward to Louisiana. The bronzed grackle occupies 
the Mississippi Valley and Great Plains as far west as the Eocky 

233 



234 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

Mountains, ranges northward to Great Slave Lake and southern New- 
foundland, and east to the coast of southern New England (Q.g. 25). 

In Canada and the northern United States the crow blackbird is only 
a summer resident, but in the Southern States it is present throughout 
the year, and in winter its numbers are increased by millions of migrants 
from the north which find here a congenial winter home. It does not 
occur south of the Gulf States, and stragglers have been found during 
the cold months as far north as Illinois, and even Minnesota. 

At the first approach of spring, the crow blackbirds begin to move 
north ward,.closely following the retreat of winter. During the sum- 
mer months they cover the whole of the United States east of the 
Kocky Mountains, except New England, though they are most plenti- 
fully distributed over the great grain-raising States of the Northwest. 
In New England crow blackbirds are of local occurrence. They are 
tolerably abundant in Connecticut, but in the more northern States 
breed in certain favored localities only, and are entirely absent from 
large areas. 

In the northern United States the southward movement begins about 
the end of September, although the habit of collecting in flocks imme- 
diately after the breeding season confirms the belief that the birds dis- 
appear from many localities during the month of August. It thus 
appears that their stay in the northern part of the country is limited 
to the six warmest months of the year; hence whatever they do that 
is either beneficial or injurious must be accomplished during that time. 
In the South, on the contrary, they are found throughout the year, and 
in largely increased numbers during the winter. Fortunately, how- 
ever, this is not the season of growing crops, so that the damage done 
is principally confined to the pilfering of grain left standing in the 
shock. It is probable, however, that at this season they feed largely 
on weed seeds, mast, and waste grain scattered in the field. 

The crow blackbird is a gregarious species, usually breeding in colo- 
nies and migrating in flocks. In fall the young and old collect in large 
assemblages, which in the Mississippi Valley often grow to enormous 
size. The redwing (Agelaius phceniceus), Brewer's blackbird (Scoleco- 
pliagus cyanocephalus), and rusty blackbird (8. carolinus) often asso- 
ciate with them. 

Moving southward, immense flocks cross the Eed Eiver Valley be- 
tween Texas and Indian Territory. In September, 1886, Mr. George 
H. Eagsdale reported that at Gainesville, on the Texas side of the 
river, "the flocks were of such size that the roar of their wings could be 
heard for a quarter of a mile;" and, according to a statement published 
in a local paper, one person had on hand 8,000 blackbirds which had 
been netted for the use of gun clubs. Mr. Eagsdale stated that at the 
same time the grass worm was destroying the crab grass and purslane, 
and attributed the unusually large flocks of blackbirds to the fact that 
the^rly fall migrants, finding so many worms, had halted until the 



CROW BLACKBIRDS AND THEIR FOOD. 235 

bulk of the birds drifted southward. About the first of October the 
worms and birds disappeared simultaneously. 

Grow blackbirds are well known to the farmer as foragers about the 
barnyard and pigpen. When they arrive in spring, after their long 
journey from the south, they are apt to depend on the corncrib for 
some of their first meals, but when the plow begins its work they are 
on the alert, and follow it up and down the furrows, seizing every grub 
or other insect that may be turned up. Their industry in this respect 
is very noticeable, and if not disturbed or frightened in any way, they 
often become so tame as scarcely to get out of the way of the team in 
their eager search for food. Yery soon a nest is built, and in a short 
time four or more gaping mouths demand to be filled, and the parent 
birds must then work harder and go farther afield to provide for the 
increased number of stomachs. When the cherries and other early 
fruits ripen the birds take a share for themselves, thinking no doubt 
that they are fairly entitled to them for the good work they did earlier 
in the season. When the corn " comes into the milk" they also take a 
portion. 

OBSERVATIONS REGARDING THE DIET OF THE CROW BLACKBIRD. 

In the selection of food the crow blackbird is almost omnivorous. Its 
partiality for corn, wheat, rice, oats, and other grain is well known, and is 
the cause of nearly all the complaints about its depredations. This diet 
is supplemented by various fruits, berries, nuts, seeds, and insects, the 
latter in large proportion. But the character of the food varies mate- 
rially with the season. During the fall and winter blackbirds subsist 
largely on seeds and grain; as spring approaches they become more 
insectivorous; in summer they take small fruits, and in September they 
attack the ripening corn, but at all seasons they undoubtedly select the 
food that is most easily obtained. 

To this varied diet are due the conflicting statements respecting the 
useful or noxious habits of the species. When feeding on grain the birds 
are usually in large flocks, their depredations are plainly visible, and 
they are almost universally condemned. When breeding they are less 
gregarious, and the good work they do in the fields is scarcely noticed/ 
although at this season the grubs and other insects devoured compen-' 
sate in large measure for the grain taken at other times. AsMr.N. W. 
Wright, of Farmland, Ind., aptly says: "It is hard to tell on which side 
to place the crow blackbirds, for we can see the damage done, but not 
the benefits." 

During the spring they destroy many noxious insects. Prof. D. B. 
•Lantz states that at Manhattan, Kans., from the time of their arrival 
until August they feed almost entirely upon cutworms, and Prof. Her- 
bert Osborne, of Ames, Iowa, reports that during the spring of 1883 
he saw them destroy great numbers of the May beetle (Lachnosterna 
fusca), and found them feeding on it for several weeks. Grasshoppers, 



236 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

crickets, locusts, and other insects are also largely eaten. Mr. J. Percy 
Moore, of Philadelphia, Pa., wrote in 1885 : 

During the recent visit of the 17-year cicada this species (the purple grackle) 
devoured immense numbers of pupae and imagos. It also ate large numbers of the 
grubs of the June bug, which it generally obtained by searching in the furrows in 
newly plowed fields, and all stages of the Carolina and other grasshoppers, the com- 
mon white butterfly (I saw one catch several of this species on the wing May 26, 
1885), and other species not identified. 

Mr. W. B. Hall, of Wakeham, Ohio, gives an interesting account of 
some young grackles which were kept in captivity. He says: 

I have captured the young and confined them in a cage in such manner that the 
old bird could not reach the mouth of the young. The food brought consisted 
largely of larvae of Coleopterous and Lepidopterous insects, with an occasionalbeetle. 
If freshly plowed fields were in the vicinity the food consisted largely of the white 
grub and cutworm, a few tent caterpillars, one worm that I took to be a small 
Attacus, and beetles of the genera Galerita, Cetonia, Laclinosterna, and their kindred. 

Kecently an estimate of the amount of food required to support a 
large flock of blackbirds has been made by Mr. H. H. Johnstin, of Lon- 
don, Ohio. During the present autumn (1894) he counted 1,100 black- 
birds one morning as they left their roosting places for the feeding 
grounds, and estimated that the birds which flew by would number 
50,000. Allowing 2 ounces as the quantity of food collected by each 
bird during the day, he arrived at the conclusion that 6,250 pounds, or 
more than 3 tons, of food was consumed by this army of blackbirds in 
a single day. Even if the number of birds in this case is not overesti- 
mated, the amount of food per bird is undoubtedly too great. The 
species of blackbirds to which these notes refer are not stated, but it is 
safe to assume that the flocks were made up of redwings (Agelaius) 
and crow blackbirds (Quisealus). A full stomach of the crow blackbird, 
selected at random from specimens in the collection of the United 
States Department of Agriculture, was found to weigh 0.158 ounce, 
or 2.25 drams, while the contents of another stomach weighed only 
0.116 ounce, or 1.85 drams. The average of two full stomachs of 
red-wing blackbirds was 0,049 ounce, or 0.78 dram, and the stomach 
contents of a third weighed only 0.021 ounce, or 0.33 dram. While of 
course these figures do not give the quantity of food a bird consumes 
in twenty-four hours, they show that the full stomach of a blackbird 
weighs comparatively little. In order to consume 1 ounce of food per 
day a crow blackbird must eat six or eight full meals, depending on the 
kind of food, and the redwing twice as many. Even with this estimate, 
the amount consumed by the flock of 50,000 birds would still be more 
than a ton and a half per day. Although these figures are probably 
still too large, they serve to give some idea of the quantity of grain a 
large flock could destroy. 

Briefly stated, the accusations against the crow blackbird relate 
mainly to the destruction of grain, especially corn, soon after planting 



CROW BLACKBIRDS AND THEIR FOOD. 237 

in the spring, and again in the autumn, when the corn is in the milk 
and nearly ripe. In the Southern States the grackles destroy rice also. 
In some sections they are said to feed upon young grain in such quan- 
tities as seriously to injure the value of the crop, and for this reason 
they are poisoned in large numbers. A more effectual method is to 
prevent the birds from taking the seed by tarring the corn before it is 
planted; this is better, simpler, and cheaper than the wholesale destruc- 
tion of the birds. 

Mr. S. T. Kimball, of Ellington, Conn., gives his experience with the 
crow blackbird, as follows : 

As a rule, farmers here tar their corn, but last June I sowed some without tarring, 
and the result was that by the time it was out of the ground the blackbirds had 
attacked it. They worked all day, carrying their bills full — load after load— to a 
cemetery where there is quite a colony. They kept this up till the corn was entirely 
absorbed by the stalk, although I shot some five or six of them. 

Mr. George K. Oherrie states that in Monona County, Iowa, during 
the spring of 1884, both the crow blackbird and the yellow-headed black- 
bird did considerable damage by pulling the corn just as it came through 
the ground, and were poisoned in great numbers by corn which had 
been soaked in water containing arsenic. Similar depredations are 
sometimes committed in the rice fields of the South. 

According to Mr. W. C. Percy, jr., of Bayou Goula, La., the crow 
blackbirds destroy rice and corn to a great extent, and would do so 
totally were not men stationed with guns. They eat it in planting time 
only. 

Mr. S. Powers, of Lawtey, Fla., writes: In this climate corn is left 
on the stalk as long as possible, to escape the weevils, and the black- 
birds eat the ends of many ears, sometimes one-third of their length. 

In the autumn, when the corn begins to ripen, the fields are again 
visited by blackbirds in larger flocks than in the spring, and, to the 
dismay of the farmer, the birds renew their work of destruction. Mr. 
Daniel S. Wardsworth reports that in a field of 2 acres near Hartford, 
Conn., the grackle has been known to ruin from one-third to one-half 
of a crop of corn in the milk or when ripe. A similar complaint was 
made by Mr. George H. Selover, of Lake City, Minn. 

Another accusation often made against the crow blackbird is that it 
destroys the eggs and young of other birds. It will be well to examine 
the testimony on this point with some care, because the charge is often 
repeated and because the examination of a large series of stomachs 
does not substantiate it except in an exceedingly small percentage of 
cases. A cursory examination of the statements of writers shows that 
very few are based on original observation; the majority are either 
repeated from the observations of others or are taken from published 
accounts of the bird's habits. The following extracts from letters are 
from reliable persons who have actually seen the blackbirds destroy 
the eggs or young of other birds. 



238 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

Mr. H. Nehrling, writing- from Freistatt, Mo., on December 5, 1885, 
says: 

Sometimes they breed in orchards, where they become great enemies of our small 
birds. I have observed them destroying eggs of bluebird, cat-bird, and flycatcher 
(Empidonax pusillus), and have seen them carry off the young of the field sparrow 
and other small birds. 

Mr. George H. Selover, of Lake City, Minn., writes : 

Several times each season I have seen the bronzed grackle steal the eggs of the 
chipping sparrow and other small birds, but have not observed them take the young. 
Have never known them to drive off other birds. 

Mr. P. L. Ong, of Hennepin, 111., says: 

The crow blackbird has been seen to throw young robins out of the nest and tear 
the nest in pieces. It has not driven any birds from this neighborhood, and does 
not seem to make a business of destroying the eggs and young. 

Mr. W. F. Hendriekson, of Long Island City, KY., states: I have 
known purple grackles to eat robins' and thrushes' eggs, and in at least 
one instance the young of the robin. 

Mr. Morris M. Green, of Syracuse, N. Y., says: I have seen the crow 
blackbird attack robins' nests and break the eggs. 

These observations have been selected from notes contributed by sev- 
eral hundred observers, and are quoted in full to show the extent to 
which the grackle is said to injure other species. From such statements 
it can not be doubted that these birds do occasionally destroy the eggs 
of the robin, bluebird, chipping sparrow, small flycatchers and other 
species, and more rarely the young of the robin. Let us see what the 
stomachs themselves show. Of the 2,258 stomachs examined, only 37 
contained any trace of birds' eggs, and 1. contained the bones of a young 
bird. These were distributed as follows: In April, 9; May, 9; June, 7; 
July, 7; and August, 5. The greatest quantity of eggshell was found 
in May, aggregating forty-six one-hundredths of 1 per cent of the food 
for that month. This certainly does not show that the blackbirds are 
much given to robbing their neighbors. Still further, the eggshells 
found in a number of stomachs were identified as those of domestic 
fowls, probably obtained from compost heaps, where they had been 
thrown. Hence it seems fair to infer that the grackle indulges its nest- 
robbing proclivities only occasionally, and that the prevalence of the 
habit has been considerably exaggerated. 

EXAMINATIONS OF STOMACH CONTENTS. 

It may be well now to take up the results of actual examinations of 
the stomach contents in other cases, and see how far the observations 
made in the field are borne out by the studies made in the laboratory. 

Nearly 2,300 crow blackbird stomachs have been examined, of which 
2,258 contained food - ? the remainder were empty. These stomachs were 
obtained from twenty-six States, the District of Columbia, and New 



CROW BLACKBIRDS AND THEIR FOOD. 239 

Brunswick. Kansas and Dakota are the most westerly States in which 
any were collected, and Tennessee and Virginia the most southerly, 
except Florida. They were taken during every month in the year 
except January, but as the great body of the species leaves the North- 
ern States in October and does not return until March, but few stomachs 
could be procured in November, December, and February. Great pains 
were taken to secure a large number during May and June, the breed- 
ing months, with the result that a little more than half of the whole col- 
lection was obtained in these months. Observation has shown that the 
food of young birds often differs materially from that of the adults, and 
in order to test this point in the present species 486 nestlings were col- 
lected in May and June, and have contributed their quota to the final 
result. 

The first step in the determination of the food is to separate the 
stomach contents into its three most important categories, viz, animal, 
vegetable, and mineral matter, and to estimate the x>ercentage of each. 
In the present case the result for the food of the whole year, taking into 
account the entire number of 2,258 stomachs, young and adult, was: 
Animal food, 48 per cent; vegetable, 48 per cent; mineral, 4 per cent. 
The animal food was found to be composed of the following elements: 
Insects, spiders, myriapods, crawfish, earthworms, so wbugs, hair snakes, 
snails, fishes, tree toads, salamanders (newts), lizards, snakes, birds' 
eggs, and mice. 

The insect food constitutes 46 per cent of the entire food for the year, 
and is the most interesting part of the bird's diet from the economic 
point of view. For convenience, spiders and myriapods (thousand- 
legs) are here classed with the insects. In examining the insect food 
month by month, we find the smallest quantity in February, when it is 
less than 6 per cent of the whole food; but as only three stomachs were 
taken, the result can not be considered as very reliable. In March the 
insect food rises to one-fifth, and steadily increases till May, when it 
reaches its maximum of five-eighths of the whole. It then decreases 
until in October it is only one-eighth. It appears to rise in November 
and December, but the number of stomachs taken in those months is 
too small to warrant any general conclusions. The great number of 
insects eaten in May is due in part to the fact that the young which 
are hatched in that month are fed largely on that kind of food. 

VARIOUS ARTICLES OF BIRD DIET. 

An analysis of the insect component of the food presents many points 
of interest. Let us first consider the beetles, an order of insects known 
to everybody, and easily distinguished in most cases by the hard outer 
wing covers. Among the most important families are the Scarabaeids, 
every member of which is or may be injurious to agriculture, either in 
its early stages as a grub, or after coming to the adult form, or, as is 
often the case, in both. The common June bug or May beetle and 



240 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

the rosebug are familiar examples of this family. The well-known 
grubworms, so often turned up by the plow in spring, are the young 
or larval forms of these beetles. An examination of the stomachs of 
blackbirds shows that these insects were eaten, either as beetles or 
grubs, in every month from March to October, inclusive. In May they 
constituted more than one-sixth and in June one-ninth of the entire 
food. The habit these birds have of following the plow to gather grubs 
is a matter of common observation which has been fully confirmed by 
the stomach examinations. Many stomachs were found to be literally 
crammed with grubs, and in many more, where other food predomi- 
nated, the presence of their hard jaws showed that grubs had formed 
a goodly portion of a previous meal. 

The curculios, snout beetles, or weevils constitute another family of 
beetles unfortunately well known to fruit growers, the plum curculio 
being a too familiar example. Like the Scarabseids, these beetles were 
eaten in every month from March to October, and while taken in great 
numbers, the individuals are so small that the percentage of bulk does 
not rise as high as in the case of the Scarabseids. The maximum is 
reached in June, when the weevils constitute 6 per cent of the total 
food, with a gradual decrease in the succeeding months. Insects of 
such small size could hardly be obtained except by diligent search, and 
their presence in so many stomachs (772), and also the large numbers 
in single stomachs (sometimes reaching 30 or even 40), warrants the 
conclusion that they are sought as choice articles of food. 

Many other beetles were found in the contents of the stomachs, but 
with one exception, in quantities too small to be of much economic 
interest. The Colorado potato beetle was not present, but several spe- 
cies belonging to the same family were identified. The one exception 
referred to above is that of the Carabids or predaceous beetles. These 
insects, from their habit of preying upon other insects, have always been 
reckoned as beneficial to agriculture, and this is no doubt a true ver- 
dict; hence the bird which eats them is, to that extent, doing the farmer 
an injury. Now, we find that the blackbirds have eaten Carabids in 
every month from March to November, inclusive, and although there is 
considerable variation in the quantity during the several months, the 
variation is less than in any other insect. They begin by eating more 
than 4 per cent in March, attain a maximum of 13 per cent in July, and 
end with a little over 1 per cent in November. From these figures it 
would seem that the predaceous beetles are highly prized by the black- 
birds as an article of food, and, although this may be true, there are 
other facts that have a bearing on the case. Most of these beetles are 
of fair size and easily seen, and many of them are quite large; more- 
over, they live upon the ground and are much oftener seen running than 
flying. They are the first beetles observed in spring, and are usually 
abundant at all times when insects are to be found. When we consider 
that the blackbirds seek a great portion of their food upon the ground, 



CROW BLACKBIRDS AND THEIR FOOD. 241 

it is at once apparent that these beetles must naturally fall in their way 
oftener than any others. 

The above remarks are not intended to vindicate the birds in the 
habit of eating useful insects, but merely to suggest that such insects 
may be eaten more from necessity than from choice. It does not neces- 
sarily follow that birds are doing harm by eating insects that are classed 
as useful on account of their food habits. This point has been enlarged 
upon in another place, and has been more fully elucidated by other 
writers, notably by Prof. S. A. Forbes (Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. Hist., 
Yol. I, No. 3). 

Next in importance to beetles as an article of blackbird diet are the 
grasshoppers. For convenience, grasshoppers, locusts (green grass- 
hoppers), and crickets are considered in the same category. Of the 
three, the true grasshoppers are by far the most numerous in the 
stomachs, and were eaten in all months in which stomachs were taken 
except December. In February they constitute 2 per cent of the total 
food, and the fact that they were found at all in this month indicates 
that the birds are keen hunters, for it would puzzle an entomologist to 
find grasshoppers in February in most of the Northern States. It is 
possible that some of those eaten in February and the succeeding month 
were dead insects left over from the previous year. The proportion of 
grasshoppers in the stomachs increases with each month up to August, 
when it attains a maximum of nearly one-fifth of all the food. It 
is worthy of note that crickets, considered apart from grasshoppers, 
reach their maximum in June, when they form something over 5 per 
cent of the monthly food. 

After August the grasshopper diet falls off, but does not entirely 
disappear, for even in November it still constitutes 6 per cent of the 
total for the month. The frequency with which these insects appear 
in the stomachs, the great numbers found in single stomachs (often 
more than 30), and the fact that they are fed largely to the young, all 
point to the conclusion that they are preferred as an article of food and 
eagerly sought at all times. The good that is done by their destruc- 
tion can hardly be overestimated, particularly as many of the grass- 
hoppers found in the stomachs were females filled with eggs. 

Another interesting element of this bird's food is the caterpillars or 
larvae of butterflies and moths. These were found in every month in 
which stomachs were taken except November, while December, curiously 
enough, showed the highest percentage; but as this result was obtained 
from only two stomachs the result may be discarded as unreliable. 
The quantity of caterpillars and larvse consumed was about 1J per 
cent for each month except May, June, and August. In May a maxi- 
mum of something more than 9 per cent was reached, followed by a 
little over 4 per cent in June, and falling to a minimum of less than 1 
per cent in August. 

1 A 94 9 



242 YEARBOOK OP THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

Most persons who have picked and eaten berries directly from the 
bushes have had the disagreeable experience of getting into their mouths 
a small bug which is a little too highly flavored to suit the taste of the 
human race, but which is eaten by our feathered friends in every 
month from February to October, inclusive. They are not, however, 
consumed in large quantities, probably for the reason that great num- 
bers can not be found; still, traces of them appear in many stomachs, 
indicating that the birds eat as many as they find. 

In addition to the insects specified, representatives of several other 
orders were found in the blackbirds 7 stomachs, but not in such large or 
regular quantities as to render them an important element of food. 
Spiders and myriapods (thousand-legs) were also noted in sufficient 
numbers to demand recognition. They were eaten to some extent dur- 
ing every month, but not, as a rule, in large quantities. The spiders 
attain a maximum of 6 per cent in May, and not only the spiders them- 
selves but their cocoons full of eggs appear to have been taken when- 
ever found. The myriapods were eaten somewhat less frequently, but 
appear in nearly every month. 

GRAINS AND FRUITS AS BLACKBIRD FOOD. 

The vegetable component of the stomach contents is as variable and 
diversified as the animal food, showing plainly that when one article of 
diet is wanting, the bird can make up the deficiency by eating something 
else which is more easily obtained. The following list includes all the 
vegetable substances identified in the 2,258 stomachs, but there were? 
of course, some that could not be positively determined. The pulp of 
fruit, when unaccompanied by seeds and already half digested, is 
difficult to distinguish with precision, and the same is true of the hulls 
or skins left after kernels of grain have been digested and have passed 
away, but the total of such unrecognized matter is not great. 

List of vegetable substances found in stomachs. 

Corn. 

Oats. 
Grain { Wheat. 

Rye. 

Buckwheat. 

Blackberries and raspberries (Rubus). 

Strawberries (Fragaria). 

Cherries (cultivated). 

Mulberries (Morus). 

Currants (Ribes). 

Grapes. 
Fruit <i Apples. 

Blueberries and cranberries CVaccinium sp.). 

Huckleberries (Gaylussacia sp.). 

Dogwood berries (Cornus sp.). 

Elderberries (Sambucus sp.). 

June or service berries (Amelanchier canadensis). 

Hackberries (Celtis occidentalism. 



Seeds and nuts of shrubs 
or trees 



Weeds . 



Miscellaneous 



CROW BLACKBIRDS AND THEIR FOOD. 243 

List of vegetable substances found in stomachs — Continued. 

Poison ivy (Rhus radicans). 

Harmless sumac (Rhus glabra et at.). 

Wax or bayberries (Myrica cerifera). 
<{ Hornbeam (Ostry a virginiana). _ 

Chestnuts and chinquapins ( Castanea dentata and ^MwiZa). 

Beechnuts (Fagus atrojpunicea), 
< Acorns (Quercus). 

Ragweed (Ambrosia). 

Barn grass (Setaria), 

Gromwell (Lithospermum). 

Smartweed (Polygonum). 

Pokeweed (Phytolacca), 

Sorrel (Rumex). 
( Small bulbs or tubers. 

Galls containing larva?. 

Pieces of plant stems. 

Bits of grass and leaves. 

Thorn of locust (Robinia), 

Pieces of rotten wood. 



Of all these various articles of diet the chief interest centers about 
the grain and fruit, for it is through these that the blackbirds inflict 
the greatest damage upon the farmer; in fact, the worst that has been 
said of them is that they eat large quantities of grain. Of the five 
grains named in the list, corn is the favorite, having been found in 1,218 
stomachs, or more than 53 per cent of the whole number. It is eaten 
at all seasons of the year, and in every month except July and August 
amounts to more than one-half of the total vegetable food. The corn 
obtained in winter and until planting in the spring can be but little 
loss to the farmer, as it must be mostly waste corn. This view was 
fully confirmed by the contents of a series of stomachs taken in early 
spring, which contents consisted to a great extent of corn that had 
evidently been wet and frozen, and had lain out all winter. After 
February there is a steady decrease in the quantity of corn eaten 
until July, when it reaches a minimum of 7 per cent. The month of 
May does not show any increase over the preceding months, although 
it is the time for planting; nor is there an increase in June, which in 
the north is the month of sprouting corn. In fact, very little evidence 
was found to indicate that blackbirds pull up sprouting grain. In 
this respect they differ conspicuously from the crow. In August the 
corn amounts to one-eighth of the whole food, and it, together with a 
part of that taken in September, was green corn "in the milk." The 
maximum amount, nearly 53 per cent, is eaten in September, and this 
is undoubtedly wholly taken from the fields of standing corn, repre- 
senting so much good grain contributed by the farmer. The same is 
true for October, when the quantity eaten is nearly as great as in Sep- 
tember (47 per cent), and in the Middle and Western States, where 
grain often stands in the fields until December; this must also be the 
case up to the end of November. 



244 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

Next to corn, but far behind it in importance, come oats, which were 
eaten in very irregular quantities in every month except November and 
December. They appear in the greatest amount in April, when they 
constitute a little more than one-eighth of the total food. They fall to 
less than 1 per cent in June, but rise to over 8 per cent in August* 
The oats eaten in April are probably picked up from newly sown fields, 
and those taken in August and September are probably gleaned from 
fields after harvest, while those found in the other months are acci- 
dental and of no importance. 

Wheat was eaten in every month from April to October, inclusive, 
but makes very little showing except in July and August. In these 
two months it formed, respectively, about 19 and 17 per cent of the 
whole food, these being the only months in which it reached a higher 
percentage than corn or any other item of vegetable food. As July 
and August are the months of the wheat harvest, it is easy to account 
for the large amount eaten by the blackbirds at that time; but whether 
the grain so eaten is taken from the standing crop, or is merely the 
scattered kernels gleaned after the harvest, must be left for the observ- 
ing farmer to find out. Probably the birds take whichever is more 
accessible. 

Eye was found in only 1 stomach, and buckwheat in 9. The former 
was from a bird taken in May in Pennsylvania, and is evidently not a 
favorite food. Three birds taken in New Jersey in February were found 
to have eaten a small quantity of buckwheat. A single bird from New 
York, killed in July, and one from Iowa, killed in September, had also 
eaten this grain, as had another lot of four birds from New Jersey taken 
in November at the same time and place. The buckwheat eaten in 
February and November must have been waste grain, and the fact that 
birds from the same localities, taken at the time when this grain was 
harvested, had not eaten it, indicates that it is not a desirable food, 
and is only eaten under stress of hunger. 

It is unfortunate that the collection contains so few stomachs from 
the Southern States, where crow blackbirds remain through the winter 
months. In reports received from this region it is stated that the crow 
blackbird preys upon the rice fields, in company with other blackbirds 
and the bobolink, the latter being the well-known ricebird of the South. 

Although fruit of some kind was eaten in every month from March 
to December, inclusive, it does not become of importance until June? 
July, and August, when it reaches 6, 14, and 11 per cent, respectively. 
This aggregate is made up from a number of elements, as will be seen 
by referring to the list on page 242. Of these the only ones likely to 
possess any economic interest are blackberries, raspberries, cherries, 
currants, grapes, and apples. Apple pulp was found in 3 stomachs, 
grapes in 3, currants in 1, cherries in 37 in June and 14 in July, and 
strawberries in 7. The blackberries and raspberries were the favorites, 
and made up the great bulk of the fruit eaten. They were eaten from 



CROW BLACKBIRDS AND THEIR FOOD. 245 

May to September, inclusive, but only a few in each month, except in 
July and August, when they were found in 96 and 68 stomachs, respec- 
tively. When we consider that these last-mentioned fruits are much 
more abundant in the wild than in the cultivated state, and bear in 
mind the small number of birds that eat other fruits, it certainly must 
appear that the damage the blackbirds do by eating fruit is of no great 
moment. None of the wild fruits mentioned in the table were found in 
large quantities or in many stomachs. 

Mast, under which term are included chestnuts, chinquapins, acorns, 
and beechnuts, forms quite an important element of food in the fall and 
early spring months. In March it constitutes nearly one-tenth of the 
food, and in September it reaches nearly one-seventh, being, after corn, 
the most prominent vegetable constituent in that month. In October 
it amounts to one-eighth of the whole food. 

SEEDS AS BIRD FOOD. 

The seeds of the various plants included under the head of " weeds' 7 
in the list on page 243 form another interesting element of vegetable 
food, and are of considerable importance in the colder months. Begin- 
ning in February, they form one-eighth of the food, and gradually dimin- 
ish in quantity until June, when they almost disappear. They then 
increase until October, when they attain a maximum of over one-eighth, 
forming, next to corn, the largest percentage of vegetable food in that 
month. As all the plants included in this category are nuisances, it 
is perhaps needless to say that by eating weeds the birds are doing a 
good work. 

The mineral component of the food does not possess much if any 
economic interest, but it is curious to note how many different things a 
blackbird can pick up. Sand, gravel, pieces of brick, bits of mortar, 
plaster of paris, charcoal, hard coal, and cinders were the most common 
of the various hard substances which helped to line the mill in which 
their corn was ground. 

FOOD OF THE YOUNG. 

As previously stated, 486 nestlings are included in the 2,258 birds 
whose food has been already discussed. A separate study was made 
of these in order to ascertain in what respect, if any, their food differed 
from that of the adults. It would have given more satisfactory results 
if it had been possible to separate the younger nestlings, say those 
under 1 week of age, from the older ones, for it was noticed that as the 
young approach maturity and get ready to fly their food becomes more 
like that of their parents. The young were collected from May 22 to 
June 30, inclusive, and represent every age, from the newly hatched 
to those about to leave the nest. The whole stomach contents, when 
separated into its three principal components, was found to be as 



246 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

follows: Animal matter, 70 per cent; vegetable, 25 per cent, and min- 
eral, 5 per cent. The much higher percentage of animal food in the 
young as compared with the adults (48 per cent) is at once noticeable, 
although it may be insisted that the food of the young should be com- 
pared with that of the adults in the corresponding season 5 that is, in 
the months of May and June. If this view be taken, the difference is 
not so great. The percentage of mineral matter also is a little greater 
than in the adults. 

The animal food is practically the same as that of the parent birds ? 
and likewise consists chiefly of insects. These amount to C6 per cent, 
20 per cent more than in the adults. The animal food other than 
insects, amounting to less than 5 per cent, is not important enough to 
merit attention. The insect food is made up of about the same kinds 
as are eaten by the old birds, but in somewhat different proportions. 
Adult beetles, on account of their hard shells, are not fed to very 
young birds, but a few are given to the older ones. " Grubworms," 
the larvae of Scarabaeids, are fed freely after the first or second day. 
A little more than 14 per cent of the food of the nestlings consists of 
this family of beetles, and for the most part in the form of the larvae or 
grubs. Predaceous beetles (Oarabids) constitute about 7£ per cent of 
the food, weevils a little more than 3 per cent, and there were traces 
of live or six other families, none of which reached 1 per cent. 

Grasshoppers and crickets, the former predominating, are a favorite 
food for the young, being softer and more easily digested than beetles. 
They constitute about one-fifth of the total food, that is, as much as the 
parent birds consume in August, and nearly three times as much as 
they eat in May and June, when they are feeding the young. This 
shows that they select the grasshoppers and other soft insects for their 
offspring, while they eat beetles and other hard things themselves. 

Caterpillars constitute something over 6 per cent of the food of the 
young birds, which is not as much as might be expected when we con- 
sider how soft and apparently well adapted they are for this purpose. 

Besides the insects already mentioned, small quantities of ants, flies, 
bugs, May flies, myriapods, and spiders were given to the young. 
These last merit a special notice from the fact that they form the 
earliest food of the bird. A number of tiny stomachs were examined, 
evidently taken from birds less than 24* hours old. In nearly every 
case they contained either a single spider or several very small ones — 
undoubtedly the bird's first meal. The very young stomachs are thin, 
almost membranous sacs, entirely unlike the stout, muscular gizzards 
of the adult birds, which explains why soft, easily crushed food is 
required for the newly hatched young. It is only after they have 
attained considerable growth and the stomach walls have become 
somewhat muscular that they are able to digest such food as hard 
beetles and corn. 



CROW BLACKBIRDS AND THEIR FOOD. 247 

The vegetable food of the young consists of corn and fruit, with 
mere traces of half a dozen other things. Corn amounts to over one- 
eighth of the total food, but is fed only to the older birds, whose stom- 
achs have acquired the requisite muscular strength to digest it. Fruit 
constitutes about 6J per cent of the food, almost exactly the same 
quantity as was consumed by the adults in the month of June, and 
consists of the same varieties. 

A number of substances are found in the blackbirds' stomachs that 
can hardly be considered as food. These are usually reckoned under 
the head of "rubbish," and are probably for the most part taken acci- 
dentally. Such are bits of dead leaves, pieces of bark, rotten wood, 
bits of plant stems, and dead grass, all of which might be carelessly 
swallowed in picking up a kernel of corn or seizing an inseet. The 
quantity of refuse eaten by the adults varies from 1 to 2 per cent of the 
whole food in each month, but, curiously enough, the stomachs of the 
young contain more, amounting to nearly 4 J per cent. It would seem 
that while the old birds are very judicious in selecting a suitable diet 
for their nestlings, they are less particular in rejecting the substances 
that accidentally adhere to the food. 

SUMMARY. 

From the foregoing results it appears that if the mineral element be 
rejected as not properly forming a part of the diet, the food of the crow 
blackbird for the whole year consists of animal and vegetable matter 
in nearly equal proportions. Of the animal component twenty- three 
twenty-fourths are insects, and of the insects five-sixths are noxious 
species. The charge that the blackbird is a habitual robber of other 
birds' nests seems to be disproved by the stomach examinations. 

Of the vegetable food it has been found that corn constitutes half 
and other grain one-fourth. Oats are seldom eaten except in April and 
August, and wheat in July and August. Fruit is eaten in such moder- 
ate quantities that it has no economic importance, particularly in view 
of the fact that so little belongs to cultivated varieties. 

The farmer whose grain is damaged, if not wholly ruined, by these 
birds may attempt to count his loss in dollars and cents, but the good 
services rendered by the same birds earlier in the season can not be 
estimated with sufficient precision for entry on the credit side of the 
ledger. Thoughtful students of nature have observed that there is a 
certain high-water mark of abundance for every race or species beyond 
which it can not rise without danger of encroaching upon and injuring 
other species, not even excepting man. This is true of every species in 
nature, whether it be one which, at its normal abundance, is beneficial 
to man or otherwise. To no group does this apply with more force than 
to the insects, many species of which frequently exceed their ordinary 
bounds and spread destruction among crops. The same argument ap- 
plies to the birds. However useful they may be in a general way, there 



248 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

is danger that they may become too numerous. While the destruction 
of a noxious insect is greatly to any bird's credit^ still it is believed that 
the principal value of the useful bird lies not so much in this special 
work as in keeping the great tide of insect life down to a proper level. 
The examination of the food of the blackbirds has shown that they do 
a good share of this work, and are therefore most emphatically useful 
birds. This does not mean that they do no harm, or that they should 
be permitted to do all the harm they wish without restraint. It is not 
probable that the grain eaten by blackbirds under ordinary circum- 
stances occasions much loss to the farmer, because so much of it con- 
sists of scattered or waste kernels. When, however, they descend upon 
a corn or wheat field in flocks of hundreds or thousands they inflict a 
real damage; and this simply shows that the species is too abundant 
and ought to be reduced, or that the birds have assembled from all the 
surrounding country and have become too crowded in one restricted 
locality. In either case the farmer should protect himself by any prac- 
ticable means and should not submit quietly to being robbed merely 
from a sentimental idea of the bird's past or probable future usefulness. 
If the crop and the birds' lives can both be saved, well and good; but if 
not, let the extreme penalty be paid. 

Upon the whole, crow blackbirds are so useful that no general war 
of extermination should be waged against them. While it must be 
admitted that at times they injure crops, such depredations can usually 
be prevented. On the other hand, by destroying insects they do incal- 
culable good. 



SOME SCALE INSECTS OP THE ORCHARD. 

By L. O. Howard, M. S., 
Entomologist, U. S. Department of Agriculture. 

INTRODUCTORY. 

For many years prior to a recent date our Eastern orchards were com- 
paratively free from serious damage by scale insects, or "bark lice," as 
they are indifferently termed. Barring the old and well-known oyster- 
shell bark louse of the apple, orchardists were not often compelled to 
fight any insects of this group, and even this species, abundant and 
widespread as it is, had come to be considered, as it still is, a rather 
unimportant factor in apple raising, seldom necessitating treatment in 
otherwise healthy and vigorous orchards. 

Within the past few years, however, conditions as regards scale 
insects in general have changed. The San Jose, or pernicious, scale of 
the Pacific Coast has come east and threatens great damage,* the new 
peach scale has made its way across to Florida from the West Indies, 
and is now destroying trees as far north as the District of Columbia ; 
the peach Lecanium has apparently increased and spread, and has 
caused considerable alarm in several large nurseries; the so-called 
walnut scale has transferred its attentions to the pear and peach in the 
South and Southwest, and the greedy scale, although found, until 
recently, only on the Pacific Coast and in the far Southwest, levies a 
heavy annual tax on the fruit growers of those regions, and has the 
present season made its appearance in Mississippi and Texas. 

A popular article upon these insects, describing them in such a way 
as to enable the fruit grower readily to identify any form which he may 
have upon his trees, and giving some account of the best remedies 
which may be used, will be timely, and such the present article aims 
to be. It is confined to the scale insects of deciduous fruit trees for 
the reason that the insect enemies of citrus fruits will receive full 
treatment at the hands of Mr. Henry G. Hubbard, an assistant in the 
Division of Entomology, who is preparing an elaborate revision of his 
report on the insects affecting the orange, the publication of which may 
be brought about before many months. There are several additional 
important scales which affect small fruits like the raspberry, blackberry, 
grape, and currant, but these are excluded from this consideration 
simply from want of space. Several of the scales treated, however, 
although more commonly found upon orchard trees, attack also these 
small fruits. 

249 



i 250 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 
LIFE HISTORY AND HABITS OF SCALE INSECTS IN GENERAL. 

In respect to life history, the family Coccidse, which includes all of 
the so-called scale insects, is very abnormal. The eggs are laid by the 
adult female either immediately beneath her own body or at its pos- 
terior extremity. Certain species do not lay eggs, but give birth to 
living young, as do the plant lice. This abnormal habit is not charac- 
teristic of any particular group of forms, but is found with individual 
species in one or more genera. The young on hatching from the eggs 
are active, six-legged, mite like creatures which crawl rapidly away 
from the body of the mother, wander out upon the new and tender growth 
of the tree, and there settle, pushing their beaks through the outer tis- 
sue of the leaf or twig and feeding upon the sap. Even in this early 
stage the male insect can be distinguished from the female by certain 
differences in structure. As a general thing, the female casts its skin 
from three to five times before reaching the adult condition and begin- 
ning to lay eggs or give birth to young. With each successive molt the 
insect increases in size and becomes usually more convex in form. Its 
legs and antennae become proportionately reduced, and its eyes become 
smaller and are finally lost. As a general thing, it is incapable of moving 
itself from the spot where it has fixed itself after the second molt, 
although certain species crawl throughout life. The adult female in sect, 
then, is a motionless, degraded, wingless, and, for all practical purposes, 
legless and eyeless creature. In the armored scales she is absolutely 
legless and eyeless. The mouth parts, through which she derives nour- 
ishment, remain functional, and have enlarged from molt to molt. Her 
body becomes swollen with eggs or young, and as soon as these are laid 
or born she dies. 

The life of the male differs radically from that of the female. Up to 
the second molt the life history is practically parallel in both sexes, but 
after this period the male larva transforms to a pupa, in which the organs 
of the perfectly developed, fledged insect become apparent. This change 
may be undergone within a cocoon or under a male scale. The adult 
male, which emerges from the pupa at about the time when the female 
becomes full grown, is an active and rather highly organized creature, 
with two broad, functional wings and long, vibratiug antennae. The 
legs are also long and stout. The hind wings are absent, and are 
replaced by rather long tubercles, to the end of each of which is articu- 
lated a strong bristle, hooked at the tip, the tip fitting into a pocket on 
the hind border of the wings. The eyes of the male insect are very 
large and strongly faceted. The mouth parts are entirely absent, their 
place being taken by supplementary eye spots. The function of the 
male insect is simply to fertilize the female, and it then dies. The num- 
ber of generations annually among bark lice differs so widely with dif- 
ferent forms that no general statement can be made. 



SOME SCALE INSECTS OP THE ORCHARD. 251 

CLASSIFICATION. 

All Ooccidse are divided into five subfamilies. The species most com- 
monly met with in this country belong to three of these subfamilies, 
and the majority of them to one, viz, the Diaspinse — the armored, or 
shield-bearing, bark lice. These insects, as their name indicates, are all 
protected by a shield-like covering, which is composed of wax secreted 
from the back of the insect. This shield, with the adult insects, becomes 
more or less completely detached from the body, and forms a perfect 
covering, not only for the body, but, in the case of the female, for her 
eggs. The insects of the other principal subfamily, but two species of 
which will be considered here, may be familiarly known as naked scales, 
and the subfamily group name is Lecaniinse. These insects are suffi- 
ciently characterized for our present purpose by the absence of the scale 
just mentioned. 

SPECIES TO BE CONSIDERED. 

Eight species will be treated in this article, and these comprise all of 
the forms which are especially destructive to deciduous fruit trees in the 
United States. They are the scurfy bark louse (GMonaspis furfurus, 
Eitch), the oyster-shell bark louse (Mytilaspis pomorum, Bouche), the 
San Jose, or pernicious, scale (Aspidiotus pemiciosus, Comstock), the 
walnut scale (Aspidiotus juglans-regice, Oomstock), the greedy scale 
(Aspidiotus camellice, Signoret=rapa#, Oomstock), the West Indian 
peach scale (Diaspis lanatus, Morgan & Cockerell), the peach Lecan- 
ium (Lecanium persicce Modeer), and the plum Lecanium (L. prunastri, 
Fonsc). The illustrations given under the specific consideration of each 
insect will, it is hoped, render them recognizable; but to further assist 
the use of the following synoptic table is recommended: 

A. Insect covered with a scale ; nearly flat. 

(a) Female scale shaped like an oyster shell. 

Scale narrow, grayish brown to blackish in color; male and female 
scales of same shape Mytilaspis pomorum 

Female scale broad behind ; dirty white or pure white in color ; male 
scale mnch smaller and with parallel sides Chionaspis furfur us 

(b) Female scale round; male scale shaped like the female, but smaller. 

Wood of affected new growth or skin of fruit stained about the 

insect with a reddish color Aspidiotus perniciosus 

Wood not stained ; scale rather convex, whitish in color 

Aspidiotus camellias 

Wood not stained; scale flat, dark gray in color 

Aspidiotus juglans-regicd 

(c) Female scale round; male scales white, nearly parallelogrammatic in 

shape, with a central longitudinal ridge Diaspis lanatus 

B. Insect naked in all stages; not covered with a scale. 

Brown in color; hemispherical in shape; winters as nearly full- 
grown female Lecanium persicad 

Winters as larva Lecanium prunastri 



252 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

Of these species those found upon apple are Mytilaspis pomorum, 
Aspidiotus pcrniciosus, A> camellice, and Chionaspis furfur us. 

The same species are also found upon pear, with the addition of 
Aspidiotus juglans-regice. 

The species found upon peach are Aspidiotus perniciosus, A. juglans- 
regice, Diaspis lanatus, and Lecanium persicce. 

The same species are found upon nearly all varieties of plum. 

The species found upon cherry are the same as those found upon 
apple, but they affect the cherry more rarely. 

The quince scales are practically identical with the apple scales, and 
the apricot scales with the peach scales. Upon quince occurs another 
species which does not receive specific treatment in this article on 
account of its comparative rarity, viz, Aspidiotus cydoniw. 

NATURAL ENEMIES OF SCALE INSECTS. 

Outside of predaceous and parasitic insects, scale insects have few 
natural enemies. Some years ago there appeared in an English journal 
the statement that mice had cleared the peach Lecanium from some 
climbing peach trees trained against the side of a house in England, 
and in South Africa there is a little bird known as the white-eye (Zos- 
terops capensis) which has achieved a reputation as a scale destroyer, but 
confines itself to the larger species, such as the Lecaniums, the fluted 
scale, and the like. Among insects there are many species which prey 
upon bark lice, and their work is undoubtedly of great value. It is 
their work which unquestionably holds many species of scale insects 
down to comparatively uninjurious numbers, but when we have said 
this we have said the larger part of what can be said in their behalf. 
The ideas of the value of natural enemies which have become preva- 
lent since the introduction of Vedalia cardinal!* from Australia into 
California to feed upon the fluted scale are in a measure exaggerated, 
and it is not likely that another equally successful instance of the prac- 
tical handling of natural enemies will soon be brought about. It is 
true that late reports from California show that one of the ladybirds 
imported by Mr. Koebele on his second Australian expedition is doing 
good work against the black scale of the olive and orange, as well as 
against the greedy scale and the purple scale of the orange; but it is 
too early as yet to judge fully of the permanent value of this species, 
important as it seems at present, while of the dozens of other species 
imported at the same time none seem to have increased to any very 
great extent. With the species of scale insects which we shall con- 
sider in this article, parasitic and predaceous insects of different kinds 
undoubtedly limit their increase to a greater or less degree; but the 
work of these natural enemies is hardly sufficiently marked to justify 
us in taking them into serious consideration at the present time in dis- 
cussing remedial measures. It is well, however, to know what they are. 



SOME SCALE INSECTS OF THE ORCHARD. 253 

Among the larger ladybirds the most abundant and most active 
destroyer of the armored scales in this country is the so-called twice- 
stabbed ladybird ( Chilocorus bivulnerus). This species extends all over 
the country, is many-brooded in the South, and frequently multiplies 
to such an extent as to destroy the majority of the scales on a given 
tree. It is readily recognized by its glossy black color, with two red 
spots on the wing covers. The larva is a black, very spiny creature, 
which is more efficacious in the work of destroying scale insects than 
is the adult beetle. Other important scale-destroying ladybirds are 
figured upon Plate XVIII of the Annual Eeport of the United States 
Department of Agriculture for 1881-82. There is a group of smaller 
ladybirds, the work of which has been to a certain extent overlooked 
in the older works on economic entomology, but which are among the 
most important. These are the minute species of the genus Scymnus 
and its allies. An important species which has been found destroying 
the San Jose scale in the East is Pentilia misella 7 which is illustrated in 
all its different stages upon Plate I of the Annual Eeport of the United 
States Department of Agriculture for 1893. This insect, which is not 
a member of the fauna of the Pacific Coast, has been sent to Berkeley, 
CaL, for the purpose of ascertaining whether it will become established 
there and prove beneficial as a practical enemy of this destructive scale. 

The larvae of Syrphus flies and of lace- winged flies are of some benefit 
in destroying the newly hatched larvae of the armored scales and the 
larger individuals of the naked scales, but their work is of no serious 
importance. 

Concerning the mites we have little definite information. A number 
of species are always to be seen upon trees affected by scale insects. 
One form which for many years has been considered a true enemy of 
the oyster-shell bark louse of the apple, namely, Tyroglyphus malus, first 
described by Dr. Shimer and afterwards referred to by Walsh and fig- 
ured by Eiley, has lately been decided by M. J. Lignieres to feed only 
upon the cast skins and eggshells of the bark louse, and upon these 
only when they are somewhat moist. M. Lignieres, however, describes 
a mite which he calls Hemisarcoptes coccisugus, which attacks the eggs 
of the oyster-shell bark louse and forms the most formidable enemy of 
this species in France. Mr. Hubbard mentions several species which 
feed upon the eggs of bark lice in Florida, one of the most important 
of which is Tyroglyphus ( *?) gloverii Ashm. 

A few predaceous bugs also prey upon scale insects, and probably the 
most important among them are two little Capsids known as Campto- 
brochis nebulosus and (7. grandis. The latter is figured upon Plate V of 
the annual report of the Entomologist in the Annual Eeport of the 
United States Department of Agriculture for 1892. 



254 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OP AGRICULTURE. 

A table of the true internal parasites of the species under considera- 
tion follows. 

Table of parasites of the foregoing species. 



Host insects. 


Parasites. 




Aphelinus mytilaspidis LeB. 




Anaphes gracilis How. 
Aphelinus abnormis How. 
Aphelinus fuscipennis How. 
Chiloneurus diaspidinarum How. 
Ablerus clisiocampse (Ashm.). 




Aphelinus fuscipennis How. 




Encyrtus ensifer How. 




Prospalta aurantii (How.). 
Aphelinus diaspidis How. 
Signiphora occidentalis How. 
None. 




Aphelinus fuscipennis How. 




Aphelinus mytilaspidis LeB. 
Aspidiotiphagus citrinus (Craw.). 
Anaphes gracilis How. 
Coccophagus fraternus How. 




Coccophagus ater How. 
Coccophagus lecanii (Fitch). 
Prospalta aurantii (How.). 
Astichus minutus How. (probably sec- 
ondary) . 
Comys fusca How. 



The majority of these parasites, when affecting armored scales, feed 
upon the eggs of the female late in the season and earlier upon her 
body. The work of the later broods against the eggs is not complete. 
Thus we have found upon examination of a large number of the scales 
of the oyster-shell bark louse in late winter and early spring that from 
2 to 18 eggs under scales containing parasites escaped destruction, the 
average number of eggs in uninfected scales being from 65 to 70. In 
two cases, where a parasite had issued late in the fall, 11 and 5 sound 
eggs, respectively, were found. In other scales, from which the para- 
site had not yet issued, sound eggs were found as follows in each of 10 
scales, respectively: 2, 3, 4, 7, 10, 12, 14, 15, 17, 18. From these facts it 
is perfectly obvious that these parasites will not accomplish complete 
extermination. 

THE OYSTER-SHELL BARK LOUSE. 
(Mytilaspis pomorftm Bouch& ) 

Original home and present distribution. — This is probably the com- 
monest and most widespread, and consequently the best known, of any 
of the orchard scales. It is found all over the world. It was probably 
a European insect originally; at all events it was known in Europe 



SOME SCALE INSECTS OF THE ORCHARD. 255 

during the last century, and was probably imported into this country 
on nursery stock by the early settlers. It is found in the United States 
practically wherever apples and pears are grown, more abundantly at 
the North than at the South, and has often received treatment at the 
hands of writers on injurious insects, the most important articles being 
that by Professor Riley in his Fifth Report on the Insects of Missouri, 
and that by Prof. J. H. Gomstock in the Annual Report of the United 
States Department of Agriculture for 1880. Actual localities in the 
United States from which specimens have been received at this office 
during the last few years are as follows : Bridgewater, ET. H. ; Norwalk, 
Conn.; Providence and Kingston, E. I.; Rye, Irvington, Monticello, 
Ithaca, Roslyn, and Maine, K Y.; Walnut Hill, Hoppenville, and West 
Newton, Pa.; La Fayette, Ind.; Champaign, 111.; Agricultural College, 
Vogel Center, and Alpena, Mich.; Westfield and Grand Rapids, Wis.; 
Anderson ville, Tenn. ; Olden and Louisiana, Mo. ; Lawrence and Empo- 
ria, Kans.; Wirth, Ark.; Omaha and Nebraska City, Nebr.; Lewiston, 
Idaho; Pullman, Wash.; San Francisco, Cal.; Baltimore, Lntherville, 
and Aberdeen, Md. ; Washington, D. C. ; Alexandria and Arlington,Va. ; 
Liberty and Charleston, S. C; Atlanta and Lovett, Ga.; Pronto, Ala. 
It is impossible, at this late date, to trace with absolute accuracy the 
course by which the insect has spread over the country. Mr. Enoch 
Perley, of Bridgton, Me., in a paper written in 1794 and published by 
the Massachusetts Agricultural Society in 1796, gives the first Ameri- 
can account of the insect, and it is impossible to state how far prior to 
this date the insect was introduced into the New England colonies. In 
Harris's time it was extremely common in Massachusetts. Fitch, in 
1854, showed that it was already abundant throughout most of the 
Northern States, and quotes from a Wisconsin observer, showing that 
it was introduced into that State (at Kenosha) in 1840. At the date of 
Fitch's writing the insect did not appear to have penetrated west 
beyond the districts bordering upon Lake Michigan. The orchards 
upon the Mississippi River were free from it, as were those which he 
examined less than 100 miles west of Chicago. Walsh, writing in 1867, 
showed that it reached northeastern Illinois about 1852, and thence 
spread gradually westward and southward, reaching the Mississippi a 
few years previous to date of writing. Riley, late in 1868, stated that 
it had invaded Iowa and northern Missouri, but anticipated that it 
would not spread to the southward. This hope was not well grounded, 
however, for, as he himself showed in 1872, it had extended south 
through Missouri and even into Mississippi and Georgia, while toward 
the west it had made its appearance in several orchards near Lawrence, 
Kans. At the present time, in several of the Western States, where 
apple growing is a comparatively new industry, and in certain locali- 
ties, the oyster-shell bark louse has not yet obtained a firm foothold. 
Thus Mr. Marlatt states that in 1888 he had not noticed it at Manhat- 
tan, Kans.; Mr. Bruner, that it is yet rare in Nebraska; Mr. H. A. 



256 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

Morgan, that he has not found it in Louisiana, and Mr. Cockerell 
reports that it has not yet made its appearance in the orchards 
about Las Cruces, IN". Mex. In California it is present, though rare. 
Professor Popenoe has reported it the present year from Crawford 
County, Kans. 

Food plants. — The insect is found, in the District of Columbia, upon 
the apple, pear, quince, hawthorn, buckthorn, raspberry, currant, lin- 
den, hop tree, bladder nut, horse-chestnut, maple, water locust, honey, 
suckle, ash, elm, hackberry, cottonwood, willow, poplar, and upon an 
exotic Amorpha. growing in the Department grounds at Washington. 
Some doubt has been expressed as to the specific identity of the oyster- 
shell bark louse upon some of these plants with the species occurring 
upon the apple, but so careful a student of the Diaspnne as Prof. J. H. 
Comstock was unable to find any structural differences. One peculiar 
difference in habit, however, was pointed out by Professor Comstock, in 
that, while the male scale is rare upon apple, it is not at all scarce upon 
the other plants mentioned. 

Specimens received at the United States Department of Agriculture 
indicate that the insect occurs elsewhere in the United States upon 
the following plants : Apple, pear, plum, wild red cherry, rose, wild 
grape, spiraea, fig, bittersweet (Gelastrus), red maple, striped maple, 
Juneberry, black ash, white ash, white birch, red birch, swamp willow, 
and poplar. 

So long as no valid structural differences can be found between the 
forms living upon this great range of food plants, they must be con- 
sidered as all belonging to a single species j but one can hardly avoid 
the strong suspicion that certain of these forms will not interbreed and 
that eventually distinguishing characteristics will be found. 

In England, according to Mr. J. W. Douglas, this scale is known to 
occur upon dogwood, plum, currant, heather ( Calluna), and heath (Erica), 
in addition to apple. In France, as we note from specimens received by 
Dr. Eiley in 1882 from F. Eichter, of Montpellier, it occurs upon Gra- 
t&gus oxyacantha, Gornus sanguinea, Ulmus campestris, and Lepidium 
graminifolium, while Boisduval and Taschenberg record it from dog- 
wood, elm, whitethorn, medlar, and currant. In New Zealand Maskell 
records it as occurring upon many plants. 

Life Mstory and habits. — If, during the winter, one of the female scales 
be lifted, it will be found to contain the shriveled body of the dead 
female, under the anterior or more pointed portion, while behind this the 
yellowish white eggs are thickly massed together back to the extremity 
of the scale. In number, the eggs under each scale vary in our experi. 
ence from 42 to 86. The young hatch from these eggs in most of the 
Northeastern States during the latter part of May or early in June, wan- 
der out upon the twigs, and settle at once. With this species the young 
twigs are generally the only parts of the tree seriously affected. Older 
twigs, however, are also attacked, and many specimens of the insect 



SOME SCALE INSECTS OF THE ORCHARD. 



257 



may be found upon the trunk. There is but one annual generation in 
the North, and, owing to this fact, the leaves are not attacked. The 
writer does not remember, in fact, to have ever seen specimens of this 
scale upon the leaves. Upon the fruit it is almost equally rare, although 
an occasional specimen is found in such a location. At the meeting of 
the Association of Economic Entomologists in Brooklyn, in August, 1894, 
Mr. William Saunders exhibited a small green apple which was covered 
with these scales. This instance was exceptional in the experience of 
all the entomologists present, but in late September apple skins were 
received at the Department of Agriculture from Bridgewater, N. H., 




Fig. 26.— M ytilaspis pomorum: a, female scale from below, showing eggs; 
&, same form above — greatly enlarged ; c, female scales; d, male scale 
— enlarged (original) ; e, male scales on twig — natural size. 

bearing numerous specimens of the scale, and it was noticed later that 
Dr. Lintner, in his fourth report as State entomologist of Kew York, 
mentions having seeu a pear bearing specimens of the same. More- 
over, Mr. J. W. Douglas, in The Entomologist's Monthly Magazine 
(XXV, p. 16), records it as met with upon Tasmanian, Canadian, Brit- 
ish, and American fruits, though rarely. The interesting point about 
both these recent American instances is that both were from points far 
north, and that the occurrence of the scale upon the fruit meant the 
certain death of the insects and their possible offspring. In the South, 
however, the insect is two-brooded, and the adults of the first genera.- 
I A 94 IQ 



258 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

tion could occur upon the fruit or the leaves without danger, since their 
offspring could crawl back to the permanent portions of the plant before 
fall. As a matter of fact, however, we have never seen the insect upon 
the leaves and very rarely upon the fruit in the South. The question 
of the single-broodedness of the insect at the North has been doubted 
by Lintner, on the ground that specimens occurring upon fruit must 
belong to a second generation; but it seems that they are much more 
likely to be late hatching individuals of the single generation, although 
the possibility of an occasional exceptionally warm autumn in which 
early laid eggs might hatch out of season is not denied. 

After inserting its beak and settling, the female molts twice, and 
begins the formation of the scale, which is secreted mainly from the 




Fig. 21.—Mytilaspis pomorum: a, adult male ; &, foot of same; c, young 
larva; d, antenna of same ; e, adult female taken from scale— a, c, e, 
greatly enlarged ; &, d, still more enlarged (original) . 

hinder portion of the body and extends backward, the two cast skins 
remaining in an overlapping position on the anterior portion of the 

scale. 

The male scale is much smaller than the female scale, as indicated in 
the figures, and is otherwise distinguished by a few structural pecul- 
iarities. In the first place, there is but one cast skin at its anterior 
extremity, and in the next place, the hinder portion of the scale is hinged 
in such a way that it lifts up like a flap, permitting the escape of the 
adult male. The different stages and structural details of the insect 
are so well shown in the figure as to require no further description. The 
Qnly careful observations as tq rate of growth with this species have 



SOME SCALE INSECTS OF THE ORCHARD. 



259 



been made by Professor Eiley, who records, in his First Eeport on 
Insects of Missouri, that in Cook County, 111., the eggs hatch on or 
about June 6; the females reach full growth August 1, commence to lay 
eggs August 12, and finish egg laying by August 28. In his fifth Mis- 
souri report the same author records the discovery that the species is 
double-brooded in southern localities. He shows that in Wright 
County, Mo., the eggs hatch early in May, and makes a Mr. Palmer 
responsible for the statement that there are two broods, while Dr. 
Eiley himself received hatching eggs from Leake County, Miss., about 
September 1. 

THE SCURFY BARK LOUSE. 



( Chionaspis furfurus Fitch. ) 

Original home and present distribution. — Unlike the oyster-shell bark 
louse, the scurfy bark louse is a native of North America. It has been 
reported by previous authors from the States of Massachusetts, New 
York, Pennsylvania, Illinois, Maryland, southern California, and Mis- 
souri. It has been sent to the 
Department of Agriculture from 
New Jersey j Pennsylvania, Dela- 
ware, Maryland, District of Co- 
lumbia, Virginia, Ohio, Indiana, 
Iowa, Tennessee, Georgia, Kansas, 
Nebraska, and South Dakota. It 
seems, on the whole, to flourish in 
rather warmer localities than the 
oyster-shell bark louse. In Mis- 
souri Professor Eiley records the 
southward extension of the oyster- 
shell species into regions previ- 
ously inhabited only by the scurfy 
bark louse, and we believe with 
Walsh that the Mytilaspis is the 
hardier form of the two, and 
will, in localities where both species are found, gradually supersede 
the Chionaspis, just as the purple scale of the orange in Florida has 
replaced the long scale during recent years, and, as Mr. Cockerell has 
pointed out, is true with certain West Indian scales. Walsh, in his 
report as acting State entomologist of Illinois (1867), stated that on all 
of his apple trees, which were a year or two previously infested by the 
scurfy scale, the native species was being gradually supplanted by the 
oyster-shell bark louse, "just," he wrote, " as the white man is supplant- 
ing the red man in America, or as in New Zealand the European house 
fly and the brown Norway rat are driving out the native fly and the 
native rat," 




Fig. 28. — Chionaspis furfurus: a, c, females; b, d, 
males — a, b. natural size; c, d, enlarged (original). 



260 YEARBOOK OP THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

Two years ago the scurfy bark louse was found in England, when Dr. 
T. A. Chapman took specimens on a red currant bush at Hereford. 

Foodplants. — The scurfy bark louse occurs abundantly upon apple 
and pear, and is also found upon crab apple, quince, black cherry, choke 
cherry, currant, and mountain ash. Upon the last-named plant the 
writer has seen it occurring so abundantly in the Oatskill Mountains 
that hardly a twig or branch was found uninfested. It has also been 
received on peach twigs from two localities in Georgia, and occurs abun- 
dantly on the Japan quince at Washington. 

Life history and habits. — As is the case with the preceding species 
the female scale, if lifted in the winter, will reveal the shriveled body 




Fig. 29. — Chionaspis furfurus : Adult male above ; &, foot; h, tip of antenna 
of same; c, larva; d, antenna; e,\eg of same; /, pupa; g, adult female re- 
moved from scale — all enlarged; b, d, e, A, much more than the others 
(original). 

of the insect in front and a mass of eggs behind. The eggs, however, 
instead of being yellowish in color, as with the preceding species, are 
purplish-red. The eggs, numbering from 10 to 75 to each scale, hatch 
quite uniformly about the middle of May in the latitude of Washington, 
and the life history of the insect is substantially identical with that of 
the oyster-shell bark louse. The male insect, however, differs quite 
radically from that of the preceding species in the character of the 
scale which it forms. This scale, instead of resembling that of the 
female in color and general shape, is very much smaller, brilliantly white, 
rather delicate, having nearly parallel sides and three elevated longi- 
txidinal ridges, one on each side and one in the center. At the anterior 



SOME SCALE INSECTS OF THE ORCHARD. 



261 



end the yellowish brown cast skin of the first molt is very evident, 
through its color contrasting so strongly with that of the scale. There 
is no record as to the number of generations annually , but, as with the 
preceding species, there is probably but one at the North, and two, 
or perhaps more, at the South, as also in California. The collec- 
tion of the United States Department ot Agriculture contains males 
reared from California scales which issued from August 17 to Septem- 
ber 4, and eggs from the same lot of scales which must have been laid 
about September 1. At Washington the eggs hatch from May 15 to 
June 1, the males issue during September, and the last females have 
laid their overwintering eggs by October 15. In Illinois Walsh (Trans. 
Ills. Hort. Soc. 1867, p. 54) found that the young hatch June 5 to 12, 
that the mature scale is not formed until about the middle of Septem- 
ber, and that the eggs are not laid " until the end of September, or 
sometimes in October. ?? 



THE GREEDY SCALE. 
(Aspidiotus camelliw &ign.=rapax Comst.) 




Fig. 30.— Aspidiotus camellia;: a, female scale from above; b, same from below; c, mass of 
scales as appearing on bark ; d, male scale ; e, male scales on twig; /, female scabs on twig — 
e and /, natural size; c, considerably enlarged; a, b, d, greatly enlarged (original). 

Original home and present distribution. — The greedy scale was first 
described in this country by Prof. J. H. Comstock under the name 
Aspidiotus rapax in the Annual Report of the United States Department 
of Agriculture for 1880, from specimens which he himself collected in 
California in the spring of that year. It always seemed probable that 
this was not an indigenous Californian insect, but a good guess could 
not be made as to its original home until, in 1889, Mr. A. 0. F. Morgan 



262 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

established its identity with the European Aspidiotus camellice. Under 
this name, considering it erroneously as identical with one of BoisduvaPs 
species, Signoret described this insect as common around Paris. Mr. 
Morgan records it as abundant in Portugal, and Mr. J. W. Douglas has 
found it in England. Under the same name Mr. Maskell reports the 
species as very common in New Zealand, where Mr. Koebele also found 
it in 1891 . It is also recorded as appearing in Australia, in the Agri- 
cultural Gazette of New South Wales for September, 18.92, in a note by 
Mr. A. Sidney Olliff. Specimens have also been received from Hawaii. 
In this country it is found over a wide range of territory on the Pacific 
Coast, extending north at least to Olympia, Wash., according to Mr. 
Trevor Kincaid, and south to Guadaloupe Island, off the coast of Lower 
California. It occurs also in New Mexico and Florida, while Professor 
Comstock, in the second report of the Department of Entomology, Cor- 




!Fig. 31. — Aspidiotus camellice: a, young larva; b, adult female removed 
from scale and seen from below— greatly enlarged (original). 

nell University Experiment Station, for 1883, incidentally mentions that 
it is found "in hothouses in the North." 

From this somewhat complicated geographical distribution the writer 
is inclined to believe that the species is native to south Europe and has 
been carried by commerce to Australia and New Zealand, and thence 
to California, whence it has begun to spread toward the east. 
. Food plants. — In California Mr. Coquillett has found full-grown speci- 
mens of this insect upon the following plants: Apple, 'pear, loquat, 
Myosporium, birch, English laurel, maple, South African silver tree 
(Leucadendron argenteum), Bhamnus croceus, California walnut, English 
holly, fuchsia, cottonwood, Japanese camellia, orange, and lemon. Pro- 
fessor Comstock received it in 1880 from Dr. E. S. Turner, who found 
it upon stems of Uuonymus japonicus at Fort George, Fla., and himself 
found it in great abundance and very destructive in California upon 



SOME SCALE INSECTS OF THE ORCHARD. 



263 



olive, mountain laurel, almond, quince, fig, willow, eucalyptus, acacia, 
and locust. In Australia Mr. Olliff notes it u chiefly on apple and pear 
twigs, but sometimes on native plants, such as the black wattle (Colli- 
coma serratifolia)) and several species of eucalyptus." In France it is 
found abundantly in the greenhouses in which camellias are grown, and 
in Portugal it occurs, according to Mr. Morgan, very commonly out of 
doors and in great abundance on camellias u and other plants." Messrs. 
Maskell and Koebele state that it occurs on u many trees and shrubs in 
New Zealand." 

During late years we have received it on the fruit of orange and 
apple from San Diego, Oal., on palm nuts from Guadaloupe Island, and 
on apple from New Mexico, as well as upon many of the above-mentioned 
plants from, California. 




Fig. 32. — Aspidiotus juglans-regice : a, female scale ; &, male scale; c, male chrysalis ; d, 
male scales on twig; e, female scales on twig — a, b, c, enlarged ; d, e, natural size 
(original). 



Life history and habits. — The adult female scale of this species is very 
convex, with the exuvia between the center and one side, and covered 
with secretion. In color the scale is gray and somewhat transparent, 
so that it has a tendency to appear yellowish when it covers the living 
female. If the scale be carefully removed from the twig or fruit, a 
snowy white and usually complete lower scale is found. The insect 
seems to hibernate indifferently in the egg state, as adult female or as 
young. The eggs and the newly hatched larva3 are yellow in color. 
There are no observations upon record which indicate the number of 
annual generations, and the very fact that the insect passes the winter 
in several different stages would make such observations very difficult; 
it also complicates the question of remedies. The insect has, in fact, 
been studied only in California, and there it may be found in all stages 
at almost any time of the year. 



264 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

THE ENGLISH WALNUT SCALE. 

(Aspidiotus juglans-regice Comstock — figs. 32 and 33.) 

Original home and present distribution. — This hitherto comparatively 
rare species was originally described by Professor Comstock from speci- 
mens found upon the bark and larger limbs of an English walnut tree 
at Los Angeles, Cal. In view of the somewhat interesting diversity of 
food habit, both the specific name and the popular designation which 
Professor Comstock gave it are unfortunate, as will be shown in the 
next paragraph. Professor Comstock also recorded the species from 
New York and the District of Columbia, and it has recently been 
found by Prof. H. A. Morgan in Louisiana, wiiile Mr. T. D. A. Cockerell 
has shown that it also occurs at Las Cruces, K. Mex. Twelve years 
ago specimens were sent to the United States Department of AgrL 




Fig. 33.— A spidiotus juglans-regice: a, newly hatched, larva; b, antenna of same; c, foot of 
same; d, female just before last molt; e, full-grown male larva;/, adult male; g, adult 
female— all greatly enlarged (original). 

culture by Mr. H. G. Hubbard, Crescent City, and Dr. J. 0. Neal, 
Archer, Fla., and it has also been received from J. L. Hardy and W. E». 
Howard, Stuebner and Fort Worth, Tex., and H. Korner, Bay St. Louis, 
Miss., as well as from F. W. Mally, Dickinson, Tex. The New Mexican 
specimens are, however, light colored, and among them Mr. Cockerell 
has found a new variety, which he calls Aspidiotus juglans-regim var. 
albus. The Florida specimens from Mr. Hubbard are referred to at page 
13 of Bulletin 5 of the Division of Entomology (1885) as Aspidiotus 
cortiealis Eiley MS. It is possible that the eastern and western forms 
of this species may prove distinct, and that the former will prove 
synonymous with Aspidiotus ostrewformis of Europe, as pointed out by 
Comstock and Douglas in The Entomologist's Monthly Magazine for 
March, 1887. 



SOME SCALE INSECTS OF THE ORCHARD. 



265 



Food plants. — In California the insect has been found only upon Eng- 
lish walnut; in New York and the District of Columbia it occurs upon 
pear, cherry, and locust; in Florida, upon peach and wild plum; in New 
Mexico, upon ash, pear, apple, apricot, and plum ; in Texas, upon peach ; 
and in Louisiana, upon peach and Japan pluin. Concerning the Louisi- 
ana occurrence, Professor Morgan wrote that the insect was new to fruit 
growers about Baton Eouge and is doing considerable damage. In 
Mississippi it occurs on pear and peach, as also in Texas. 

Life history and habits. — The female scale resembles that of the other 
species of the genus, with the exuvia one side of the center. It is a 
pale grayish brown in color, with the exuvial spot pink or reddish brown. 
There is no complete ventral scale, such as A. rapax has. The color of 
the full-grown female found under the scale is pale yellow, with irreg- 
ular orange-colored spots. The scale of the male resembles that of the 




A 

Fig. 34. — Diaspis lanatus : a, branch covered with male and fomale scales— natural 
size; &, female scale; c, male scale; d, group of male scales— enlarged (original). 

female in color, and with the male there is a rudimentary ventral scale. 
No definite observations are on record regarding the number of gener- 
ations or the method of hibernation. The office notes are not full, and 
simply show that in Florida adult females were taken under the scales 
in January, males issued June 1, and eggs were found June 15, which 
hatched June 18. Specimens received June 12 and 18, from New Mex- 
ico and Louisiana, were all full-grown or nearly full-grown females, as 
were also specimens received from Texas September 4. There must be 
several annual generations, probably about three, and the adult female 
hibernates. 

THE NEW PEACH SCALE. 

(Diaspis lanatus Morgan &Cockerell — figs. 34-37.) 

Original home and present distribution. — In all j>robability the original 
home of this species is the West Indies. It has been found in Jamaica 
by Mr. Oockerell and his correspondents, in Trinidad by Mr. F. W. Urich, 



266 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



in Martinique by Mr. E. G. Nolet, on the island of Grand Cayman by 
Mr. H. McDermott, and in Barbados and San Domingo by Professor 
Riley. It also occurs in Ceylon, and what is probably this species has 
been received from Japan. In this country the insect is known to occur 
in an orchard at Molino, Fla., and in another at Bainbridge, Ga. It 
was first discovered in this country on some young seedling peach trees 
in the grounds of the United States Department of Agriculture at 
Washington in 1892. As is shown in Insect Life (Vol. VI, No. 4), 
efforts were made to learn the origin of the insect upon these trees, but 
these efforts were unsuccessful. In the fall of 1894, however, it was 

discovered that the same 
insect was to be found upon 
isolated peach trees in door- 
yards (usually in back gar- 
dens) in many parts of 
Washington. Old trees 
were found to be affected 
in such a way that the in- 
sect must have been pres- 
ent in the District of 
Columbia, although not ob- 
served by entomologists, 
for a number of years. Its 
presence upon seedlings in 
the grounds of the Depart- 
ment, then, is probably due 
to the chance introduction 
of young larvae by means 
of birds or winged insects. 
The fact that in the three 
localities in the United 
States, as well as in the 
single locality in Ceylon, 

Fig. 35.— Diaspis lanatns : adult female removed from scale— the insect Seems Very re- 
greatly enlarged (original). stricted in its range Of 

food, as well as in its geographical range, while in the West Indies 
it is widespread and possesses many food plants, seems to indicate, 
without much doubt, that the species belongs to the West Indian fauna, 
Food plants.— In the District of Columbia the insect is found only 
upon peach. In Florida and Georgia it has been found upon peach and 
plum. In Ceylon it occurs upon geranium; in Jamaica, upon grape, 
bastard cedar (Guazuma ulmifolia), Gyms media, capsicum, Argyreia 
speciosa, the bark and twigs of an undetermined malvaceous plant, 
Bryophyllum calycinum, peach, Pelargonium, Jasminum, stems of cotton, 
Calotropis procera (French cotton), and Hibiscus esculentus. On the 




SOME SCALE INSECTS OF THE ORCHARD. 



267 



island of San Domingo Professor Biley found it abundantly upon Zizy- 
phus, and in Barbados he collected it upon Cycas. 

Life history and habits. — During winter this insect is found in Wash- 
ington, D. C, only in the condition of the mature female. The eggs 
are deposited early in May, and the young larvae hatch by the middle 
of the month. The males begin to issue the middle of June and impreg- 
nate the females, and the latter begin egg laying by the end of the 
month. The second generation is full grown by the middle of August, 
and the third egg laying begins at this time. In this latitude the 
development is comparatively regular. 

The scale of the adult female is gray in color, and is not readily dis- 
tinguished. It occurs abundantly, upon larger twigs than is customary 
with other scale insects, and frequently appears to be almost covered 
by the outer bark of the twig. The males have a white scale and, as a 
rule, cluster on the lower parts of the branches of young trees and at 





Fig. 36. — Diaspis lanatus : adult male — greatly enlarged, with tarsus 
at a aud poiser at b still more enlarged (original). 



Fig. 37. — Diaspis lanatus: 
larva — greatly enlarged 
(original). 



the base of the trunk. Where the insect is abundant the trees fre- 
quently appear as though whitewashed, from the masses of these male 
scales. 

THE SAN JOSE, OR PERNICIOUS, SCALE. 



(Aspidiotus perniciosus Comstock.) 

Original home and present distribution. — The original home of this 
important scale insect is still in doubt. It has been supposed that it 
came to America from Chile, but recent investigations by the writer 
seem to show that it was taken to Chile from the United States. It 
occurs in Hawaii, but it was brought to this point also from California. 
It made its first appearance near San Jose, Cal., twenty years ago, at 
a time when many trees were being imported from many parts of the 
world. It may have come from Australia, since it is known to occur 
there, though rarely, or it may have come from some Pacific island or 
possibly even from China. It has been carried north to British Columbia 



268 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



and has extended by natural spread eastward to Idaho on the north, 
and Nevada, Arizona, and New Mexico on the south. Chance impor- 
tation of California nursery stock has within the past few years resulted 
in its establishment at many points in the East, and particularly in the 
States of New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, 
Ohio, Indiana, Virginia, Georgia, Alabama, Louisiana, and Florida. 

Food plants. — This species is a rather general feeder. Fortunately 
it does not seem to attack citrus trees, but it is found upon almost every 
variety of deciduous fruit trees. In California it has a very long list of 
food plants, including with the above, among plants of economic impor- 




FlG. 38.— Aspidiotus perniciosus on pear fruit and twig, with enlarged male and female scales (original). 

tance, the apricot, prune, almond, and English walnut, and Euonymus, 
rose, and other ornamental shrubs. In the East its principal damage 
has been done to pear and peach. It occurs, however, in abundance 
upon apple, plum, cherry, persimmon, and currant, as well as upon 
Japanese quince, and in one remarkable instance it has been found in 
great numbers upon a young elm, which was brought from France acci- 
dentally with some young pear trees and was planted in a nursery close 
to some young stock affected with the San Jose scale. There seems to 
be a marked selection of varieties by the scale. The Bartlett and 
Duchesse d'Angouleme are almost invariably seriously affected, while 



SOME SCALE INSECTS OF THE ORCHARD. 



269 



the Kieffer is practically exempt. In New Jersey Professor Smith has 
found that the varieties affected range in about the following order: 
Idaho, Madame Van Garber, Lawson, Seckel, Lawrence, and Bartlett 
Kieffers alone, in his experience, are absolutely exempt, and the Leconte 
is also nearly exempt. One tree which he especially mentions, and 
which the writer has had the 
pleasure of examining, was 
grafted witli Lawson and 
Kieffer, and the Lawson 
branch and fruit were cov- 
ered with scales, while the 
Kieffer was entirely free. 

Life history and habits. — 
The full life history of the 
insect was not known until 
the summer of 1894, when the 
occurrence of the scale in the 
East gave opport unity for a 
careful series of observations 
in the Insectary of the De- 
partment of Agriculture. 
From these observations it 
appears that the insect is 
viviparous, i. e., gives birth 
to living young and does not 
lay eggs. It passes the win- 
ter as a half-grown or nearly 
full-grown female. About the middle of May the female begins giving 
birth to living young, and continues to do so, day after day for six 
weeks. As soon as the young larva is hatched, it wanders about until 

it reaches a favorable spot, when it 
settles, and within forty- eight hours 
begins the secretion of its scale. 
This secretion is white and fibrous, 
and the insect becomes invisible in 
\ about two days. At thirty days 
/the female becomes full grown, the 
males having issued at twenty-four 
days. At about forty days the fe- 
males begin to give birth to young. 
The constant daily birth of the 
fig. 40.— Aspidiotus pemiciosus: aciuit male— young insects gives rise to a great 
greativ enlarged (original). confusion of generations, which ren- 

ders observations upon the life history of the species extremely difficult, 
and only to be accomplished by the isolation of individuals. It also 
seriously complicates the matter of summer remedies, as a spraying oper- 
ation at any given time will destroy only those larva? which happen to 




Fig. 39. — Aspidiotus pemiciosus: c, adult female removed 
from scale, showing embryonic young — greatly enlarged ; 
d, anal plate— still more enlarged (original) . 




270 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



be at that particular time less than three days old. The young larvse 
are not great travelers and seldom wander more than a few inches. There 
seem to be in the latitude of Washington five generations annually. 

As indicated in the little analytical table of the species considered 
in this article, the San Jose scale differs from all others in the peculiar 
reddening effect which it produces upon the skin of the fruit and of 
tender twigs. This very characteristic feature of the insect's work 
renders it easy to distinguish. Around the margin of each female 
scale is a circular band of this reddish discoloration, and the cambium 
layer of the young twigs, where the scales are massed together, fre- 
quently becomes deep red or purplish. When occurring in winter 
in large numbers upon the bark of a twig, the scales lie close together, 
frequently overlapping, and are at such times difficult to distinguish 
without a magnifying glass. The general appearance which they pre- 
sent is of a grayish, very slightly roughened, scurfy deposit. The rich 




Fig. 41. — Lecanium persicce : Newly hatched larva at right; unimpregnated female next; 
twig with full-grown females next ; female form above and below and cut longitudi- 
nally — all enlarged except specimens on twig (original). 

natural reddish color of the twigs of peach and apple is quite obscured 
when these trees are thickly infested, and they have then every ap- 
pearance of being coated with lime or ashes. Even without a magnify- 
ing glass, however, their presence can be readily noted if the twig be 
scraped with the finger nail, when a yellowish, oily liquid will appear, 
resulting from the crushing of the bodies of the insects. 

A more detailed account of the life history of the insect will be found 
in Insect Life (Vol. VII, No. 4). 

THE PEACH LECANIUM. 

(Lecanium persicce Modeer — figs. 41 and 42.) 

Original home and present distribution. — This insect is European in 
its origin. Its natural history was detailed at some length one hundred 
and fifty years ago by Eeaumur, and it has since been mentioned many 
times by European authors. It is at present widespread in this coun- 
try, but the date and manner of its introduction can not be definitely 



SOME SCALE INSECTS OF THE ORCHARD. 271 

ascertained. Actual receipt of specimens at the United States Depart- 
ment of Agriculture shows that it occurs at Jamaica, Ithaca, and Shell- 
drake,]^. Y.; Chamber sburg, Columbia, Leechburg, and Lancaster, Pa.; 
Newark, Del.; in many localities in Maryland; Washington, D. C; 
Cresson, Ya.; Holidays Cove, W. Ya.; East Carmel, Ohio; Kirkwood, 
Mo.; in Jasper and Jefferson counties, Mo. ; Mammoth Springs, Ark.; 
and at Las Cruces, K Mex. If it occurs elsewhere than in Europe and 
North America the fact is disguised by synonymy. 

Food plants. — As its name indicates, this insect is a specific enemy 
to the peach. It clusters upon the twigs and smaller limbs of peach 
trees in such masses as completely to cover the bark, and frequently to 
cause the death of young trees. 

Life history and habits. — As above stated, the life history of the insect 
was described in some detail by Keaumur. Bouche described the male 
insect, which he stated was found in April, but Signoret never met with 
it. The different stages of the insect are well illustrated by the figures, 
and most of the stages may be found at different times during the sum- 
mer months. The insect appears to overwinter mainly in the advanced 
female condition, in which stage it is a hemispherical, slightly elon- 
gated, brown, rather hard object, 2.5 to 4 mm. in diameter. During 
the summer of 1893, at Professor Eiley's direction, Miss Murtfeldt, at 
Kirkwood, Mo., studied the life history to some extent, and her obser- 
vations are recorded upon pages 41-44, Bulletin 32, of the Division of 
Entomology, United States Department of Agriculture. She shows 
that the eggs are fully formed by the 20th of May. They are half a milli- 
meter long, pale yellow in color, and rest free in the mass. The young 
began to hatch June 10, and continued to hatch for nearly a month. 
By July 15 hatching was completed, and in the meantime those first 
hatched, of which part were separated and kept on fresh twigs in a 
rearing jar, had nearly all become stationary on the leaves and trans- 
formed to male pupae. Twigs from the living tree at this date had the 
foliage covered with the young in all stages. On the 22d July winged 
males appeared, the pupal period being about one week. The males 
remained alive for about a week. Their most striking peculiarity con- 
sists in the apparent lack of poisers, or rudimentary hind wings. The 
female scales were nearly half grown at this time, and later darkened in 
color, thickened, and became centrally elevated. There seemed to be 
but a single generation annually, and the best time for remedial work 
against the young will, therefore, be from the end of the first week in 
June until a month from that time. 

Where the insects crowd the twigs abundantly a perceptible amount 
of honeydew is found to be excreted. A smut fungus develops upon 
this honeydew, which eventually covers the scale mass, and many of 
the scales are destroyed. On one tree which has been under the writer's 
observation the scales clustered most abundantly on the underside of 
the twigs. The honeydew secreted by these individuals dropped upon 
the upper surface of the twigs immediately beneath. This upper sur-- 



272 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

face of the twigs, therefore, while comparatively free from scales, was 
covered with the fungus, which gradually extended around to the 
underside and affected the rows of scales, which themselves were drop 
ping honeydew upon other still lower twigs. In October, 1894, it was 
with difficulty that a single living scale was found, but the entire tree- 
had become greatly enfeebled from their earlier attacks. 

THE NEW YORK PLUM LECANIUM. 
(Lecanium prunastri Fonsc.) 

There are certainly three distinct species of the genus Lecanium 
which affect the plum in the United States. Two of these pass the 
winter in the flat larval condition, attached to the twigs, and the third 
hibernates, like the peach Lecanium, as a nearly full-grown, rounded 
female. One of these three species has, within the last two years, 
attracted a great deal of attention in western New York, and has done 
a great deal of damage. It has been decided by Mr. Newstead, of 
Chester, England, that it is identical with the European species above 
named. It has been closely studied by Mr. Slingerland, of the Cor- 
nell University Experiment Station. From the bulletin which he has 
published about it, as well as from specimens sent to the writer by 
New York correspondents, it appears that while the species is quite 
widely spread throughout New York, it exists at present in alarming 
numbers only in several large orchards near Geneva, Eochester, and 
Lockport. In July the young scales hatch, and remain small in size 
throughout the remainder of the summer, autumn, and winter. They 
spread out upon the leaves at first, and toward fall return to the 
branches. In April they resume activity, and soon begin to grow with 
considerable rapidity. The males and females resemble, in general, the 
peach Lecanium shown in the figures illustrating the preceding species. 
About the end of May the females begin to lay their eggs, which hatch, 
as before stated, about the first of July. 

REMEDIES FOR ORCHARD SCALES. 

The washes which have been used against scale insects have been 
almost innumerable. Lye, soda, tobacco water, dry ashes, tar, fish 
brine, potash, sulphur, common brine, soap, quassia, and aloes solutions, 
the ammoniacal fumes of sheep manure, and compounds of two, three, 
and four of these ingredients, were mentioned by Walsh as having 
been recommended before his time. He proved, by an elaborate series 
of experiments, that a strong solution of soap will kill the oyster- shell 
bark louse shortly after it hatches out. Petroleum or kerosene, he 
stated, would kill the eggs. He further speaks of the experience of 
many prominent fruit growers of the time, among them that of Mr. J. 
L. Budd, who had found that ten parts of benzine and four of soap 
afforded a good remedy against bark lice. Here was evidently an early 
though imperfect emulsion. The recommendations of Comstock in 
1880 followed rather closely the results of California experiments. 



SOME SCALE INSECTS OF THE ORCHARD. 



273 



His efforts to make a good kerosene-milk emulsion, on the recommenda- 
tion of Riley in the Scientific American of October 16, 1880, were 
unsatisfactory. The two remedies which he urged most strongly were 
first, whale-oil soap at three-fourths of a pound to a gallon of water^ 
applied warm, and 1 pound of concentrated lye, 1 pint of gasoline 
or benzine, half a pint of oil, 5 gallons of water. The whale-oil soap 
he experimented with himself with good success, while of the lye-ben- 
zine-kerosene mixture he simply saw the results in the orchard of Mr. 
V. C. Mason, of California. The scale upon which these experiments 
were made was the California red scale of the orange. In the Annual 
Report of the United States Department of Agriculture for 1881-82 
Professor Comstock recommended the use of 1 pound of lye to 5 gallons 
of water, and quoted the experience of S. F. Chapin and Matthew 
Cooke in support of his recommendation. In the meantime the im- 
portant work of Mr. H. G. Hubbard in the perfecting of kerosene-soap 
emulsions against the scale insects of the orchard had been begun under 




Fig. 42.- Lecanium persicce : full-grown male scale at right; pupa next; adult male next; leaf 
with young male scales at left— last, natural size, other figures greatly enlarged (original). 

the direction of the former entomologist, Professor Eiley. These emul- 
sions, and particularly the one which has become adopted under the 
name " Riley-Hubbard formula," proved in the course of long experience 
to be perfect destroyers of newly hatched scale insects of all kinds, and, 
indeed, when the problem simply concerns the destruction of unprotected 
young w^e need look for no better or cheaper remedy. 

The kerosene emulsions, however, fall short of being perfect scale- 
insect remedies for the reason that certain scale insects do not give birth 
to their young at a definite or nearly definite time, and the spraying 
will have to be repeated frequently as more young hatch. This is par- 
ticularly the case with the San Jose scale, the new peach scale, and the 
greedy scale. The desideratum is a wash which by one or at most two 
applications will kill the insect. The young hatch in the summer time, 
and applications at this time of the year have to be comparatively weak 

1234a 94 11 



274 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

in order not to injure the foliage. Winter washes, therefore, are the 
ones to be desired. In the application of winter washes Californians 
have had a great deal of experience, but experience in California is not 
a safe guide for orchardists in the East. The long dry spells in Cali- 
fornia admit of the application and efficacious work of washes over long 
periods during which they will not be washed off by rain. This fact 
operates in the East against the work of resin washes, which have been 
proved to be efficacious in many cases in California. Moreover, the 
California winter is much milder than that of our more northern and 
eastern States and there is no perfect hibernation of scale insects. 
Their winter dormancy is by no means as complete as it is with the same 
species in the East. This more perfect dormancy in the East renders 
the insect much more resistant to the action of washes. From these 
facts it results that not only are the resin washes of little avail for 
winter use in the major part of the country, but also that the lime, salt, 
and sulphur, and lime, sulphur, and blue vitriol washes, so highly 
recommended on the Pacific Coast, have by no means the same effect 
east of the Eocky Mountains. 

Two of our common orchard scales, viz, the scurfy bark louse and the 
oyster-shell bark louse, hibernate in the egg state, and their hatching 
is comparatively uniform. The approximate date throughout the mid- 
dle belt of the country is from the middle to the end of May. More- 
over, the larvae are comparatively slow to settle, and the scale at first is 
not very dense. Therefore one, or at the most two, applications of kero- 
sene-soap emulsion, diluted with ten parts of water, made about the 
first of June, will hold these two species well in check. Both species 
hibernate in the egg state, and the eggs, particularly of the oyster- 
shell species, are difficult to destroy. The emulsion spray for the 
young is, however, sufficiently efficacious, so that the winter wash for 
the eggs is not necessary. 

The same condition of affairs holds to a great degree with the peach 
Lecanium. Here the insect does not hibernate in the egg state, and a 
strong winter wash will be more or less efficacious ; but as the eggs are 
laid and the young hatch quite uniformly through June, and as the 
young do not form scales, the kerosene-emulsion spray will here again 
prove the best solution to apply. 

With the San Jose scale, the greedy scale, and the new peach scale, 
and possibly with the walnut scale as well, the most satisfactory work 
can be done only with a winter wash. All of these species may be 
found in various stages of development at any time through the sum- 
mer months, and an emulsion spray at any given time will kill only a 
small proportion. Moreover, with the San Jose scale in particular, the 
young larva settles almost at once, and immediately begins secreting 
a dense scale which after forty-eight hours is practically impervious to 
the ordinary emulsion, diluted so as not to injure the foliage. It is true 
that from one locality it has been reported to us that a single spraying 
with the emulsion in June has rid a certain number of trees of the 



SOME SCALE INSECTS OF THE ORCHARD. 275 

insect, but in the light of our own experience this seems incredible. On 
the contrary, we have known during the past summer three sprayings 
with the emulsion to be made, beginning with the last week in May 
and covering a period from that time to the end of July, with the result 
that at the clofce of the season the trees were almost as badly infested 
with living insects as they were the previous winter. 

The question arises, in the case of these scales, What winter wash 
shall be applied ? Many different washes, in varying proportions, have 
been tried with great care during the winter of 1894-95. Up to the 
present writing but one absolutely satisfactory winter wash against 
this insect in this locality has been found. This is whale-oil soap, a 
pound and a half or 2 pounds to the gallon of water. This mixture 
killed every insect upon the trees to which it was applied, as was proved 
by a very thorough examination. Good whale-oil soap can hardly be 
bought for less than 4 cents per pound by the barrel, and this makes 
satisfactory winter treatment an expensive matter. The best recom- 
mendation that can be made from the present outlook, however, is to 
use this mixture soon after the leaves fall in the autumn, and then, if 
examination shows any survivors, to repeat it shortly before the buds 
open in the spring. It is very possible that at these two periods a 
somewhat weaker wash will suffice, but at the present writing satis- 
factory experiments in this direction have not been made. A good 
fish-oil soap may be made at home, which will be almost as satisfactory 
as whale-oil soap, but it will be found quite as expensive to make it as 
to buy it. 

The New York plum Lecanium may also be best treated by a winter 
wash, since it hibernates in the perfectly unprotected larval condition. 
The New York experimenters have found that a kerosene emulsion, in 
the proportions of one part of the standard emulsion to four parts of 
water, will answer if it is applied about three times. The recommen- 
dation is to spray once before winder closes in, and again in the spring, 
before April 1. If possible, spray also once during the interval. 

To recapitulate: From our present information the best results in 
the Eastern States against San Jose scale, the West Indian peach scale, 
the greedy scale, and the walnut scale will be obtained by the thorough 
application of a fish-oil or whale-oil soap solution at the rate of 2 
pounds to a gallon of water. The application should be made soon 
after the leaves fall in the autumn. 

For the oyster-shell bark louse, the scurfy louse, and the peach Leca- 
nium, one or two applications of kerosene-soap emulsion, diluted one 
part to ten of water, from the first to the last of June, will kill the 
young lice and prevent undue increase of the species. 

The gas treatment, which has been frequently mentioned in the pub- 
lications of the Division of Entomology, United States Department of 
Agriculture, will seldom be used in the East. It was tried in the spring 
of 1894 at Charlottesville, Va., against the San Jose scale. The Cali- 
fornia method, as adopted by Mr. D. W. Coquillett at Los Angeles, was 



276 YEARBOOK OF THE U. 8. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

used. The operation was at first supposed to be perfectly successful, 
but in the fall of 1894 a few scales were found to have escaped suffoca- 
tion. Moreover a certain number of the trees were injured more or less 
seriously by the operation. The only use which Eastern fruit growers 
will have for the gas treatment will probably be in the fumigation of 
affected nursery stock. The process is described in Farmers' Bulletin 
"No. 19 of the United States Department of Agriculture. 

PREVENTIVES— INSPECTION AND QUARANTINE LAWS. 

One who has read the foregoing account of our eight principal scale- 
insect enemies to deciduous orchard trees can not fail to be impressed 
by the unrestricted ease with which these insects are spreading and lrave 
spread through the country. Orchardists do not seem to have examined 
new nursery stock, and by this neglect have laid the foundation for 
great future damage, not only to their own tree property but to that 
of their entire neighborhood. Nurserymen seem to have been equally 
careless in sending out stock without prior examination or treatment. 
Moreover, five of the eight species mentioned have been imported from 
abroad. In the Eastern and Mid-western States there are absolutely 
no restrictions to the free spread by commerce of injurious insects of all 
kinds. California, a number of years ago, saw the danger in unrestricted 
commerce in fruits and nursery stock. She established a horticultural 
commission and her legislature passed a wise law, which, if perfectly 
enforced, would protect that State in large degree from such evils. 
Her example has been followed by Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and 
Colorado. British Columbia has lately enforced such regulations, and 
several of the Australian colonies, as well as New Zealand, have put in 
operation legal regulations which will bring about the desired result. 
Agricultural and horticultural societies are beginning to agitate the 
question of protection in the Eastern States. The United States Depart- 
ment of Agriculture has just issued a bulletin (No. 33 of the Division 
of Entomology) in which the insect laws of the Western States have 
been brought together. Using any of these laws as a guide, committees 
of State horticultural societies can draft resolutions calling upon State 
legislatures for action in this direction. 

In the meantime all persons purchasing nursery stock are advised to 
require, from the dealers from whom they purchase, guaranties as to 
the freedom of the stock from injurious scale insects at least; and it 
is further advised that nurserymen take such measures as will enable 
them advisedly to give such guaranties. The nurseryman who first 
advertises that all of the nursery stock which he sends out has been 
thoroughly fumigated with hydrocyanic-acid gas, or who can furnish a 
certificate from his State entomologist as to the freedom of his estab- 
lishment from injurious insects, will not only have done a good stroke 
of business directly, but will have the prestige of a pioneer in a wise 
and patriotic movement. 



THE MORE IMPORTANT INSECTS INJURIOUS TO STORED 

GRAIN. 

By F. H. Chittenden, 
Assistant Entomologist, U. 8. Department of Agriculture. 

After the grain lias escaped the ravages of its many insect enemies 
in the field, and is harvested and in the bin, it is subject to the attack 
of insects of several species popularly known as weevils. 

The experience of many years, including the present, shows that 
there is great need among farmers and others of information in regard 
to the insects that are destructive to stored grain, and of the measures 
that may be employed for protection and remedy against them. To 
supply this want is the object of the present article. In its preparation 
published information has been drawn upon, and there have been incor- 
porated new data from the records of this division and from personal 
observation and experiment. Technical matter has been excluded, and 
with the aid of the accompanying illustrations and simple descriptions 
the intelligent farmer, miller, or merchant who handles grain, will be 
able to recognize the different grain-feeding species in their various 
stages, and with the brief accounts given of their habits and the nature 
of their injuries will be prepared to guard against these insects and to 
destroy them when present in the granary, mill, or storehouse. 

Of the two score species of insects of most common occurrence in 
stored cereals and cereal products, there are three that live in their ado- 
lescent stages entirely within the kernel or grain. These are the gran- 
ary weevil, rice weevil, and Angoumois grain moth, the commonest and 
most injurious species, both in America and abroad. The remainder 
live on grain, both in the kernel and when ground up into flour and meal 
and feed also on various other stored products. 



Of the species known to attack stored cereals in the United States 
nearly all have been introduced and are now cosmopolitan, having been 
distributed by commerce to all quarters of the globe. In fact, no insects 
are more easily carried from one land to another, since they breed con- 
tinuously for years in the same grain, and are transported when in an 
immature state in the kernels. 

In their native homes in the tropics, and even in our Southern 
States, these insects live an outdoor life, but in the colder countries of 
the temperate zone and in our Northern States they lead an artificial 

277 



278 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

or domestic existence, the beetles, particularly, with few exceptions, 
passing their entire lives wholly within doors, being, therefore, depend- 
ent upon man for their subsistence. 

The various species of insects that attack stored grain as well as 
pease and beans are indiscriminately but erroneously called weevils, or 
simply "weevil," but the only true grain weevils are the rice weevil 
and granary weevil. 

When it is considered that grain constitutes the chief article of diet 
of man, and that these insects have found their way to every tropical 
and temperate region where grain grows, it may be said without fear 
of contradiction that they are entitled to front rank among noxious 
insects. 

NATURE AND EXTENT OF DAMAGE. 

In addition to the loss in weight occasioned by these insects, grain 
infested by them is unfit for human consumption, and has been known 
to cause serious illness. Nor is such grain desirable for food for stock. 
Horses, it has been experimentally proved, are injured by being fed 
with "weevily" grain, and it is somewhat doubtful if such material is 
fit even for swine. Poultry, however, feed upon it with impunity. 
"Weeviled" grain is also unfit for seed stock, as its use is apt to be 
followed by a diminution in the yield of a crop. 

As regards the insect injury to stored grain in this country, one 
writer has estimated that there is "an annual loss of over $1,000,000 
from weevils in Texas alone," and that nearly 50 per cent of the corn 
in that State is annually destroyed by weevils and rats. Another 
writer has expressed the opinion that the annual loss to Texas from 
the injury to grain in the field and in the bins will amount to hundreds 
of thousands of dollars. The loss from granary insects to the corn 
crop in Alabama in 1893 was estimated at $1,671,382, or about 10 per 
cent. 

PARASITES AND NATURAL ENEMIES. 

It might be supposed that insects which live a retired indoor exist- 
ence would be comparatively free from parasitic and other enemies, but 
such is not the case. 

It has been estimated of one species, the granary weevil, that one 
pair in the course of a year would jiroduce 6,000 individuals. The 
moths are still more prolific, and as there are six or more broods of 
some species annually, it will be seen that if all the eggs of one indi- 
vidual and her offspring develop there would be produced in one year 
a whole myriad of the insects, sufficient to destroy many tons of grain. 

Fortunately, there are several natural checks to the undue increase 
of these insects. One of them is a diminutive mite which preys upon 
various species. The spiders that inhabit mills and granaries entrap 
the moths, and in the field they are preyed upon by nocturnal insects 
as well as by birds and bats. 



INSECTS INJURIOUS TO STORED GRAIN. 



279 



The grain weevils are often parasitized, three or four chalcis flies 
having been recognized as their enemies. The Angoumois moth has a 
specific parasite, as has also the saw-toothed grain beetle ; two or three 
parasites are known to prey upon the Mediterranean flour moth ; another 
infests the Indian meal moth and wolf moth, and several other granary 
insects are known to have parasites. 

The good work that is sometimes done by parasites in limiting the 
multiplication of their grain-feeding hosts is exemplified in a case cited 
of Ephestia Jcuehniella being destroyed by a parasite when other means 
had failed to dislodge it in the warehouses which it had invaded. 



THE GRANARY WEEVIL. 



(Calandria granaria Linn.) 



The granary weevil is the "curculio" and "weevil" of early writings, 
and in the Georgics of Virgil there is evidence that the insect and its 
ravages were known before the Christian era. It is probable that 
this, as well as some other 
cosmopolitan species that are 
generally supposed to have 
originally inhabited the Ori- 
ent, is native to the Mediter- 
ranean region. Having be- 
come domesticated ages ago, 
it has long since lost the use 
of its wings, which are pres- 
ent only as mere rudiments 
and useless as organs of 
flight. It is strictly a gran- 
ary insect, and is apparently 
perfectly naturalized in re- 
gions much farther north 
than are inhabited by the 
rice weevil. 

Tho orlnlf crranarv wppvil FlG " 43 '~ Calandra granaria: a, adult beetle; b, larva; c, 

Ine adult granary weevil pupa;dj0a?andmor ^ beetle _ allenlarged( o r i g inai). 
is a small, flattened snout- 
beetle of the family Calandridse, measuring from an eighth to a sixth 
of an inch, being on an average a trifle larger than the rice weevil, 
from which it differs in being of a uniform shining chestnut- brown 
color, in having the thorax sparsely and longitudinally punctured, as 
indicated at figure 43, a, and in being wingless. The head is prolonged 
in front into a long snout or proboscis, at the end of which are the 
mandibles; the antennae are elbowed and are attached to the proboscis. 

The larva is legless, considerably shorter than the adult, white in 
color, very robust, fleshy, and of the form shown in the illustration 
(b). The pupa, shown at e, is also white, clear, and transparent, exhib- 
iting the general characters of the future beetle. 




280 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

The female punctures the grain with her snout and inserts an egg, 
and from this is hatched a larva which devours the farinaceous interior 
and undergoes its transformations within the hull. In wheat, barley, 
and other small grains a single larva inhabits a kernel, but a kernel of 
maize furnishes food for several individuals. 

The time required for the completion of the life cycle varies with the 
season and climate, and the number of generations annually produced 
is consequently dependent upon temperature. As a result, writings on 
this subject show a noticeable disagreement. One writer says that the 
period of development for the rice weevil varies from three to eight 
weeks, and that there are probably at least eight generations annually. 
There is one case on record in which, in England, thirteen weeks were 
consumed in the development of a single generation. The earlier Euro- 
pean writers agree that there are but two broods of the granary weevil 
annually in that quarter. It is not probable that there is much varia- 
tion in the development of these two species. The writer has carried 
both species through from agg to adult in shelled corn in forty-one days, 
or about six weeks, but it is possible that under exceptionally favorable 
conditions this period may be somewhat shorter. There are probably 
four or five broods in this latitude and six or more in our Southern States. 

The chief injury done by the granary weevil is to wheat, maize, and 
barley, but it also attacks other grains and is very partial to pearl 
barley and to the chick-pea (Cicer arietinum), a leguminous seed culti- 
vated for food in the tropics. 

Unlike the moths which attack grain, the adult weevils feed also upon 
the kernels, gnawing into them for food and for shelter, and, being 
quite long lived, probably do even more damage than their larvae. 

The writer has kept the beetles alive for several months, and others 
claim to have kept individuals under observation for upward of a year. 
Egg laying continues over an extended period, and it will be seen that 
a single pair and their progeny are capable in a short time of fcausing 
considerable mischief. 

THE RICE WEEVIL. 

(Calandra oryza Linn.) 1 

The rice weevil derives both its popular and Latin name from rice 
(oryza), in which it was first found by its discovarer. It is conceded to 
have originated in India, whence it has been diffused by commerce until 
it is now established in most of the grain-growing countries of the 
world. There is no record of the occurrence of this insect in Europe 
earlier than 1763, when the species was described by Linnaeus, but it 
was probably imported into southern Europe many years prior to that 
time. From Europe it was introduced into America, and at the present 

] The specific name of the rice weevil has uniformly been spelled "oryzce" by all 
writers since the time of Linnaeus, but the original spelling is oryza, (See Amcen 
Acad., Vol. VI, p. 395.) 



INSECTS INJURIOUS TO STORED GRAIN. 281 

time is as widely distributed and injurious as any known insect. It is 
a serious pest in the Southern States, where it is commonly, though 
erroneously, known as u black weevil," but farther north it is of less 
importance. It occurs, however, in every State and Territory in the 
Union and occasionally invades Canada and Alaska, 

In olden times long voyages were necessary in importing grain from 
the East, and damage by the rice weevil, when whole cargoes were 
often lost, was much heavier than at present. But the losses occa- 
sioned by this insect are still enormous, particularly in India, Mexico, 
South America, and other tropical countries. 

The rice weevil resembles the preceding species in size and in general 
appearance. It is dull brown in color; the thorax is densely pitted 
with round punctures; the elytra, or wing cases, are ornamented with 
four more or less distinct red spots, arranged as in the illustration 
(fig. 44, d), and it has well-developed and serviceable wings. The larvae 
and pupae are also similar to those of the granary weevil, and in habits 
and life history it does not differ materially from that species. 

The question whether or not this insect ever lays its eggs in grain in 
the field has been the occasion of some discussion and of unsatisfactory 
experiment abroad, but we have the testimony of several experienced 
entomologists that the insect is of very common occurrence in grain 
fields in the South, remote from granaries. 

Although the rice weevil feeds upon the grain of rice, it thrives 
equally well, seemingly better, on wheat, particularly the soft varie- 
ties, and on maize. It also breeds freely in the cultivated varieties of 
sorghum (Andropogon sorghu?n) 7 known variously as Guinea corn, Kaffir 
or Jerusalem corn, millet, etc. ; in barley, rye, hulled oats, buckwheat, 
chick-peas, and Job's tears ( Coixa lachryma). Unhusked rice is particu- 
larly exempt from its attacks, and the husk of oats similarly protects 
this cereal. Corn in the ear and unhulled barley are not so exposed 
to infestation as the shelled or hulled seed, but are by no means exempt, 
as has been stated by some writers. 

The adult beetles attack a great variety of food products not affected 
by the larvae. When abundant in storehouses and groceries they in- 
vade boxes of crackers, cakes, yeast cakes, macaroni, and other bread- 
stuffs, barrels and bins of flour and meal, and can subsist for months 
on sugar. They are even said to burrow into ripening and overripe 
peaches, grapes, and mulberries, and to attack hemp seed, chestnuts, 
and table beans. 

THE ANGOUMOIS GRAIN MOTH. 

(Gelechia cerealella 01.) 

The Angoumois grain moth derives its name from the province of 
Angoumois, France, where it is said to have been injurious for nearly a 
century and a half. It probably originated, with the granary weevil, 
in the Mediterranean region, and possibly in southern Europe. In this 
country it is familiarly but incorrectly called the "fly weevil." 



282 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



The history of this insect in Europe dates back to 1736 ? when B6au- 
mur found it damaging stored barley in France, but the moth was not 
described until 1789. In America an account by Ool. Landon Carter, 
published in 1771, brought out the fact that injuries from this species 
began in North Carolina as early as 1728. 

From the seat of its original introduction this moth has spread to 
neighboring States in the South, where it does incalculable damage, 
and to the southern portions of the Northern States, where it is less 
injurious. It is occasionally troublesome as far north as Canada, and 
has been reported as doing serious damage in Australia and India. 
The work of the writer at the Columbian Exposition would indicate 
that it has now become cosmopolitan, as it was found there in a 
majority of the cereal exhibits of the tropical and warmer temperate 
countries. 

In Europe the favorite food of the Angoumois moth is said to have 
been barley ; in America its chief injury is to corn and wheat, but it 

infests also all the other 
cereals, as well as buck- 
wheat, chick-peas, and, it is 
said, cowpeas. It has been 
estimated that in six months 
grain infested by this moth 
loses 40 per cent in weight 
and 75 per cent of farina- 
ceous matter. In addition 
to the loss in weight, the 

T?iQ.44.—Gelechia cercalella: a, larva; &, pupa; c, $ moth- • • +o£j}J]y unfit for food 

e i egg; /, kernel of corn opened, showing larva feeding ; ® m ' 

h, anal segment of pupa— all enlarged except /. (From and it has been SaiU that 

Eiiey in Ann. nept. Dept. Agr., 1884.) bread made from wheat 

injured by this moth was the cause of an epidemic in certain regions of 
France infested by the species. 

This insect is a small moth of the family Gelechiidte and resembles 
somewhat our familiar clothes moths, for which species, indeed, it is 
often mistaken. It is light grayish brown in color, more or less lined 
and spotted with black, and measures across the expanded fore wings 
about half an inch (see fig. 44, c). The hind wings are bordered with 
a long, delicate fringe. 

The moth normally deposits its eggs in standing grain, singly or in 
clusters of from 20 to 30. The eggs, shown at figure 44, e, are red in color 
and hatch in from four to seven days, when the minute caterpillars 
burrow into the kernels and feed on the interior. A single larva 
inhabits a grain of the smaller cereals, but in maize sustenance is 
afforded for two, three, or more individuals. Figure 45 represents an 
ear of pop-corn infested by this moth. In about three weeks' time 
the caterpillar attains full growth (see fig. 44, a), when, without leav- 
ing the kernel, it spins a thin, silken cocoon in which it transforms to a 




INSECTS INJURIOUS TO STORED GRAIN. 



283 






chrysalis (fig. 44, b), the moth emerging a few days later, the entire 
period from egg to adult embracing in summer from four to five weeks. 
After copulation, the moth soon deposits her eggs for another brood, and 
in this manner several generations of the insect 
are produced in the course of a year. The older 
writers believed that the species was normally 
double-brooded, but as the insect breeds con- 
tinuously in the harvested grain, there is now 
an irregular development which is influenced 
by temperature. In this latitude there are 
probably five or six generations annually. Mr. 
H. E. Weed estimates that in the warmer cli- 
mate of Mississippi, where the insect can breed 
uninterruptedly during the winter months, 
there are at least eight generations. 

In some respects the Angoumois grain moth 
is more troublesome than any of the other 
granary insects. Even as far north as central 
Pennsylvania it lays its eggs on grain in the 
field, and it is, therefore, impossible to entirely 
prevent infestation. 

The custom of leaving the harvested grain 
in stack in the field for weeks before thrashing, 
in vogue in some parts of our country, is the 
cause of perhaps the greatest proportion of 
infestation. The introduction of the insect 
into the granary through this channel may be 
practically prevented in the case of the smaller 
cereals by harvesting and thrashing as soon as 
possible after the grain reaches maturity. If, 
after the removal of the old grain from bins, 
these are thoroughly cleaned and fumigated 
before the introduction of fresh grain, the 
chances of injury are reduced to a minimum. 

This, as well as the other granary moths is 
soft, delicate, and easily crushed, and is unable, 
when buried beneath a large mass of grain, to 
extricate itself; hence storing the grain in bulk 
and stirring, shoveling, or agitating by other 
means is productive of the best results with 
this insect. 






Pig. 45. — Ear of pop-corn showing 
work of Angoumois grain moth. 
(From Riley in Ann. Eept. Dept. 

Agr., 1884.) 



THE MEDITERRANEAN FLOUR MOTH. 

(JEphestia Jcuehniella Zell.) 

This scourge of the flour mill, as it is called, has attracted much 
attention of recent years and has been the subject of many articles 
and bulletins. Until the year 1877, when the moth was discovered in a 



284 YEARBOOK OF THE U. & DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



flour mill in German y, it was comparatively unknown. In later years 
it invaded Belgium and Holland, and in 1887 appeared in England. 
Two years later it made its appearance in destructive numbers in 
Canada. 

That the Mediterranean flour moth has become so formidable in recent 
years is due to the higher and more equable temperature maintained in 
modern mills, a condition highly favorable to the development of the 
insect. 

Previous to the Canadian invasion this moth was generally believed 
to have reached Europe from America, but, as a matter of fact, the 
species had not been recognized here until 1889. JDanysz has traced 
its occurrence in this country back as far as 1880. He mentions also 
an outbreak in Constantinople in 1872 and presents evidence that it was 
probably known in Europe as early as 1840. Until the present year 
this insect was known as injurious on this continent only in Canada 
and California, but in the American Miller of May 1, 1895, Mr. W. G-. 
Johnson states that it has appeared in New York State. It is recorded 

also from North Caroli- 
na, Alabama, New Mex- 
ico, Colorado, Mexico, 
and Chile, and probably 
occurs in Australia. 

The adult moth has a 
wing extension of a lit- 
tle less than an inch; 
the fore wings are pale 
leaden gray, with trans- 
verse black markings of 
the pattern shown in the 
accompanying illustration (fig. 46, a); the hind wings are dirty- whitish, 
semitransparent, and with a darker border. The caterpillar is illus- 
trated at c, e, and the chrysalis at d. 

The caterpillars form cylindrical silken tubes in which they feed and 
transform to chrysalids, and it is this habit of web spinning that ren- 
ders the insect so injurious where it once obtains a foothold. The flour 
becomesfelted together and lumpy, and the machinery becomes clogged 
and necessitates frequent and prolonged stoppage, resulting in a short 
time in the loss of thousands of dollars in large establishments. Upon 
attaining full growth the caterpillar usually leaves its original silken 
domicile and forms a new web, which becomes a cocoon, in which to 
undergo its transformations to pupa and to imago. 

Although the larva prefers flour or meal, it will attack grain when 
the former are not available, and it flourishes also on bran, prepared 
cereal foods, including buckwheat grits, and crackers. It has recently 
been discovered that this moth is inquilinous in the nests of a wild 
bumblebee in California, and Mr. D. W. Coquillett reports that it also 
occurs in the hives of the honey bee. 




Fig. 46.—Ephestia kuehniella: a, moth ; 6, moth, from side, resting; 
c, larva; d, pupa — enlarged, e, abdominal joint of larva— more 
enlarged (b, c, e, from Insect Life ; a and d, original) . 



INSECTS INJURIOUS TO STORED GRAIN. 



285 



M. Danysz lias demonstrated that the insect is able to complete its 
life cycle in from two to two and a half months, but from experiments 
conducted during the year at Washington it is estimated that under 
the most favorable conditions, i. e., in the warmest weather, the life 
cycle consumes about five weeks. In its outdoor life there are proba- 
bly not more than two or three broods in the year, but in well-heated 
mills or other buildings six or more generations may be produced. 

This insect is rapidly becoming distributed throughout the civilized 
world, but as yet its range is limited. As might be inferred from its 
alarming destructiveness in Great Britain and Canada, this moth is 
peculiarly qualified for an indoor existence in much colder climates 
than most other grain insects. 

When a mill is found to be infested, the entire building should be 
fumigated, and in case a whole district becomes overrun, the greatest 
care must be observed not to spread the infestation. Uninfested mills 
should be tightly closed at night and every bushel of grain, every bag 
or sack, brought into the mill, subjected to a quarantine process, being 
disinfected either by heat or bisulphide of carbon. 

THE INDIAN-MEAL MOTH. 




(Plodia interpunctella Huebn.) 

A phycitid moth allied to the preceding and known as the Indian- 
meal moth is widely distributed and injurious to a great variety of 
edibles. It is nearly omnivorous, 
feeding on grain and farinaceous 
products of all kinds, driedfruits, 
seeds and nuts of various sorts, 
condiments, roots, and herbs. It 
is even injurious to dried insects 
in cabinets, and is said to feed on 
sugar, jellies, and yeast cakes, 
and is occasionally troublesome 
in bee hives. In short, this 
moth is an all-around nuisance 
in granaries and stores and in 
the household. It is the cater- 
pillars of this species which are so often found in dried apples, currants, 
raisins, English walnuts, etc. 

The adult moth, as will be seen by reference to the accompanying 
illustration (fig. 47, a), resembles in general contour Ephestia Tcuehniella. 
It measures across the expanded wings between a half and three-fourths 
of an inch. The inner third of the fore wings is dirty whitish gray, and 
the outer two-thirds is reddish brown, with a dull coppery luster. The 
caterpillar is shown at c, e, and d, and the chrysalis at b. 

Aside from its oinnivorousness, the habits of the Indian-meal moth 
are essentially the same as those of the preceding species. The larvae 



e 

Fig. 47.— Plodia interpunctella: a, moth; 6, chrysalis; 
c, caterpillar — somewhat enlarged; d, head, and c, 
first abdominal segment of caterpillar—more en- 
larged (original). 



286 YEARBOOK OP THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

surround themselves with cylindrical silken webs, in which they feed 
and undergo their transformations. 

Experiments conducted during the past year show that the insect 
is capable of passing through all its several stages, from egg to 
adult, in thirty- three days, which furnishes a possibility of six, seven, 
or even more generations in the heated atmosphere in which it habit- 
ually lives. 

THE MEAL SNOUT-MOTH. 

(Pyralis farinalis Linn.) 

A moth belonging to the family Pyralidse often occurs in barns and 
other buildings wherever farinaceous products are housed. In Europe, 
where it is known as the " meal moth," it has long been known as a 
domestic nuisance, and in this country it is evidently on the increase. 
The meal snout-moth is slightly larger than any of the species pre- 
viously mentioned, having a wing expanse of nearly an inch. The 
groundcolor is light brown, with reddish reflections ; the thorax and 

the dark patches at its sides and near the 
tips of the fore wings are darker brown. 
The wavy, transverse lines of the wings 
are whitish, and form the pattern indi- 
cated in the illustration (fig. 48, a). The 
caterpillar and chrysalis are figured, 
natural size, at b and c, respectively. 

Fig. 48.— Pyralis farinalis : a, adult motli ; m , , ^ ., _ , _ n . , 

6, larva; c, chrysalis-natural size; d t Tne habits of the meal snout-moth are 

head of larva; e, anal segment of same; similar to those of the two preceding 
/, tip of pupa-enlarged (original). ^^ ^ caterpiUar const ructS long 

tubes of silk and particles of the meal or other food in which it lives, 
and when present in mills hides away, particularly in the pupating 
season, in machinery and other places where it would be objectionable. 
European authorities state that the insect is biennial in development, 
but this is a subject requiring further investigation. It lives on cereals 
of all kinds and in all conditions, either in the kernel or in the form of 
flour, meal, or bran, and even, it is said, in the straw. It also attacks 
other seeds, and dried plants in herbaria, and injures hay after the 
manner of the related clover-hay worm (Pyralis costalis). Yery recently 
it has been reported injurious to potatoes. 

THE WOLF MOTH. 
(Tinea granella Linn.) 

Still another moth, kno^n as the wolf moth or little grain moth, does 
considerable injury to stored cereals in Europe ; but as it is not partic- 
ularly destructive in America, requires only passing mention. This 
species is of about the size of the Angoumois moth, creamy white in 
color, thickly mottled with brown. Like the latter, it is known to ovi- 
posit in grain in the field. It infests cereals of all sorts, and a single 




INSECTS INJURIOUS TO STORED GRATN. 



287 



caterpillar is capable of great damage, as it has a habit of passing from 
one grain to another, spinning them together with its webs as it goes 
nntil twenty or thirty grains are spoiled. When fnll grown the caterpil- 
lars crawl all abont the infested mass, leaving their webs everywhere, 
thus injuring even more than they consume. 



THE SAW-TOOTHED GRAIN BEETLE. 

(Silvanus surinamensis Linn.) 

This little beetle is widely distributed over the entire globe, and is of 
common occurrence in granaries, in groceries, in dwelling houses, and in 
barns, and, in fact, almost everywhere where edibles are stored. It is 
nearly omnivorous, infesting grain and seeds of all sorts, flour, meal, 
bran, screenings, breadstuff's, and other comestibles. It has been 
reported as specially in- 
jurious in different years 
in Michigan, Mississippi, 
Oregon, Delaware, and 
other States, and has been 
the subject of a series of 
experiments at the Ore- 
gon and Delaware experi- 
ment stations. 

The insect is a clavi- 
corn beetle of the family 
Cucujidre. It is very 
small, only about one- 
tenth of an inch long, 
slender, much flattened, 
and of a dark chocolate- 
brown color. The antennae are clavate, and the thorax has two shal- 
low longitudinal grooves on the upper surface and bears six saw-like 
teeth on each side, as shown at figure 49, a. 

The larva, as will be noticed by reference to the illustration (c), 
has six legs. It is exceedingly active, and does not pass its life wholly 
within a single seed, but runs about nibbling here and there. After 
attaining its growth the larva attaches itself to some convenient surface 
and constructs a covering by joining together small grains or fragments 
of infested material by means of a silken substance which it secretes, 
and within this case the pupa (b) and afterwards the adult states are 
assumed. From data acquired by experiment during the year it is esti- 
mated that there are six or seven generations of this insect annually in 
the latitude of the District of Columbia. During the summer months 
the life cycle requires but twenty- four days; in spring, from six to ten 
weeks. At Washington, it has been learned, the species winters over, 
in the adult state, even in a well-warmed indoor atmosphere. 




Fig. 49.—Silvanus surinamenfris : a, adult beetle; &, pupa; c, 
larva— all enlarged; d, antenna of larva — still more enlarged 
(original). 



288 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 




Fig. 50.— Tribolium confusum : a, adult beetle; b, larva; c, pupa— all 
enlarged; d, lateral lobe of abdomen of pupa; e, head of beetle, 
showing antenna; /, same of T. ferrugineum — all greatly enlarged 
(original). 



THE FLOUR BEETLES. 

During the past year two little tenebriouid beetles, popularly known 
as " flour weevils," viz, Tribolium confusum and T. ferrugineum, have 
occasioned considerable alarm among millers, flour and feed dealers, 
grocers, and dealers in patent foods. The two species resemble each 

other so closely that 
it is only with the 
aid of a magnifying 
glass that a differ- 
ence can be detected, 
and their habits are 
also very similar. 

For many years 
these insects have 
been known in Eu- 
rope as enemies of 
meal, flour, grain, 
and other stored 
products, and even 
as pests in the mu- 
seums. Although 
they live in grain, 
their chief damage, probably, is to flour and to patented articles of diet 
containing farinaceous matter. The eggs are deposited in the flour, 
and these and the young larvae, being minute and pale in color, are not 
noticed; but after the flour has been barreled or sealed up in boxes 
and left unopened for any 
length of time the adult bee- 
tles make their appearance, 
and in due course the flour is 
ruined. A part of the trouble 
caused to purchaser, dealer, 
and manufacturer is due to 
the fact that the insects are 
highly offensive, a few speci- 
mens being sufficient to im- 
part a disagreeable and per- 
sistent odor to the infested 
substance. 

I In addition to the two spe- 
cies of Tribolium, there is 
another similar beetle that 
attacks grain, viz, the slender-horned flour beetle (Echocerus maxil- 
losus), which will be mentioned hereafter. 

The confused flour beetle (Tribolium confusum Buv.) is a minute, 
reddish-brown beetle, elongate and depressed, of the appearance repre- 




Fig. 51. — Echocerus maxillosus: a, larva; &, pupa; c, adult 
male— all enlarged (original). 



INSECTS INJURIOUS TO STORED GRAIN. 289 

sented in the illustration (fig. 50, a), and the size indicated by the hair line. 
It is separable from ferrugineum chiefly by the structure of the antenna, 
which is gradually clavate, as may be seen at e. The head, it will be 
noticed, also differs from that of ferriigineum, shown at /. The general 
characters of the larva are illustrated at Z>, and the pupa at e and d. 

From experiment during the year it was learned that this species, 
in an exceptionally high temperature, is capable of undergoing its 
entire round of transformations in thirty-six days, but in spring and 
autumn weather it requires a much longer time. In well-heated build- 
ings, at this rate, there are at least four, and possibly five, broods 
during the year* 

The injuries reported of this species, as noted down in the records of 
the division, far outnumber those due to any other farinivorous insect. 
During the year the species has been received in a patented food pur- 
chased at a local grocery, in wheat from New Mexico, in flour from 
Massachusetts, in oatmeal, in flour and meal from Indiana, and in corn, 
peanuts, and seeds. We have also notes upon its feeding upon snuff, 
orris root, baking powder, rice chaff, graham flour, red pepper, and 
upon dried insects. During August this insect was reported as very 
destructive in western Massachusetts to flour received from different 
sources in the West, having been the cause of extensive damage and 
much annoyance to the interested parties. A Western miller having 
dealings in the East stated that he had also been troubled with this 
insect at Portland, Me., Boston, and New York. 

The rust-red flour beetle (Tribolium ferrugineum Duv.) resembles in 
general appearance the preceding species, but may be distinguished 
by the antenna having a distinct terminal three-jointed club (see fig. 
50, /). The larva and pupa also strongly resemble those of confusum. 
Within the year it was found to have damaged two lots of imported 
cotton seed at the Department. At the Columbian Exposition it was 
present in injurious numbers in most of the cereal exhibits from the 
tropics; also in cakes, yams, nuts, and seeds of many kinds. The spe- 
cies is widely distributed, and is common in the United States, par- 
ticularly throughout the South. 

The slender-horned flour beetle {Echocerm wiaocillosus Fab.) has habits 
similar to those of the two preceding species, and is of common occur- 
rence in the Southern States, where it lives on grain in the field as well 
as in the granary, and even under the bark of trees. This species is 
probably a native of tropical America, and although not positively 
known to have established itself north of southern Ohio, is gradually 
extending northward. It has recently been found in Washington breed- 
ing in shelled corn. It lives also in flour and meal. 

This beetle resembles Tribolium, but is lighter in color and a little 
smaller, measuring a trifle over an eighth of an inch in length. On 

1 A 94 12 



290 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

the head, between the eyes, are two pointed tubercles, and the man- 
dibles in the male are armed with a pair of slender, incurved horns. 
The insect in its several stages is illustrated at figure 51. 

THE SQUARE-NECKED GRAIN BEETLE. 

(Cathartus gemellatus Duv.)' 

An insect of some importance in the South is the square-necked or 
red grain beetle. It is undoubtedly identical with a European species, 
and in the United States occurs as far north as New York. 

The beetle is of about the same length as the saw-toothed species, to 
which it is nearly related and somewhat resembles ; but the head and 
thorax are nearly as broad as the abdomen; the thorax is nearly square, 
not serrated on the sides, and the color is shining reddish-brown. 

This species has received special mention by Townend Glover (Pat. 
Off. Bept., 1854, p. 66), and is treated in bulletins on grain insects 
recently issued by the Mississippi and Maryland stations. It breeds 
in corn in the field as well as in cotton bolls, and continues breeding in 
harvested grain. The eggs are laid at the base of the kernels, into 
which the larvae bore, and afterwards complete their transformations. 
Glover states that corn injured by this species has little chance of ger- 
minating, as the germ is nearly always first destroyed, and that this 
fact may, in some degree, account for the numerous failures of seed 
corn to grow, of which Southern planters so often complain. 

THE CADELLE. 

(Tenebroide8 mauritanicus Linn.) 

An account of the insect enemies of stored grain would not be com- 
plete without reference to Tenebroides mauritanicm, the larva of which 
is called by the French " cadelle." It has long been known to feed 
upon stored grain in Europe, where it is said to be extremely injurious* 
In this country it has never been reported as especially destructive, 
although of common occurence everywhere in grain infested with other 
insects. It is not, however, so injurious as many of the preceding 
species, as its predaceous habits partially offset its destructiveness. 
The question has been raised as to whether or not this species fed upon 
stored grain, the claim being made that it was strictly predaceous. 
Experiments conducted by the writer prove that the larva not only 
feeds upon grain, but is capable of very serious injury to seed corn 
from the habit it has of devouring the embryo or germ, going from 
kernel to kernel and destroying many more seeds than it consumes. It 
is also predaceous, both in the larval and adult stages, and even 
destroys its own kind. --*- 

'Some confusion exists in regard to the synonymy of this species. It is the Sil- 
vanus quadricolli8 Lee, and has been incorrectly referred to S, cassice Reiche. 



INSECTS INJURIOUS TO STORED GRAIN. 29 1 

The adult cadelle is an elongate, oblong, depressed beetle of a dark 
brown color and about a third of an inch in length. The larva is fleshy 
and very slender, and measures when full grown neary three-fourths of 
an inch. In color it is whitish, with a dark brown head. The three 
thoracic segments are also marked with dark brown, and the tail ter- 
minates in two dark, horny points. 

REMEDIES. 

The measures to be observed in the control of insects in stored grain 
are both preventive and remedial, but before taking up the considera- 
tion of the various remedies that may be used with more or less benefit, 
and the precautionary measures that may always be observed with 
profit, it should be borne in mind that we have in the bisulphide of 
carbon a nearly perfect remedy for all insects that affect stored produce. 

A few words must be said in answer to a question that is often 
asked, viz, What varieties of grain are the least susceptible to "weevil" 
attack? There is no weevil-proof grain. Unhusked rice, oats, and 
buckwheat are practically exempt, but unhulled barley is attacked 
with avidity. Husked, shelled, or hulled grain is still more liable to 
attack. The soft varieties of wheat are greatly preferred, and the small, 
hard-grained varieties are little troubled with insects. Corn, when 
shelled, is more susceptible to the attack of most species than when 
on the cob, but appears to be preferred by the Angoumois moth in the 
latter condition. The hard, flinty varieties and such as have a closely 
fitting husk are not so liable to insect attack, and corn has been kept 
for years nearly exempt from infestation by this moth by being housed 
in the husk or shuck. 

Exclusion of the insects from the granary. — The measures that maybe 
observed to prevent the infestation of the grain are manifold. As has 
already been said in treating of the Angoumois moth, it is impossible 
entirely to prevent this insect from entering the grain in the field. The 
same is true to a limited extent of a few of the other species in the 
extreme South; still all but a very small percentage of damage from 
this source may be prevented — first, by harvesting as soon as the 
grain is ripe; second, by thrashing as soon afterwards as possible. 

In the process of thrashing many of the infested kernels will be 
blown out with the chaff and dust, and the insects killed by the agi- 
tation which the grain receives. The moths and many weevils are 
destroyed in the thrashing, but the eggs, larvae, and pupse, many of 
them, survive this treatment, and further measures are required for 
their destruction. In France, where the Angoumois moth is so inju- 
rious, a number of machines have been devised for the treatment of 
infested grain. Into these the grain is poured, and either revolved 
while exposed to heat or subjected to a violent agitation which kills 
the contained insects. A new machine for the destruction of grain 
insects in mills is figured and described in Insect Life ( Yol. VII, p. 263), 



292 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

Better, however, than these devices, simpler and less expensive, is 
the establishment of a quarantine bin, as nearly air-tight as possible, in 
which the newly thrashed as well as the infested or suspected grain 
may be placed, before being disposed of for more permanent storage, 
and fumigated with bisulphide of carbon according to the directions 
which will be given in the closing chapter. 

Prevention of infestation to fresh grain. — The next precaution to be 
observed is that the grain after thrashing be not exposed to infestation 
from being placed in bins that contain infested grain, or even housed 
under the same roof with such grain. 

The granary should be built at some distance from other buildings 
and the rooms in which the grain is to be stored should be constructed 
so as to be as near vermin-proof as possible. The doors should fit 
tightly, the windows should be covered with frames of wire gauze to 
prevent the entrance of insects from without and the escape of those 
within to the fields, and the floors should be oiled, painted, or white- 
washed. 

Before storing fresh grain in old bins that have been badly infested 
they should be thoroughly cleaned, all the old grain removed, and the 
floors, walls, and ceilings brushed and scrubbed. 

The natives of India store their wheat in air-tight pits to preserve it 
from the rice weevil, and condemn ventilation. In the colder countries 
of Europe and in North America, on the contrary, ventilation is prac- 
ticed, and with decided benefit. 

The practice of storing grain in large bulk is also to be commended, 
as the surface layers only are exposed to infestation. This practice is 
particularly valuable against the moths, which penetrate only a few 
inches beneath the surface. Frequent handling of the grain by shovel- 
ing, stirring, or transferring from one receptacle to another is also 
destructive to the moths, as they are unable to extricate themselves 
from a mass of grain, and perish in the attempt. The rice and granary 
weevils, however, penetrate more deeply, and, although bulking is of 
value against them, it is not advisable to stir the grain, as it merely 
distributes them more thoroughly through the mass. 

It is advisable to remove the surface layers before grinding. 

Impractical, useless, or unnecessary remedies are often recommended, 
and a few words concerning these may not be amiss, if only to point 
out the defects of such as are worthy of notice. 

Repellants, counter -odor ants, and lure traps. — On the hypothesis that 
insects are extremely sensitive to odors, the use of many aromatic sub- 
stances has been recommended for deterring insects from entering the 
grain, in driving them from it, and as baits for luring them away. 
Among such substances are garlic, "jimson" weed, coriander, fennel, 
aniseed, hemp, larkspur, ivy, box, rue, lavender, tansy, hops, worm- 
wood, elder and pecan flowers, China berries and twigs, neem leaves, 
tobacco leaves and stems, and oil of turpentine. Admitting that any 



INSECTS INJURIOUS TO STORED GRAIN. 293 

of these are of substantial value, and this is doubtful, they must be 
used in tight receptacles and in large quantity to be effective. 

Among substances that have been employed with more or less benefit 
are salt, powdered sulphur, naphthalene, camphor, pyrethrum, and air- 
slaked lime. These, when sprinkled about in tight bins, have been pro- 
ductive of beneficial results in keeping out insects. In the preservation 
of samples of all sorts of products subject to insect attack, naphthalene, 
either in crystal or in the form of "camphor tar" or "moth balls," is 
very extensively employed, and when used in air-tight receptacles is an 
almost perfect preservative. It can not be recommended for grain that 
is to be used for food on account of its powerful and permanent odor. 

Heat and cold, and other remedies. — Until the adoption of the bisul- 
phide of carbon as a fumigant, heat was relied upon as the best agent 
in the destruction of these insects. It has been ascertained by experi- 
ment that a temperature of 140° F., continued for nine hours, literally 
cooks the larva and pupa of the Angoumois moth, and that a tempera- 
ture of from 120° to 130° F. 3 continued for four or five hours, is fatal. 
It has also been experimentally proven that wheat can be subjected to 
a temperature of 150° without destroying its germinating power. 

Kiln- drying, at a still lower degree of heat, has been found effective. 

A low temperature is equally destructive, and in colder climates these 
insects may be successfully dealt with by stirring or turning the infested 
grain, or by filling the building with steam and then throwing open the 
windows of the building at night and exposing the insects to frost. 

Tobacco, sulphur, chlorine, benzine, and naphtha have been recom- 
mended and tried as fumigants against grain insects, but none of them 
produce entirely satisfactory results, their vapor being insufficient for 
the destruction of the adolescent stages of our most injurious species, 
which breed wholly within the kernel, while all of these agents possess 
an offensive odor which is more or less persistent in the grain after 
treatment. The vapor of benzine and naphtha is also inflammable. 
Sulphur, properly applied, may be used with benefit in buildings where 
for any reason the use of bisulphide of carbon is not advisable, and 
steam and sulphur combined are very destructive to insect life. 

THE BISULPHIDE OF CARBON TREATMENT. 

The simplest, most effective and inexpensive remedy for all stored- 
grain insects is the bisulphide of carbon. This is a colorless liquid 
with a strong, disagreeable odor. It vaporizes abundantly at ordinary 
temperatures, is highly inflammable, and is a powerful poison. 

A number of methods for the application of the bisulphide of carbon 
have been suggested and tested, but the most effective manner of apply- 
ing the reagent in moderately tight bins consists in simply pouring the 
liquid into shallow dishes or pans or on bits of cotton waste and dis- 
tributing about on the surface of the grain. The liquid rapidly vola- 
tilizes, and, being heavier than air, descends and permeates the mass of 
grain, killing all insects as well as rats or mice which it may contain. 



£94 YEARBOOK OF THE IT. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

The bisulphide is usually applied in tight bins at the rate of a pound 
to a pound and a half to the ton of grain, and in more open bins a larger 
quantity is used. Mr. H. E. Weed, who has experimented with this 
insecticide in Mississippi, however, claims that 1 pound to 100 bushels 
of grain is amply sufficient to destroy all insects, even in open cribs. 
Bins may be made nearly air-tight by a covering of eloths or blankets. 
Oilcloth and painted canvas are excellent for this purpose. 

Mills and other buildings, when found to be infested throughout, may 
be thoroughly fumigated and rid of insects by a liberal use of the same 
chemical. A good time for fumigating an entire building is during day- 
light on a Saturday afternoon or early Sunday morning, closing the 
doors and windows as tightly as possible and observing the precaution 
of stationing a watchman without to prevent anyone from entering the 
building. It is best to begin in the lowest story and work up, in order 
to escape the settling gas. The building should then be thoroughly 
aired early Monday morning. The bisulphide is usually evaporated in 
vessels, one-fourth or one-half of a pound in each. 

Certain precautions should always be observed. The vapor of bisul- 
phide is injurious to all animal life, but there is no'danger to a human 
being in inhaling a small quantity. It is also explosive, but with proper 
care that no fire of any kind, as, for example, a lighted cigar, be brought 
into the vicinity, no trouble will be experienced. 

Infested grain is generally subjected to the bisulphide treatment for 
twenty-four hours, but may be exposed much longer without harming 
it for milling purposes. If not exposed for more than thirty-six hours 
its germinating power will be in no wise impaired. In badly infested 
buildings it is customary to repeat this treatment about every six weeks 
in warm weather. 

Bisulphide of carbon is for sale at drug stores at from 20 to 30 cents 
13l pound, but at wholesale in 50-pound cans it may be obtained at the 
rate of 10 or 15 eents a pound. 

A grade known as " fuma bisulphide," for sale at 10 cents a pound, 
is said by experienced entomologists and others who have experi- 
mented with it to be much more effective than the ordinary grades on 
the market. 

The cost of treatment is thus only 10 cents a hundred bushels. 



THE DAIRY HERD: ITS FORMATION AND MANAGEMENT. 

By Henry E. Alvord, M. S., C. E. 

The pursuit of dairy farming depends for its success upon certain 
fundamental conditions. First, the owner of the business himself, or 
otherwise the agent or manager who has the immediate control and 
personal direction of the work, must have a natural fondness for 
animals, prompting to generous and kind treatment, as well as good 
judgment in selection, breeding, and care. It is not sufficient that lie 
should be a horseman, or fond of cattle in general; for best results 
he should have a special liking for the dairy cow, over and above all 
other animals. Second, the cattle must be good of their kind and of 
a variety suited to the work. They must be truly dairy cattle; but of 
this more presently. Third, the farm should be specially adapted to 
the branch of husbandry in view. A good dairy farm is pretty certain 
to be good for general farming, but many good farms in general are 
not suited to dairying. The dairy farm should be carefully selected, 
all the requirements of the business being well considered. Yet many 
disadvantages so far as the farm is concerned may be successfully 
overcome by the skillful dairyman, and dairying in some forms is 
profitably conducted without any farm, so that this condition, impor- 
tant as it is, can not be regarded as essential. Fourth, it is well to 
study the character of the accessible markets and the means of com- 
munication; location and the line of dairying to be followed may be 
largely controlled by the markets. In some cases the markets form 
an essential condition, but modern facilities for transportation make 
the location of the dairy farm with relation to its markets compara- 
tively unimportant. The first and second above remain as the essen- 
tial factors — the owner and the cow. Assuming that the dairyman is 
all he should be, it is proposed to consider in the following pages the 
dairyman's main stock in trade, upon which depends his success — the 
dairy herd, its formation and management. 

Like almost all other occupations at the present day, dairying has 
become divided into several distinct and special lines. These differ 
mainly as to the form of product and the manner of disposing of it. 
Milk or cream may be produced for delivery to consumers, and this 
delivery may be direct or indirect. The same products may be deliv- 
ered to a factory for manufacture into butter or cheese, or the milk 
product of the herd may be worked up at home and there converted 
into butter or cheese. The prudent dairyman should first consider 

295 



296 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

which line of business he will pursue. In so doing he must have 
regard for all his circumstances — the location, markets, farm, build- 
ings, water and ice supply, the labor at his command — and his own 
preference, and prospects for profit. Upon his decision as to the par- 
ticular kind of dairying to be followed should depend the character 
and composition of his herd of cattle. 

DAIRY CATTLE FOR THE DAIRY. 

In making up a herd for this business, no matter what the special 
line, only such animals as are truly dairy cattle can be considered. 
Everyone now admits that there is a distinct type or class of cattle 
specially adapted to dairy purposes. This class includes various kinds, 
families, and breeds, but all have the marked characteristics which dis- 
tinguish the milk producer from the beef producer. To succeed in his 
business the dairyman should select his herd, or its foundation, solely 
from this class — from dairy cattle. There are some people who seem 
to still really believe in the possibility for profit of an animal combin- 
ing qualities for producing milk and butter and beef all in one hide. 
These good people are still searching for u the general-purpose cow." 
When found, this animal will be like the u Jack at all trades — good at 
none." There may be good carpenters who are ready to argue the 
economy of a single saw for all purposes, but very few will be found to 
practice this preaching ; every workman of experience who knows his 
own interests has his crosscut and his ripper, and never attempts to 
make either do the work of the other. The writer has been too long a 
dairyman and has become too strongly impressed with this phase of 
the subject to spend time in further argument. In all work, with rare 
exceptions, the best results come with the best tools or instruments. 
The dairyman seeking best results will buy, breed, and feed only such 
cattle as are of marked dairy type and belonging to families of estab- 
lished dairy excellence. 

SPECIAL ADAPTATION. 

Within the general class of dairy cattle one can find great variety; 
one is thus enabled to select breeds or families well adapted to the special 
needs in view. Some dairy cattle are noted for the quantity of milk 
they produce; others for the high quality or richness of their milk, 
which means butter producers. Some combine quantity and quality 
in a specially economical way, under some circumstances. There are 
cows of active habits, which forage well on a wide range of scanty pas- 
ture, and win profitably work up the coarser kinds of food in winter. 
There are others which have proved their capacity for making good 
returns when more closely confined and subjected to high feeding. 
Some cows give a great flow of mi]k for a comparatively short season, 
and others are noted for an even, steady yield of milk the year through. 
The dairyman can easily find cattle, therefore, adapted to his particular 



MANAGEMENT OF THE DAIRY HERD. 297 

wants. As a rule, the different dairy characteristics named pertain to 
different breeds, so that every dairyman is likely to find some one breed 
of dairy cattle better suited to his wants than any other. 

This is not the place to revive the never-ended " battle of the breeds." 
Eo matter how strong one's convictions, discretion must be exercised. 
Pronounced opinions and direct advice as to the several recognized 
dairy breeds are here unnecessary. Evidence abounds on every side, 
and every dairyman that is, or is to be, can satisfy himself as to the 
cattle he should adopt, if he will but make a proper study of the subject. 
He need not go far in this country to find the best kind or breed of cows 
for milk supply, the best for butter making, or the best for the cream 
trade. There is no special cheese-making cow; the best butter cow 
is also the best for cheese; this fact has been demonstrated beyond 
dispute. 

FORMATION OF THE DAIRY HERD. 

There are two very different ways of forming a dairy herd and of 
maintaining its size and quality. It may be done by buying or by 
breeding, and these two methods may be combined. The purchasing 
plan is practiced to a considerable extent by those; who produce milk 
for town and city supply. In a few cases it has been known to be suc- 
cessful where the work of the herd was to make butter. Applied in its 
extreme form, cows are bought when mature and at their prime, judged 
almost exclusively by their milk yield, are highly fed so as to keep 
steadily gaining in flesh, and are sold, usually to the butcher, as soon as 
they cease to be profitable as milkers. The bull may be of any kind so 
long as he gets the cows in calf, and the calves are valued only as 
causing '-fresh' 7 cows, and are dispensed with as soon as possible. The 
first modification of this system is to keep extra good cows for several 
seasons and the next to raise heifers from some of the best milkers to 
replenish the herd. This way of making up a herd and keeping good its 
numbers requires abundant capital and rare judgment in buying and 
in selling. It can not be recommended to one lacking experience, and 
even the shrewdest buyer runs great risk of bringing disease into his 
herd. 

The other extreme is to begin with a few well- selected animals as a 
foundation, and gradually build up the herd to the size desired by judi- 
cious breeding and natural increase. This method takes time, and time 
which may be money, but it is by far the safer and more satisfactory 
in its results, and it must be recognized as a higher grade of dairy 
farming. 

A desirable combination, in starting, is to buy the number of cows 
desired, and good animals of the sort determined in advance. If one's 
means will permit, include a few superior cows, and a first-class bull at 
any rate. Let the cows selected be such as have had two calves, and 
perhaps three, so that they may be judged by their own development 

1 A 94 12* 



298 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

and yet be young enough to improve and be in full profit for some years. 
With a herd thus formed, begin at once the work of improvement by 
breeding and selection. Sell promptly any cow which proves unsatis- 
factory and replace her by the best increase of the herd, or purchase 
occasionally an animal which will raise the average quality. 

PURE-BRED DAIRY CATTLE AND GRADES. 

A dairyman can hardly be advised to buy at on^e a full stock of pure- 
bred cattle of any breed, if his sole object and dependence for profit is 
to be the dairy product of the herd. Such a venture will necessitate 
large investment, and should include the breeding of registered ani- 
mals, for sale at remunerative prices, as a part of the business. Well- 
bred and well-selected grade cows, of the line of blood desired, seem to 
be the most profitable animals for the practical dairyman, or at least the 
best to begin with. If enterprising and progressive, the owner will 
hardly be content with grades only. He may begin with only his bull 
pure bred; presently he will want a registered cow to match, then one 
or two more. Thus he will be steadily and properly working toward a 
purely bred herd. If the breed chosen is the right one for the object 
sought, it will soon be found that the more of this blood the herd con- 
tains the better. Starting with half-bred cows (the offspring of pure- 
bred bulls and dams of mixed or uncertain blood), the next grade, 
three-fourths pure, will prove better dairy stock, if the bull is what he 
should be and the increase has been culled. Another step higher is 
better still, better for the dairy, and so the grading goes up and improve- 
ment goes on until the blood of the herd is practically pure. The best 
dairy results may thus be reached, but the herd has a taint. It lacks 
pedigree. Its increase, however excellent in dairy performance, must 
pass and sell as grades. The owner feels this, and is pretty sure to 
gradually replace his well-bred cows, almost pure bred, with fully pedi- 
greed and registered animals. This end is reached sooner and easier 
by starting with one or two registered females, and, of course, a regis- 
tered bull. Moderate investment and the lessened risk of loss in the 
hands of one unaccustomed to handling registered stock, and finding a 
market for the surplus, doubtless favor grades for the dairy herd. The 
argument and the probabilities of success, based upon the fixed princi- 
ples of breeding, are on the side of pure-bred, registered stock. In the 
hands of experienced men the latter prove the more profitable in actual 
practice. 

In these days any dairyman who wants registered animals of any of 
the approved breeds can get them if he will but make the effort. The 
beginner in registered dairy stock can not be too strongly urged to buy 
and breed on the basis of individual and family merit and dairy record, 
and not upon pedigree alone. Pedigree is of value and should be well 
studied; it is the best guaranty that the calves to come will make 
good cows. But the pedigree should be supported by uniform excel- 



MANAGEMENT OF THE DAIRY HERD. 299 

lence in the family and by evidence of merit in the particular animals 
bought. Although the investment is greater, there is greater certainty 
of good results if mature cows are bought which show what can be 
expected of them, if they have not already made a record, than if 
calves or undeveloped heifers are selected. It is also economy, having 
chosen the right breed, to purchase good representatives of that breed, 
rather than be content with only average or even ordinary animals. 
Successful dairying has proved that the greater profit comes from the 
best cows, whatever their kind. This is as true of pure-bred or regis- 
tered stock as of common cows. It is better to pay $300 for three 
excellent cows than to pay the same for four good cows or five which arc 
only fair. A really superior dairy cow of a superior family, with pedi- 
gree which gives assurance of calves equal to the dam, if not better, is 
always worth a large price. Such an animal adds much to the average 
value of any dairy herd. In buying registered cattle deal only with 
men of reputation as breeders and of strict integrity 5 "the best part 
of a pedigree is the name of the breeder." 

THE BULL AND HIS TREATMENT. 

With any dairyman who depends upon breeding and rearing calves 
for the maintenance of his herd and its improvement, the choice of a 
bull is a matter of prime importance. The bull is constantly referred 
to as "the head" of the herd, and that trite saying, "The bull is half 
the herd," should never be forgotten. Every calf added to the herd 
takes half its blood from the bull. Often this is the more important 
half. The bull is always the main dependence for raising the average 
quality of the herd, and should be chosen with this object in view. 
This is especially true if the cows are grades and "grading up" is in 
progress. The grade dam may be selected and largely relied upon to 
give size, form, constitution, and capacity of production to her heifer 
calf; its dairy quality, the inbred power to increase the richness of milk, 
is derived from the pure-bred sire. One cow may prove a poor dam, or 
fail to breed, and still give a profit in milk. Such a loss is compara- 
tively trivial and the fault easily corrected. But if the bull fails, or 
proves a poor sire, the entire increase of a year may be lost. In get- 
ting a bull, get the best. At least approach that standard as nearly 
as possible. Make a study of the animal's pedigree and the dairy 
history of his ancestors, and especially of the females among his nearest 
of kin. Then see that the good qualities of his progenitors appear to 
be reproduced in the animal in question. A common error among dairy- 
men is to use immature bulls-and to dispose of good ones before their 
merit as sires has been fairly proven. Bull calves are cheap, and young 
bulls are considered much easier to handle. But it is good advice to 
the buyer to purchase a bull of some age, whose progeny prove his 
value as a breeder, rather than a calf of exceptional pedigree; and to 
the owner, having a sire of proved excellence, to keep him and use him 



300 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

for years, or as long as he shows himself potent and prepotent. (Of 
course the question of too close inbreeding is not forgotten and must 
not be overlooked by the breeder.) The writer is a thorough believer 
in the use of mature bulls of known value as sires. 

The chief objection made to bulls of some age is that they are likely 
to be vicious and dangerous. Everyone recognizes the difference in 
temperament between the fleshy, beefy bull and the one of pronounced 
dairy character 5 but experience and observation have taught that the 
bulls of marked dairy type are much alike in disposition, regardless of 
breed. In all the breeds (as among men) some bulls will be found of 
naturally bad temper, but it is believed that the great majority of bulls, 
of all the dairy breeds, can be safely kept until too old for service and 
handled without serious trouble, if only properly reared and judiciously 
managed. 

In rearing a bull, accustom it to being handled from calf hood, but 
without fondling or encouraging frolic. Give it kind, quiet, firm, and 
unvarying treatment, and keep it always under subjection, that it may 
never know its strength and power. Insert the nose ring before it is 
a year old, keep this renewed so as to be always strong, and always 
lead and handle the animal with staff in the hands of a discreet and 
trusty man. The bull should never run loose in yard or pasture, but 
should be provided with abundant and regular exercise, always under 
restraint and full control. The "walk around" arrangement, like the 
sweep horse power, affords a fair degree of voluntary exercise, but is 
hardly sufficient. The best plan seems to be to provide a suitable tread 
power with a governor attached, place the bull in this daily, and let 
him walk a fixed time or known distance. The main object should be 
regular and sufficient exercise for the bull. Incidentally, he may be 
made to run a fodder cutter or a cream separator and perform valuable 
service. As age and strength increase, let the staff be supplemented 
by strap, chain, or rope attached to a second ring. To this may well 
be added some hitching or leading chain with a strong strap around 
horns or neck. Let there be always a double hitching device, so that 
the bull may never by accident find himself loose when he should be 
tied. If restiveness and temper are shown, add to the exercise, in 
duration or quantity, without violence; a bull physically tired may be 
depended upon to be quiet and easily managed. 

It is much better to keep the bull as much as possible in the presence 
or in full sight of the herd than stabled by himself in a lonely place. 
Let him be in the same room with the cows during the stabling season, 
and at milking times the rest of the year. 

INDIVIDUALITY AND CULLING THE HERD BY ITS RECORD. 

As soon as the herd is established and in working order, the study 
of every individual animal should begin. To guide rational treatment 
and insure greatest profit, the owner must become familiar with the 



MANAGEMENT OF THE DAIRY HERD. 301 

characteristics of every cow. Peculiarities of temperament, suscepti- 
bility to surroundings and varied conditions, and especially the dairy 
capacity of the animal, should be matters of observation, deliberation, 
and record, not merely of conjecture and memory. The record of the 
herd is a matter of utmost importance. The system of record should 
conform to the circumstances of the case and extent of the business. 
(It is desirable to reduce the labor of bookkeeping to a minimum, and 
yet accuracy and sufficiency of record must be secured. Fortunately, 
inexpensive forms can now be found for sale, which are based upon long 
experience, and in variety to suit different wants.) The record should 
include a concise history and description of every member of the herd, 
with a summary of the dairy performance. The latter requires a daily 
record of the milk yield of every cow, with notes explaining irregulari- 
ties or occurrences of interest. If the quality of the milk is a matter 
of any importance, as it is in most cases, and ought to be, however the 
milk is disposed of, a fat test should be made of the milk of every cow, 
for several consecutive milkings, as often as practicable. Some form of 
the Babcock tester is the simplest and now within the reach of every 
dairyman. According to the size of the apparatus, a certain number 
of milk samples can be tested at one time, and thus the record of a large 
herd can be completed in a few days. It is well to make this test and 
record of the quality of every cow's milk at least once a month. The 
most satisfactory practical record is the average percentage of fat found 
in the milk of several successive milkings, samples from which may be 
mixed and this "composite sample" tested, thus obtaining the aver- 
age 5 the method is easily learned and practiced. This record of qual- 
ity, taken periodically, joined with a summary of the daily quantity of 
milk, gives a full dairy record of the cow, upon which her value can be 
readily computed. To give the owner a more complete knowledge of 
his operations, there should also be a record, of at least approximate 
accuracy, of the food of every cow, with monthly summaries of quan- 
tities or value, so that the economy of production may be shown. 

Such records are far more easily made than the description may 
indicate, and are well worth all they cost. They form the only accu- 
rate and safe basis for judging of the individual merits of the different 
animals. The improvement of every herd, which should be the con- 
stant aim of its owner, depends upon periodical culling and getting rid 
of unworthy members. No one can afford to do this upon guesswork 
alone. One well-authenticated example of the value of keeping such 
record follows: A dairyman of wide reputation, president of a State 
association for years, concluded to adopt the daily milk record, rather 
because of those who advocated it than of any conviction of needing 
it himself. His herd was of his own breeding; he had handled every 
cow from its birth, and he and his sons did the milking. Before 
beginning the record he made note of the joint opinion of himself and 



302 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

sons as to the half dozen best cows in the herd and an estimate of 
their season's milk yield. When the year's record was completed it 
was found that in order of actual merit the cows actually stood thus : 
First, his fifth; second, a cow not on his merit list; third, his fourth; 
fourth, his first; fifth, his sixth; sixth, like the second; and his second 
and third still lower on the list. These facts were verified by subse- 
quent records. Still more remarkable, this experienced owner proved 
literally "by the book" that about one-fourth of his cows were being 
kept at an actual loss, while others barely paid their way. 

Good judges believe that in the entire country one-third of the cows 
kept for their milk do not pay for their cost of keeping, and nearly a 
third more fail to yield annual profit. As a matter of ordinary busi- 
ness prudence and a condition essential to best results, every dairyman 
should study the individuality of his cows, keep a sufficient record of 
quantity and quality of milk product, know approximately the cost of 
production, and systematically weed out his herd. After proper con- 
sideration and practical tests as to possibilities, set a standard for a 
satisfactory cow and maintain this standard by promptly disposing of 
the animals which fail to attain it, unless reasonable excuse appears, 
with the prospect of better conduct in future, and gradually but 
persistently raise the standard. 

ACCOMMODATIONS FOR THE HERD. 

The large and lofty barn, in which to keep the cattle and the crops, 
the manure and farm implements, all within four rectangular walls and 
under one roof, can no longer be regarded as perfection. No matter 
how well arranged and how thorough the ventilation, the danger of loss 
and damage is too great. It is well to house all the forage, and a large 
storage building may be necessary. Economy of labor requires the 
forage to be easily placed before the cattle. The best modern prac- 
tice calls for a separate or slightly attached building for the cows, with 
no manure cellar under them and no large quantity of forage above 
them, and preferably none at all. The best provision for such manure 
as can not be at once applied to the land is an open shed or covered 
yard, The cow house should be on the ground level, rather than in a 
basement, and be light, dry, and roomy. A room open to the roof, 
which is fairly high, is better than a low, level ceiling above the cows. 
The former may involve a little more work to keep free from dust and 
cobwebs, but it affords the air space needed for health and comfort. 
The latter necessitates special arrangement for ventilation, and these, 
constructed on the best plans, often fail to work in practice. Sanitary 
authorities advise 600 cubic feet of space for every animal, but the best 
cowhouse the writer has seen allows double this quantity, and it appears 
none too much. Where the climate will permit, there is no better plan 
than to let cows stand upon the ground, the clay or earth being packed 



MANAGEMENT OF THE DAIRY HERD. 303 

hard and raised somewhat above the level around the building; shallow 
gutters behind the cows, and a feeding floor in front of them. More 
durable floors, and quite expensive, are made of grouting and cement, 
or of brick on edge; but such are damp and celd, causing rheumatism 
and other ailments, unless covered with a false floor of wood or pro- 
vided with an unusual abundance of bedding. Box stalls are undoubt- 
edly the ideal for cows as well as for horses; in a box 8 to 10 feet square 
a cow may be left untied, and if supplied with enough bedding she 
will keep clean and well, although the stall is not cleaned out for months 
at a time. But such boxes for a large herd require too much room. 
Every cow should have her own stall, however, wide enough for com- 
fort of cow and milker, and well protected from the neighbors on either 
side; 3£ feet width is little enough and 4 feet is better. 

From the great variety of cattle ties one should be selected which com- 
bines, in greatest measure, freedom of movement, comfort, and cleanli- 
ness. There are serious objections to all stanchions; if some form of this 
device is insisted upon, let it be one which is so hung as to move a few 
inches in any direction. A desirable substitute for a stanchion is a wide 
strap or light chain around the neck, with a ring at the throat (this part 
to be always worn by the cow), and a snap, with a few links of chain, 
attached to an iron ring which moves freely upon a 3 or 4 inch post, 
fastened upright at the middle of the side of the feed box next to the 
cow. An excellent patented device consists of a flattened bow of 
metal or wood, shaped like a widely spread letter U, the ends hinged 
at the front corners of the feed box, the bow resting on the back edge 
of the box, and the neck strap fastened to this bow at its middle; 
this gives much freedom of movement and causes the animal to move 
backward a little when it lies down and forward when it rises. An 
open, level feeding floor in front of the cows seems to be better than 
any form of boxes; if boxes are used, they should be as large as 
possible and yet have every part within reach of the cow as tied, and 
they should be so constructed as to be easily cleaned. A manure gutter 
behind the animals aids in cleanliness, but while it should have good 
width, 16 to 24 inches, it should not be too deep; if enough to hold the 
droppings of a night, that is sufficient. "Self-cleaning" stalls and 
gutters have not proved successful. The length of stall from fastening 
to gutter should suit the size of the cow; it is bad practice to have 
them so long as to induce filthy udders and legs, and also to have 
them so short that cows stand habitually with hind feet in the gutter. 
Arrangements should be convenient for removing the manure and for 
supplying absorbents for the urine, and a limited quantity of bedding. 
Liberal use of land plaster about the gutters and the floors over which 
the cattle pass is very desirable as a disinfectant and conserver of 
ammonia. Lime should be used with equal freedom, as whitewash on 
the walls of the cow house, but not on its floors. 



304 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

The stable should be provided with windows to admit light and air 
abundantly, and arranged to let sunlight as nearly as possible into 
every portion of the apartment where the cows stand during some hour 
of every clear day. Yet the windows should be shaded when desired, 
and they should be fixed to open partly without subjecting the cows to 
direct drafts of air. 

The extremes in providing water for the cows are to be avoided. A 
long walk to get water, in all weather, is certainly objectionable. And 
all the devices for keeping water constantly before every cow, or sup- 
plying it at the stalls, at will, are open to serious objections. Some 
medium course is advised, and the best plan seems to be to provide one 
or more tanks in the yard and one or more in the stable, at each of which 
but one cow should drink at a time. These should fill quickly after 
use and freely overflow, that every cow may find the surface fresh and 
clear. The evidence is conclusive that water for milking cows should 
not be too cold, and that it is profitable to bring water in severely cold 
weather to a temperature of about 50° F., if it can be cheaply done. 
Warming to blood heat has not been found advantageous. 

Attached to the cow house should be an exercise yard for the daily 
use of cows during the stabling season. Eoomy open sheds should 
form a part of this inclosure, and the whole may well be roofed over, if 
arranged for the free circulation of air and for admitting sunshine to a 
large share of it, while excluding wind and storm. 

HEALTH OF THE HERD. 

There is no point of greater importance in selecting animals for the 
foundation of a herd, or in making purchases of additions, than to get 
perfectly healthy stock. Animals chosen should be critically examined 
by a veterinarian if convenient, and should afford evidence of being 
strong in constitution and of healthful vigor. Besides the robust 
character of the individuals, the breeding stock from which they are 
descended, and the herd, stables, and farm from which they come, should 
be closely examined, on the score of health. Breeding and rearing the 
animals needed to replenish and increase the herd, and refusing to allow 
strange animals on the farm, are the best safeguards against the intro- 
duction of disease. If purchases must be made, let the new stock be 
strictly quarantined for at least one month before mingling with the 
herd. On every farm of any size a well-secluded building for a stock 
quarantine and hospital, suitably arranged and equipped, is a most 
useful adjunct. This is not needed for calving cows, or for cases of 
lameness or ordinary accident, but for cases of acute sickness, retention 
of afterbirth, abortion, or any symptoms of contagious disease, it is 
essential. Of course, the building itself, its care, and the attendance 
upon its occupants must be subjected to regulations suited to any hos- 
pital or quarantine. 



MANAGEMENT OF THE DAIRY HERD. 305 

There are many of the ordinary accidents and ailments to which 
domestic animals are subject which can be managed by an intelligent 
owner, or under his direction, without professional assistance. " Every 
man his own cattle doctor " is a very delusive title; one may well follow 
this suggestion within reasonable limits, but there is always a point, 
hard to define, at which professional aid should be promptly summoned. 
So long as an owner is certain as to the difficulty, and has knowledge 
and experience as to treatment or remedy, he may depend upon home 
resources. But in a case of obscurity, uncertainty, or complications, 
the owner of a good cow disregards his own interests and his moral 
obligations if he fails to summon a veterinarian, as much as if he neg- 
lected to secure proper medical service for a sick child. And the vet- 
erinarian should be selected with the same care one exercises in choosing 
a family physician. 

Close confinement, with impure air and lack of exercise, is as preju- 
dicial to the health of milch cows as to that of human beings. Some 
recently promulgated theories of dark, warm stables and no exercise 
for profitable milk production are without rational basis and certain to 
lead to disastrous results sooner or later. Exposure to storms and cold 
is equally injurious to the health and profit of cows. A judicious mean 
is the provision for moderate exercise in the open air and sunshine, and 
the application of the same common-sense care for the comfort of cows 
which one would approve for members of his own household. 

Every member of the herd, young or old, should pass under the crit- 
ical eye of the owner or his trusty assistant daily, and preferably twice 
a day. The least symptoms of disorder, like dullness, loss of appetite, 
rough coat, and irregularity of milk, manure, or urine, should be noted 
and promptly receive the attention which it deserves. Experience is 
needed on the part of the care taker to detect and correct the begin- 
nings of trouble, and thus maintain the general health of the herd. 

FALL-FRESH COWS MOST PROFITABLE. 

Much has been written upon the best season for cows to drop their 
calves. Opinions still differ, and by far the greater number of milch 
cows are allowed to follow the most natural course, and either by indif- 
ference or intention they "come in" in the spring. The producer of 
milk for sale, if he has an even trade, may want to have about an equal 
number of fresh cows every month in the year. If the bull is kept 
up and service controlled, this can be regulated as a rule, although 
unpleasant irregularities in breeding will sometimes occur and stub- 
bornly resist correction. But if the prime object is to produce the 
greatest quantity of milk of the best quality and at the greatest profit 
from any given number of cows within a year, the evidence is over- 
whelming that the cows should be managed so as to calve in the autumn 
months. For like reasons, September is the best month, in most parts 



306 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OP AGRICULTURE. 

of the country, for a heifer to drop her first calf in order to best develop 
as a cow, and this almost regardless of the age of the animal at first 
calving. Calves born in the fall are easier reared and make better cows 
than those born in the spring or summer. It seems needless to rehearse 
the stock arguments on this subject, based upon the long experience 
of successful dairymen, but a brief recapitulation may be useful. The 
cow or heifer calving in the fall needs the most healthy and nutritious 
pasturage just following the strain and while coming into full flow. 
Just at the time when some falling off is likely to occur, the animal is 
brought to the stable and receives good care 5 the winter feeding and 
the returns from it may be depended upon to exceed the midsummer 
results for any like period. At the stage of milking and of gestation, 
when another dropping off in the milk yield may be looked for, the 
fresh pasturage induces a fresh flow, lengthens the milking season, and 
increases the year's total product. December and January are good 
months in which to control and supervise the service of the bull. Mid- 
summer and the dogdays are a good time for the cow to be dry and 
preparing to calve again, and a most unprofitable and annoying time 
to make milk or handle it. The greatest product and the richest 
comes at the season when milk and butter are always comparatively 
high in price. In actual practice four fall-fresh cows have been found 
to equal five which calved in the spring, in twelve months' product, and 
at about four-fifths the cost. 

DRYING OFF COWS AND CAL.VING TIME. 

It is not unusual to find a cow which shows no inclination to dry off 
at any time after dropping her first or second calf. Such an animal 
shows an excellent dairy trait — persistence in the milking habit — but 
it is doubtful if continuous milking is profitable. Better results are 
believed to be obtained from cows which are inclined to take an annual 
rest, if not too long. A month is long enough 5 three weeks will do in 
most cases, and six weeks should be the longest time encouraged or 
allowed for a cow to be dry before calving. An accurate record of serv- 
ice by the bull is essential to preparations for drying off cows at the right 
time. A table should be kept of the dates when cows of the herd are 
successively due to calve, with notes as to the milking habit of every 
one. When the time comes for drying off a cow the grain food should be 
gradually withdrawn. This may of itself cause milk to cease forming. 
If not, omit one milking a day, then milk but once in two days, and thus 
extend the drying period over two weeks. The udder must be watched, 
and if any hardening or unnatural heat is shown regular milking must 
be resumed. If a cow continues to secrete milk it must be drawn. No 
cow should be forced to u go dry" against manifestly natural resist- 
ance to so doing. On the other hand, if an unpleasantly pungent or 
u smoky " taste appears in a cow's milk she may as well be dried at once, 
regardless of dates, as her milk will not be good until she is fresh again. 



MANAGEMENT OF THE DAIRY HERD. 307 

The dry cow may be kept on pasture alone, not too luxuriant, or on a 
low stable diet, mainly of coarse forage, until about two weeks before 
calving. Yet the ration, while comparatively " wide/' should be nutri- 
tious, and it should include a share of succulent food — roots or silage. 
Then a slow but steady increase of feeding may proceed, of a nourish- 
ing, cool, and laxative kind, so as to become narrower in ratio. Wheat 
bran is a good material to use at this time, but new-process linseed meal 
is better. Experience has led the writer to endeavor to have his cows 
calve on an upgrade, as it were, while daily gaining in strength and 
vigor, on a judiciously prepared, nourishing diet, but without high feed- 
ing or plethora. A week before calving remove the cow to a roomy, 
comfortable, quiet box stall, preferably within hearing of the herd, if 
not in sight. Be sure the bowels are quite loose and moving freely for 
two days before calving. Watch for the event, but do not disturb the 
cow or interfere unless something goes wrong or assistance is mani- 
festly necessary. 

ABORTION AND MILK FEVER. 

In herds the best regulated and cared for there will occasionally 
occur a physical accident or some sudden fright which causes a cow to 
prematurely drop her calf. The herds should be constantly watched 
for symptoms of abortion, which will generally be recognized by the 
experienced herdsman. Should such symptoms appear the suspect 
should be immediately removed to hospital until the case is over or the 
signs disappear. In case abortion occurs in stable, yard, or pasture, 
despite precautions, and wholly without warning, as is sometimes the 
case, take the animal to hospital at once and use every exertion to 
thoroughly clean and disinfect the place where the accident occurred. 
The aborted cow should be carefully nursed and the genital organs 
freely dressed with antiseptic solutions. The animal should not return 
to the herd until fully cured, clean, and free from all vaginal discharges. 
Be on guard for a second case following the first in a few days or within 
three weeks ; if a month elapses recurrence is not to be expected. But 
"sympathetic"^) cases are likely to soon follow the first, and the 
disease may appear in a neighborhood or on a single farm as an epi- 
demic, run its course, and disappear. Extended and expensive investi- 
gations have failed to give any satisfactory explanation of this dread 
disease or prescribe means for preventing it. It seems probable that it 
belongs to the class of germ diseases which requires further research. 

Milk fever, " dropping," or parturient apoplexy is another scourge of 
the dairy, twin to abortion. It is an affection which comes without 
warning, attacks the deepest and richest milkers, is sudden in attack, 
rapid in progress, and generally fatal. The symptoms are a chill, 
twitching of the head muscles, failure to eat, chew the cud, or pass 
manure, distended udder without milk, insensibility of the hind quar- 



308 YEAKBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

ters when pinched or pricked; later the cow becomes unsteady on her 
hind legs, and presently drops. Good cows should be carefully watched 
for forty -eight hours after calving, and if such warnings appear a vete- 
rinarian can not be called too soon. Preventive measures form the best 
assurance of the owner against losses from this cause. The cow should 
have abundant exercise up to the week before calving, and then quiet 
and good care, with daily grooming and active rubbing. Keep the 
bowels active with proper food, or purgatives if necessary. Insure com- 
fort, guard against cold, and en&eavor to maintain active circulation 
on the surface of the body. A strong dose of physic and brisk groom- 
ing may be used immediately after calving in the case of cows believed 
to be predisposed to milk fever. 

CARE OF CALVES AND YOUNG STOCK. 

Among dairy cattle the best practice is to remove the calf from the 
cow within twenty-four hours after its birth and at once teach it to 
drink. This separation may be delayed until the dam's mi]k assumes 
the normal condition, but as a rule the earlier the calf is taken in 
hand and its feeding regulated, the better for the calf. The younger 
it is, the easier it learns to drink. It is also better for the dairy cow to 
be regularly milked by hand than to suckle a calf. The milk of good 
cows is often too rich for their calves, and the latter are apt to take too 
much if left to help themselves. The calf should have the milk of its 
dam or some other fresh cow, and receive it while warm, and at least 
three times a day (preferably four) for a week or month. During this 
time, if the milk is rich, it should be diluted with warm water one-fifth 
to one- third its own bulk, according to the richness, or the milk maybe 
kept a few hours, the best of the cream removed, and then warmed and 
fed. To make a good calf, three feedings a day should be kept up for a 
month or six weeks, and the milk should be fed warm for a longer 
period, especially if the weather is cold. But after ten days or so milk 
set twelve hours and lightly skimmed will do, and after ten days more 
the skimming may be gradually made closer, until at the end of a month 
or soon after a skim-milk diet is reached. No rule can be given for 
quantity in feeding calves; they differ so much in size and food require- 
ments. Judgment must be used, the feeding effects observed, and the 
calf given enough to thrive and be active, but not too much. More 
calves suffer from overfeeding than from scant diet. Keep the calf a 
little hungry and eager for more rather than fill it to dullness. The 
endeavor should be to prevent the beginning of indigestion, which 
leads to scouring and perhaps fatal diarrhea. Nothing causes indi- 
gestion sooner than overfeeding or irregularity in the quantity, time, 
and temperature of the milk, especially while the calf is young; and 
absolute cleanliness about the feeding vessels is essential, with frequent 
scalding. If it can with certainty be kept equally clean, some feeding 



MANAGEMENT OF THE DAIRY HERD. 309 

device which compels the calf to suck its milk instead of swallowing 
rapidly is preferable to the open pail 5 but, all considered, the latter is 
usually the best utensil. If gritting the teeth or other symptoms 
of indigestion appear, a little limewater in the milk or a little 
baking soda will usually prove a correction. Keep the calf dry and 
clean, fairly warm, but in pure air, and allow it to exercise. If its box 
is small, turn it daily into a covered yard or small paddock. Young 
calves like company, but if kept together are likely to learn bad suck- 
ing habits. Every calf had better have its own box until a month or 
two old, and then be tied up out of reach of neighbors; but several 
may exercise together if not turned out until an hour after taking milk. 

The calf here referred to is not supposed to be for veal, but to be 
raised for a dairy cow. The foregoing treatment should be accompanied 
by early lessons inducing it to eat sweet hay and a little grain. The 
sooner it learns to eat hay or other rough forage and the more it eats, 
the better; but keep up milk feeding as long as possible, if only once a 
day. Grain should be used sparingly, oats and bran preferred, perhaps 
a little linseed, and always to judiciously supplement the other food. 
Do not turn it on to grass too soon. If a spring calf, carry it over to the 
second summer without pasturage. A fall calf will be in good shape 
to get its living from pasture its first summer. 

Fall calves are generally better cared for, thrive better, and make 
better cows than those dropped in the spring; another reason for hav- 
ing cows calve in the autumn. The writer feels certain of getting better 
results, in the end, from raising four calves dropped at the season 
advised than from five born in the spring, and is inclined to make the 
comparison stronger. 

From the time milk ceases to be the main food of the calf until the 
heifer drops her first calf (at which time she becomes a cow, if ever, 
regardless of age) the feeding of the animal should be with a view to 
nourishment and growth, without accumulation of flesh. When pas- 
turage is good, after the calf is six months old, there can be no better 
food; if grass is short or dry and growth slackens, supplement with 
clover hay, wheat bran, or oats. At other times let the food be mainly 
the coarser and more bulky kinds of forage; the digestive apparatus 
needs to be developed and become accustomed to working up large 
quantities of food. A big belly may result, but no matter. If accom- 
panied with a well-sprung rib, a strong back and loin, depth of flank, 
and other marks of constitutional vigor, a big belly is to be desired, 
indicating capacity as a feeder and user of feeds. Give long forage, 
fodder, or " roughness " the preference with young stock, and use grain 
sparingly as needed to balance the ration and promote growth and 
thrift. A fall calf, well bred and healthfully grown, should "come in" 
when just about two years old, and ought to make a good cow. 



310 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 
ATTENDANCE AND MILKING. 

A herd of good dairy cows deserves to have good care, and this can 
only be insured by having the right kind of attendants. If the owner 
is unable to either attend the cows himself or give the matter personal 
supervision twice a day or more, it is to his interest and profit to be 
certain that his employees are trustworthy and fit to be cow keepers. 
Everyone should be quiet, even-tempered, gentle, and regular and 
cleanly in his habits. A cow abominates an unclean man. Tobacco 
in all its forms is obnoxious to every department of dairying. All the 
work about the herd should be done with the utmost system and regu- 
larity — stable cleaning, grooming, exercise, watering, feeding, milking; 
a fixed time for everything and everything at its time — "on the dot.** 
Nothing has been produced which begins to compare with the human 
hand as a milking machine. Cleanliness and regularity are the first 
requisites in good milking. Next, quiet and gentleness should be 
accompanied by quickness. Two milkers, one rapid and the other slow 
(the cow being accustomed to both), will get about the same quantity 
of milk in any given number of days, but the former will get the more 
fat. The quicker the milking, the richer the milk, if the work is done 
well and completely 5 the difference may not be great, but it is measur- 
able in butter or money. Again, two men milking like quantities in 
like time, from the same cows or animals giving milk usually just alike, 
will get different results as to richness, and if they change places the 
richer milk is secured by the same man. The milk fat or butter fat 
comes from the cow, bnt it is the expert milker that gets the most of it. 
There seems to be an undefined and yet conclusively proved relation 
between some milkers and the cows they handle which produces this 
result. It is certain that change of milkers, manner or time of milk- 
ing, irregularity, or any disturbance at milking time may be expected 
to cause loss of butter fat in the milk. In short, it pays, and pays well, 
to have milking done in the very best way, by the very best milkers 
that can be found. A superior milker should be appreciated and 
retained as persistently as a superior cow 5 the former is the more diffi- 
cult to replace. 

A very good practice, although uncommon, is to take every cow to a 
particular place to be milked, apart from where she usually stands ; this 
to be a clean and airy place, like an open shed. The milking shed or 
room being kept scrupulously clean, with free movement of pure air, 
there is an almost certain exemption from what are usually called "ani- 
mal odors w in milk, but which really are stable odors or odors from the 
milker. It may be stated as a fact, and should always be remembered, 
that milk as it comes from the healthy cow is perfectly pure. It has 
by nature no unpleasant taste or smell (except an occasional result 
of peculiar food), and all those odors and flavors which are often so 



MANAGEMENT OF THE DAIRY HERD. 311 

objectionable get into the milk after it is drawn from the udder of the 
cow. They come from the uncleaned body of the cow herself, or from 
her surroundings, the air of the stable, the milk vessel, or the cloth- 
ing or person of the milker. These troubles are all avoidable ; they are 
not to be charged to the cow, but to the man, her keeper. 

With the exception of some extraordinarily large milkers, or for short 
periods when the yield is largest, there is no gain in milking cows more 
than twice a day. Within limits, it is true that, if properly done, the 
oftener a cow is milked the richer will be the milk; but the difference 
is very slight, and seldom, if ever, enough to pay for the extra labor. 
In one of the most noted and fully authenticated cases of immense milk 
production by one cow (a ton or more of milk a month for a year), the 
cow was milked every six hours for 365 days, every time by the same 
man, and always within two minutes of the right hour. This remark- 
able record was without doubt largely due to the milker, who was the 
feeder of the cow as well; indeed, the year's performance by the man 
was as noteworthy as that of the cow. 

THE PASTURE SEASON AND SOILING. 

As soon as the spring grass gets high enough for the cows to get a 
bite, let them have it. At first the time daily on pasture should be very 
short, for the good of both pasture and cow. The latter should be 
gradually changed from stable feeding to pasturage, especially if the 
feeding has been of dry material or mostly so. And the stable feeding 
should continue unchanged, undiminished, until the cow herself indi- 
cates that she is getting enough grass to replace a part of the stable 
ration. Then, as the pasturage improves, indoor feeding may be les- 
sened and finally discontinued. If a pasture furnishes an abundance 
and variety of grasses, there can be no better food found for the milch 
cow. The nutritive ratio for mixed pasturage is about 1 to 5, which 
can not be improved for succulent food. But the best of pasture grasses 
contain from 65 to 75 per cent of water, sometimes more, and the cow 
must procure a large quantity of this material, 100 pounds or so in the 
course of a day, to secure the food material required. Shade and water 
should be carefully looked after in connection with pasturage, as well 
as the grass. In very large pastures there should be watering places 
in different parts of the inclosure, as well as shade, that the cows may 
not be compelled to travel far to find either. 

Until flies become bad, cows had better stay in pasture by day and 
in stable by night, or be left out all the time. But in the worst fly 
time, and perhaps when the sun's heat is greatest, it is good practice 
to stable the herd during the day in an airy but shaded cow house, and 
turn it on pasture at night. If the pasture has not abundant shade 
and water this course should certainly be followed. Heat and flies 
reduce both quality and quantity of milk product. The trouble from 



312 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

flies can be largely remedied by spraying the cows with a very weak 
mixture of water and some one of the approved sheep-dip preparations. 
Such a spraying will last a week or ten days, unless there are hard 
rains meanwhile. The entire interior of the cow house should be 
sprayed with a solution of this kind, and strong enough for an insecti- 
cide, weekly -throughout the summer. 

There is ample evidence that, although milk yield may be increased 
by feeding grain to cows at pasture, the gain no more than pays for 
the extra food, and seldom does that. There may be in some cases a 
small margin for profit in improving the pastures by less grazing and 
richer manure. But if pasturage is short, even temporarily deficient, 
the cows should be fed enough of grain, hay, silage, or green crops to 
supply the deficiency. 

The dairyman who has most of his cows dry during drought, fly time, 
and "dog days" appreciates the advantages of "bringing in" his cows 
in the fall. 

Soiling. — The advantages of soiling over pasturage are so great, 
especially where dairying on high-priced land, that every dairyman 
should carefully study the question of adopting this system. Much 
depends upon the supply, character, and cost of labor at one's com- 
mand. It may be profitable to practice partial soiling where it will not 
be to do more. Careful trials have shown that by feeding cows wholly 
on green forage crops in the stable from two to five times as much milk 
can be produced from an acre as from pasturing the same land. Of 
course, farms often contain many acres of pasture land that can not be 
tilled, but for tillable land the profit in soiling* is great. Many more 
cows can be kept on a given area and the productive capacity of the 
land can be rapidly increased. The saving of manure and its applica- 
tion to best advantage is one of the great gains in soiling. 

For this system of feeding stock a variety ot green crops is necessary, 
grown so as to come to best feeding condition in well-arranged succes- 
sion throughout the growing season. There must be no breaks 5 the 
supply must be certain and sufficient. It is well to aim to grow about 
twice as much of every crop as one expects to use 5 any surplus can be 
saved by drying or putting in a silo. Crops well adapted to soiling in 
most parts of the country are these : Eed clover and timothy, sown sep- 
arately in July and August; crimson clover and barley, sown in August 
and September; and wheat and rye, sown in September and October — 
all these for use in (an open) winter and early spring. Oats, spring 
barley, and pease sown early in the spring; vetches, also corn and soja 
beans, planted or sown in May; cowpeas, corn, millets, and Hungarian 
grass, sown in June — these for cutting in the summer and fall The 
first and second crops from the regular mowing lands of grass and clover 
will fill in the gaps. 

A good deal of skillful management is needed to bring on the crops at 
the right time in proper succession and in sufficient quantity. At least 



MANAGEMENT OF THE DAIRY HERD. 313 

110 pounds of green forage should be provided daily, on the average, for 
every 1,000 pounds' weight of cow; the quantity will vary much with the 
character of crop. By the soiling system, well managed, 1 acre may feed 
two cows for five or six months, and 3 acres for five cows is a conservative 
estimate. 

One of the points of gain by soiling is saving the food expended by the 
animal in its exertion to procure its food at pasture. But moderate 
exercise should accompany soiling, and a small pasture lot or large pad- 
dock should be provided convenient to the cow house for use of the herd, 
especially at night. 

THE STABLING SEASON. 

Up to a certain point fall pasturage is as good as in any other part of 
the year. But after one or two hard frosts it is well to offer the cows 
some nice hay when they come in at night, and if they eat it with rel- 
ish, one may be pretty certain the season has arrived to gradually 
change the herd from pasture to stable for the winter. The cows should 
not be left out at night after it becomes chilly, or be exposed to cold 
autumn storms. They may be allowed in the field a few hours on all 
pleasant days until snow flies, but without expecting them to get much 
besides water and exercise. Before keeping them steadily at the stable 
and yards the feeding should be, by gradual steps, completely changed 
to the full stable diet. 

Meanwhile, or on leisure days earlier in the year, the cow house 
should be prepared for its occupancy by the herd throughout the sta- 
bling season. Boxes, stalls, and feeding troughs or floor should be 
thoroughly cleaned and disinfected, so that no animal can discover or 
be subjected to any unpleasant traces of another and previous occu- 
pant of the place. Then assign every cow her particular place for the 
winter, and gently insist upon every one being always in the right 
place. The bedding, absorbents, and disinfectants should be provided 
in abundance and in ample time for all to be quite dry. Use no damp 
material under a cow, no rotten straw, and no moist earth or sawdust. 
In order of efficiency, the best absorbents are peat, spent tanbark, saw- 
dust, wheat straw, forest leaves, and dry earth. If earth alone is used, 
from 30 to 40 pounds per cow will be needed daily — a big shovelful. If 
straw alone, provide or 10 pounds a day, and less if cut short. A good 
combination is 5 or 6 pounds of straw and 10 or 12 of earth or saw- 
dust. An excess of bedding or litter is undesirable. If the floor on 
which the cow lies is dry and not cold, very little litter is needed for 
true bedding. Its chief use is as an absorbent, and if more than neces- 
sary for this object is used, the manure becomes too dry and bulky, and 
is lessened in value per load. Land plaster is a very satisfactory dis- 
infectant or deodorizer about a cowhouse. If one takes good care of 
the manure and intends to add chemical fertilizer, the latter may be 



314 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

used in the stable, in some forms, instead of plaster. A refuse of the 
*< double phosphate" works is an article called phospho-plaster. This 
can often be got at about the same price as common plaster, and as it 
contains about 1 per cent of phosphoric acid, it is a good addition to 
the stable manure, while also an efficient disinfectant. Kainit, about 
the lowest grade of German potash salt, is a good substitute for plaster 
in the stable. It costs half as much again, sometimes twice as much, 
but less of it may be used, and the potash it contains (11 to 13 percent) 
is a very desirable addition to the manure in several ways. From 1 to 
2 pounds of kainit or plaster per day to each cow can be profitably 
used, scattered in the litter and along the gutters of the cow house 
throughout the stabling season. 

It is a mistake to be satisfied with watering the herd but once a day. 
If they can be induced to drink twice or three times a day, it should be 
done. Cows need much water. It has been found that the average 
milch cow requires about 81 pounds of water a day while in milk 
(nearly 10 gallons), and about 53 pounds while dry. Of this, the cow 
in milk takes rather more than two-thirds (say, 7 gallons) as drink, and 
the rest in her food, while the dry cow takes rather less than two-thirds 
as drink, and a little more than one-third in the food. 

FEEDING THE HERD. 

The first advice is not to feed the herd as a herd. Cows differ in 
their tastes and in their requirements in the way of food just as human 
beings do, although perhaps not to the same extent. To feed all the 
cows in a herd alike, day after day and month after month, as is so 
often done, is an absurd and wasteful practice. Some are sure not to 
get enough for greatest profit, and others are likely to get more than 
they will use to advantage. This as to quantity only; but differences 
in kind of feed may be equally desirable. In a thorough study and 
comprehension of the question of feeding lies the greatest opportunity 
for the exercise of real economy in the management of the dairy herd. 

Scientific feeding means simply rational feeding, a common-sense 
application of a good understanding of the objects of feeding, the char- 
acter of food materials, their proper relations, combinations and effects, 
and the needs and characteristics of the animals in hand. 

The principles of scientific feeding, the composition and digestibility 
of feeding stuffs, the food requirements of animals for various purposes, 
and the calculation of rations have been explained in Farmers' Bul- 
letin, No. 22, issued by the Department of Agriculture. The composi- 
tion of a large variety of feeding stuffs grown and employed in this 
country is also given in an appendix to this volume. To these, there- 
fore, the student of the great feeding problem is referred, as that is 
much too big a subject to discuss in detail here. 

In practice it is more common and convenient to measure grain food 
than to weigh it when mixing rations for cows. Yet one may want to 



MANAGEMENT OF THE DAIRY HERD. 



315 



keep weights in mind at the same time. For this purpose the follow- 
ing little table is handy and approximately correct: 

Grain foods— -relations of weights and measures. 



Food stuff. 



Wheat, whole 

Cracked corn 

Gluten meal 

Cotton -seed meal. . 
Corn meal ...... <...<. 

Corn and cob meal 
Wheat middlings. 

Oats, whole 

Ground oats 

Wheat bran 



Half bushel 
weighs— 



Pounds. 

30 

28 

26 

25| 

234 

22 

18 

16 

12 

10 



One quart 
weighs — 



Lbs. 03. 



12 
10 



Some of the articles named are quite variable in weight, however, 
wheat bran especially, and weighing is always the safer way. No cow 
house is properly equipped without its scales for weighing feed stuffs 
and milk, and its book, paper, or slate, with pencil for making notes 
and records in connection with the feeding, the milk product, and all 
facts of interest and desirable for preservation. 



GENERAL NOTES. 

There are various other questions which arise in the consideration 
of the problem of feeding the dairy herd which have not been touched 
upon, and but a part of which can even be mentioned here. On the 
practical side, one should ascertain the kind and quantity of feeding 
stuffs which have been produced and are available on the farm, the 
best way of preparing these for the cattle, and the matter of markets 
in its relation to getting those articles which it seems desirable to buy 
in order to supplement the home supplies and balance the rations. On 
the scientific side, there are a good many additional points which 
deserve careful attention — the relations of breed and feed in the economy 
of dairy practice 5 the effects of different foods upon the production of 
milk and butter, in quantity and in quality, having the item of flavor 
prominent; effects of food upon the economy of churning or u the churn- 
ability" of the cream; and the comparatively new subject of bacteri- 
ology in its bearings on dairying, the health and cleanliness of the cow 
house, and the preservation of products. 

The whole subject of animal nutrition is under investigation and 
discussion, and by watching the publications of American experiment 
stations and the reviews of foreign work new suggestions of practical 
application will be found appearing at intervals. 



316 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

The manure from a well-fed dairy herd is a matter of great conse- 
quence, and its proper management requires judgment. The better 
the feeding, the better the manure. While all manure is worth good 
care, the better the manure the more important it is to handle it well 
to prevent heavy losses. The best single piece of advice as to handling 
stable manure is to get it from the stable to the land where wanted, and 
there spread it with the least labor and the least delay possible. Yet 
this general plan must be modified at times, and according to circum- 
stances. 

A few publications may be here named which the manager of a dairy 
herd will find of interest and useful for reference: 

Report on Diseases of Cattle, Bureau of Animal Industry, United States Department 
of Agriculture, 1892; and especially " Cattle feeding," a chapter in the same 
report, by Professor Henry. 

Handbook of Experiment Station Work, 1893. United States Department of Agri- 
culture. 

Bovine Tuberculosis. Bulletin No. 7, 1894. Bureau of Animal Industry, United 
States Department of Agriculture. 

Leguminous Plants for Green Manuring and Feeding. Farmers' Bulletin, No. 16, 
1893. United States Department of Agriculture. 

Farm Manures. Farmers' Bulletin, No. 21, 1894. United States Department of Agri- 
culture. 

Feeding Farm Animals. Farmers' Bulletin, No. 22, 1894. United States Department 
of Agriculture. 



SOME PRACTICAL SUGGESTIONS FOB THE SUPPRESSION 
AND PREVENTION OF BOTINE TUBERCULOSIS. 

By Theobald Smith, M. D v 
Chief of the Division of Animal Pathology, Bureau of Animal Industry, U. S. Depart- 
ment of Agriculture. 

Tuberculosis among domesticated animals, more particularly among 
cattle, has during the past few years received a large share of attention, 
mainly because of its possible direct influence on human health. With 
this idea in the foreground, the bearing of this malady on agricultural 
interests has been more or less obscured. As a result we have a great 
mass of publications on the hygienic aspect of tuberculosis and but 
very little on the prevention of this disease among cattle. Many of 
the more valuable contributions to our knowledge have been made in 
order to show more definitely what degree of tuberculosis makes an 
animal unfit for food. This point of view, while bringing out now and 
*then valuable facts, does not pay sufficient attention to the animal dur- 
ing life. What to do to reduce the high percentage of infection among 
living animals has been practically ignored in all but a few recent pub- 
lications. It became evident to the writer some years ago that this 
was, after all, the most important aspect of the serious problem of 
bovine tuberculosis. If the disease can be restricted and repressed 
among cattle during life, the hygienic problem will take care of itself. 

To attack tuberculosis as it exists at present is undoubtedly a most 
difficult problem, and the conditions which tend to repress or to aug- 
ment its further dissemination are very complex. No single measure, 
however sweeping, is likely to be successful. A number of details 
will have to receive careful attention, and in the end the success will 
depend largely upon the intelligent watchfulness constantly exercised 
in various directions by the stock owner. The wide dissemination and 
the localized intensity of this disease, especially in herds devoted to 
breeding purposes, will require, above all, concerted action in attempts 
for its repression. 

Though a strictly bacterial disease and introduced into the body only 
by the tubercle bacillus, which is always derived from some preexisting 
case of disease, tuberculosis differs, nevertheless, from most animal dis- 
eases in very important particulars. Its unknown beginnings in the 
body and its insidious march after it has once gained a foothold are 
responsible for the existence of a large number of tuberculous animals 
in all stages of the disease. In the earlier stages, while the disease is 

317 



318 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

still restricted to a single focus, the animal is to all outward appear- 
ances in perfect health. It is only after the infection has invaded sev- 
eral cavities of the body or produced mechanical obstructions that it 
becomes manifest. The prolonged latency of the first stage of the dis- 
ease, with little or no discharge of tubercle bacilli, raises the question, 
What should be done with such cases? A comparison with some other 
infectious diseases makes the predicament all the clearer. 

When an animal becomes infected with anthrax or with Texas fever, 
the specific microorganisms begin to multiply at once within the body. 
Within twenty-four hours in the case of anthrax, and a few days to a 
week in Texas fever, the symptoms are fully developed, and death or 
recovery speedily follows. There can be no question here concerning 
degree of disease or utility of the animal during the earlier stages. 
The infected and the noninfected are divided by sharp unmistakable 
barriers. In tuberculosis, on the other hand, the infected animal is 
practically well during the earlier stages of the disease, and the dis- 
ease may become stationary, possibly healed. This peculiarity of 
tuberculosis modifies to a certain extent the usual measures employed 
to repress an infectious disease. In certain diseases the necessity for 
the destruction of all infected animals becomes imperative, because 
the disease must be kept restricted and suppressed as soon as possible. 
The present wide dissemination of this disease and its prevalence' 
among other domesticated animals, such as dogs, cats, horses, goats, 
and above all, its prevalence in man, makes the complete extinction 
of this malady an unrealizable problem, or at most one whose ultimate 
success can not be positively predicted. 

It is largely due to these peculiarities that tuberculosis has received 
so little attention until recent years. Its unrecognizable beginnings 
and slow, insidious march in the body made it appear oil the surface as 
a disease not of infectious origin, but as one in which inheritance 
played an important part. After the discoverfof the true cause in the 
form of a bacterium (Bacillus tuberculosis) by Koch the conception that 
infection played the most important rdle has gradually gained a firm 
foothold. Without in any way wishing to eliminate the factor of hered- 
ity, the writer has based the statements in the following pages entirely 
on the principle, now universally recognized, that without the presence 
of the tubercle bacillus there can be no tuberculosis. If it can be 
shown that the tubercle bacillus can be kept away from cattle by adopt- 
ing precautionary measures the discussion concerning heredity would 
be useless* If, however, this should prove to be impossible, the prob- 
lems of breeds heredity, and environment, or, in other words, the acces- 
sory causes, will require renewed study. 

The conditions peculiar to this disease which confront the agricultu- 
ral interests may be summarized under the following heads : 

(1) The present wide dissemination of the disease, no territory being 
absolutely free from it. 



SUPPRESSION AND PREVENTION OF TUBERCULOSIS. 319 

(2) The large percentage of infected cattle which are in the earlier 
stages of the disease, or in which the lesions are insignificant, station- 
ary, or healed. 

(3) The absence of any disturbances of health for considerable periods 
of time after infection. 

(4) The possible transmission of tubercle bacilli from animals to man, 
more particularly in the milk. 

CHARACTER OF THE DISEASE. 

Tuberculosis in cattle is at the outset a strictly local disease. Though 
the entire body has been, to a certain extent, influenced by the local 
changes, as shown by its sensitiveness to tuberculin, the tubercle bacilli 
themselves are restricted to that locality where the disease process 
shows itself to the naked eye. Where the infection has been very 
severe, that is to say, where there are large numbers of tuberculous 
cattle in a herd which are continually discharging the virus (in the man- 
ner indicated below), so that the remaining animals are being exposed 
to large numbers of tubercle bacilli, the disease may start in several 
places within the body at the same time, and its subsequent progress 
may be, on this account, somewhat more rapid. 

In the majority of animals, however, that are killed in the early stages 
of tuberculosis the disease process is limited to a single spot for a time. 
The location of this spot will vary with the manner of infection, and 
possibly with other conditions not yet definitely known. In most cases 
the tubercle bacilli settle down at the start in some lymphatic gland 
and there begin to multiply. This multiplication is accompanied by an 
enlargement of the gland. The size attained by diseased glands varies 
in accordance with the number of bacilli which have settled down in 
them. After a certain length of time the enlargement ceases. The 
gland may be barely larger than before the infection, or it may have 
gained enormously in size. The writer has seen glands, normally as 
large as horse-chestnuts, become as large as a child's head. 

When the enlargement has come to an end, further changes begin to 
take place within the gland. The new tissue produced by the presence 
of the tubercle bacilli begins to assume a yellowish color and to degen- 
erate slowly into a cheesy mass. Hence, when tuberculous glands 
are cut open we note in those not very much enlarged yellow masses 
sprinkled in the gland substance, varying in size from one-sixteenth 
to one-fourth inch. The coalescence of these gives rise to larger cheesy 
masses. In those glands which have become very large the appear- 
ance of the gland when cut open is somewhat different. The cut sur- 
face, at first grayish in color, later on appears permeated with a network 
of yellowish lines, which network encroaches slowly upon the grayish 
tissue until the entire substance of the gland has become yellowish 
in color and tough in consistency. Gritty particles are usually embed- 
ded in it. Lastly, it may become entirely calcareous, gritty, mortar- 



320 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

like, 1 or it may break down into a semifluid mass of a yellowish color, 
resembling soft cheese in consistency. In this state the enlarged gland 
is nothing more than a bag filled with this cheesy matter. Every ves- 
tige of the original gland structure has disappeared. This description 
of the disease process and the appearances presented by the changes 
to the naked eye are characteristic of tuberculosis wherever it may 
appear. The same cheesy breaking down occurs in the lungs, the liver, 
the bones, and other affected parts. 

Thus far the disease may have been entirely restricted to the gland or 
system of glands in some one part of the body. The process may have 
lasted a year or longer. When the softening takes place, the disease 
may become stationary, or, what is perhaps more likely to happen, 
blood vessels in the gland may become broken down and the tubercle 
bacilli in the softened mass carried in the blood to other parts of the 
body. This is usually the time when the infected cow will begin to 
show outward signs of disease and when the milk may carry tubercle 
bacilli. Bacilli may be carried in the blood to the uterus and there 
they may set up tuberculosis, and, in case of present or future preg- 
nancy, infect the unborn calf. 

The outcome of the disease may be neither in cure nor in a general 
infection of the body. It may take a middle course. It may slowly 
creep from gland to gland. The lining membrane of the chest and the 
abdomen may become studded with peculiar masses of tubercles which 
crowd upon the vital organs and interfere with their movements. The 
animal may become emaciated and lose strength in spite of the best 
care and food, because of the large amount of tuberculous material 
lodged in the body. The sometimes enormously enlarged glands in the 
chest near the backbone compress the gullet so that gases can not 
escape from the stomach. The animal has irregular or regular attacks 
of bloating, or the glands in the back of the throat may become so 
enlarged that swallowing and breathing are interfered with. Food may 
pass down the windpipe and cause pneumonia. It has already been 
stated that the spot which is the first to be diseased depends, among 
other things, upon the manner of infection. Thus, if tubercle bacilli 
are taken in with the milk, there is likely to appear in the calf (1) dis- 
ease of the glands of the throat 5 (2) disease of the glands in the abdo- 
men, which are situated on the membrane that suspends the intestine 
(mesenteric glands), because the tubercle bacilli pass into these glands 
from the food in the intestines 5 and (3) disease of the liver and its 
glands, because the blood passing through the liver comes largely from 
the intestines. 

If the tubercle bacilli are carried in a dried state into the body, they 
may lodge in the nasal passages and start up disease of the throat 
glands, or, what is more probable, they may pass into the lungs with the 
current of air. Here they may set up disease in the lung tissue, or they 

1 The conversion of the disease products into calcified masses may be regarded as a 
healing process. In rare cases the tubercles in the earliest stages become healed. 



SUPPRESSION AND PREVENTION OF TUBERCULOSIS. 321 

may pass on into the glands back of the lungs and attached to the wind- 
pipe and there first begin their destructive action. 

When the bacilli pass from the blood of the mother into the blood of 
the fetus, they generally lodge in the liver, although they may settle 
down in other regions of the body at the same time. 

Tuberculosis of the lining membrane of the chest and abdomen, to 
which reference has been made above, has given this affection the name 
of u pearly disease." 

It has already been stated that the uterus and the udder may become 
the seat of tuberculosis whenever tubercle bacilli are brought to them 
in the blood from other regions of the body. It is probable that the 
uterus may be infected from without by the bull, and that the udder 
may be infected by hands carrying the bacilli. On this latter point the 
evidence is at present inconclusive. 

The progress of tuberculosis in the body is modified by various con- 
ditions not yet fully understood. Age seems to have some influence. 
In very young animals the tendency toward a restriction of the dis- 
ease by a calcification of the tuberculous masses seems to be greater 
than at more advanced periods of life. In aged cattle the progress of 
the disease seems likewise less rapid, but for reasons not yet under- 
stood. The influence of sex is not known. It is probable that the dis- 
ease, other conditions being equal, makes slower progress in bulls than 
in cows. 

The conditions under which the purely local disease becomes gener- 
alized by a distribution of the virus ill the blood are not yet under- 
stood. The sudden breaking down of cows in good health, observed 
not infrequently, is probably the result of such distribution of the virus. 
We may at least provisionally assume that any strain upon the cow is 
likely to hasten the onset of generalized disease. Among these strains 
the giving birth to calves must be regarded as the greatest. The giv- 
ing way of some diseased spot at this time favors infection of the blood 
of the calf at birth. Cows which do not recover after calving, and in 
which a discharge from the vagina persists after the proper time, not 
directly traceable to retained afterbirth, should be regarded with sus- 
picion and promptly killed, for in such animals the milk is likely to be 
infected with tubercle bacilli. It is probable that other strains, such 
as exhaustive marches, chasing, etc., may lead to the same result. 

This brief sketch of the disease is sufficient to make clear (I) the 
primarily local character of the disease and its usually slow progress 
within the body from place to place; (2) its predilection, at the start, 
for the lymphatic glands and the lungs. Putting the places most fre- 
quently the seat of the earliest disease first, we have the following order : 

(1) Glands of the lungs (dorsal, mediastinal, and bronchial). 

(2) The lungs themselves. 

(3) The glands of the throat and intestines. 

(4) The liver and its glands. 
1 A 94 13 



322 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OP AGRICULTURE. 

The infection of the other organs, membranes, and structures of the 
body, excepting perhaps the uterus and the udder in rare cases, is sec- 
ondary to these. In endeavoring to comprehend the peculiar nature 
of this disease the reader should furthermore bear in mind that the 
virus, i. e., the tubercle bacilli, do not live and multiply in the blood. 
They are simply carried in the blood, in advanced cases, from organ to 
organ, and speedily fixed in the tissues, where they produce fresh crops 
of tubercles. In the earlier stages, when single glands only are the 
seat of the disease, the blood is free from infection. This accounts for 
the immunity of the milk in these stages. If there were any method 
of distinguishing these cases the danger incident to the milk supply 
could be easily removed. In practice, however, no such distinction 
can be definitely made; hence the suspicion which rests on all milk 
which comes from infected herds. <a 

Tuberculosis thus differs from other infectious diseases not so much 
m its nature as in the degree of its activity. It is a disease long drawn 
out, presenting stages, covering months and years, the duration of 
which in other more rapid diseases is measured by days. 

THE CONTAGIOUSNESS OP THE DISEASE. 

This is linked to the tubercle bacillus, for without it tuberculosis can 
not develop. Hence our knowledge of the transmission of the disease 
is derived largely from what we know of the life history of the tubercle 
bacillus within and without the animal body. Tubercle bacilli may 
pass from diseased animals in the following ways: 

(1) In discharges coughed up, in the case of advanced disease of the 
lungs. When the glands of the throat are diseased, they may, after a 
time, break down and discharge into the throat. Other glands about the 
head and neck may discharge directly outward. 

(2) In discharges from bowels, in advanced stages. 

(3) In discharges from vagina, in case of tuberculosis of the uterus. 

(4) In milk, when the udder is tuberculous or the disease generalized. 

(5) Tubercle bacilli may pass from the mother to the fetus in case of 
tuberculosis of the uterus or advanced generalized disease. 

Tubercle bacilli may be taken up by cattle in several different ways: 

(1) Fully nine-tenths of all diseased animals examined have been 
infected by inhaling the tubercle baciUi, dried and suspended in the 
air. 1 

(2) Fully one-half of all diseased animals examined have been infected 
by taking tubercle bacilli into the body with the food. This implies 
that both food and air infection are recognizable in the same animal in 
many cases. 

1 These estimates are of course merely approximate. Not a few* animals who have 
lung disease reinfect themselves by swallowing the mucus coughed up, or by soiling 
their own food with it. 



SUPPRESSION AM) PEEYENTION OP TUBERCULOSIS. 323 

(3) Animals are infected, though rarely, during copulation. In such 
cases the disease starts in the uterus and its lymph glands, or in the 
sexual organs and corresponding lymph glands of the bull. 

(4) Perhaps from 1 to 2 per cent of all calves cf advanced cases are 
born infected. Among the 200 cases of tuberculosis, including all ages, 
which have been examined by the writer, there are about 2 per cent in 
which the disease is best explained as having been directly transmitted 
from the mother during or before birth. 

We may define the dangers of infection somewhat more definitely by 
the statement that in any herd, even in those extensively infected, only 
a small percentage of the diseased animals, namely, those which are 
in an advanced stage, or such as have the disease localized from the 
very beginning in the udder, or the uterus, or the lungs, are actively 
shedding tubercle bacilli. It is these that are doing most, if not all, of 
the damage by scattering broadcast the virus. 

Disease of the udder is particularly dangerous^ because the milk at 
first appears normal for some weeks^ and therefore would be useet with 
impunity. Moreover, the tubercle bacilli in the diseased gland tissue 
are usually numerous. 1 

Similarly, in tuberculosis of the uterus the vaginal discharges may 
contain many tubercle bacilli. This deposited anywhere may lead to 
the extensive dissemination of the virus, or it may be carried by the 
ball to other cows. A diagnosis may be made by the examination of 
any existing discharge for tubercle bacilli. 

The foregoing statements apply to individual herds only. To what 
extent does the danger extend beyond the diseased herd to others in 
the neighborhood? To this we may give the general answer thai there 
is no danger unless the animals mingle on the pasture or in the stable. 
Tubercle bacilli are not carried in the open air, or if they are their num- 
bers are so small that the danger of infection is practically absent. 

It is also highly doubtful whether they are ever carried in sufficient 
numbers by third parties from place to place to become in any sense a 
danger. The reasons for this must be sought for in the tubercle bacil- 
lus itself. The diseased animal is the only manufacturer of tubercle 
bacilli, as well as the chief disseminator. Tubercle bacilli, after having 
left the body of the cow (and usually in small numbers), do not increase 
in nature, but suffer a steady decrease and final extermination in four 
to six months at the longest. Only after they have entered the bodies 
of susceptible animals do they again begin to multiply. Hence, with 
this disease the only danger to other herds lies in direct association, or 
in the transfer of. a diseased animal or of milk from such an animal. 
The great danger exists in the immediate surroundings of the infected, 
and loses itself as the distance increases. 

1 This fact, mentioned by Bang* the. writer has had opportunity to confirm in case 
of two tuberculous udders examined recently. 



324 YEARBOOK OP THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 
PREVENTIVE MEASURES. 

The suggestions to be recommended are not to be considered as tak- 
ing the place of any more sweeping and radical measures which have 
been contemplated by some States and are actually being tried in 
others. We wish them to be considered simply as of educational value 
to the owners of cattle in their efforts to repress and stamp out the dis- 
ease. The aid of the Government in this matter is a question to be 
discussed by itself. Without individual cooperation and sacrifice, 
directed by an intelligent understanding of the disease in its various 
aspects, any efforts on the part of the Government are likely to prove 
abortive, owing to the enormous interests involved. 

Removal of diseased animals. — This is the essential requirement in 
the suppression of tuberculosis. We have already stated that only in 
the diseased animals the tubercle bacilli multiply. Hence, if these are 
removed and the stables thoroughly disinfected, so that any germs shed 
by them are destroyed, we are safe in concluding that the disease has 
been suppressed. 

The disease in the early stages can be detected only with the aid of 
tuberculin. In thfc advanced stages most careful observers will proba- 
bly recognize it, or at least suspect it, without the use of tuberculin. 
Tuberculin, therefore, has become indispensable in giving the owner 
an idea of the inroads the disease is making in his herd, and in distin- 
guishing the infected from the noninfected. Tuberculin reveals to us 
all stages, from the earliest, most insignificant changes, when the animal 
is outwardly entirely well, to the gravest and most dangerous types of 
the disease. Tuberculin does not, as a rule, discriminate between these 
cases. Hence those who use it as a guide must not be disappointed 
when, after having killed the suspected ones, they find that many are 
in the earlier stages of the malady. Tuberculin, moreover, is not infal- 
lible. A small percentage of cases of disease are not revealed by it. 
On the other hand, a sound animal now and then gives the reaction 
for tuberculosis. These lapses must be borne in mind in using tuber- 
culin. In spite of them, however, tuberculin must be considered as of 
great value in revealing tuberculosis not recognizable by any other 
means during life. 

The question next arises, What shall be done with the infected ani- 
mals? This question is really composed of two distinct questions 
whose combination is mainly the cause of the present perplexity. 
From the standpoint of the agriculturist alone the matter is simple 
enough. The infected animals might be separated at once from the 
noninfected. The worst cases should be killed and buried deeply or 
burned. Those without outward signs of disease might be fattened 
for the butcher and inspected at the abattoir. This is the recommen- 
dation given by Nocard, a prominent French authority, and generally 
followed in European countries. But at this point public health ap- 



SUPPRESSION AND PREVENTION OF TUBERCULOSIS. 325 

pears and demands the prompt and complete destruction of all infected 
animals, however mild the disease, or, if the animal be not destroyed, 
the rejection of the milk of all infected animals. The interest of the 
stock owner and of public health are thus diametrically opposed. If 
the demands of public health were in every sense justifiable from a 
strictly scientific standpoint, there could be no question as to an entire 
submission to its demands. But the case is not so simple, and gives 
room for diversity of opinion. Leaving the public-health aspect of 
the question aside for the moment, let us return to the farmers' side 
of it. After all infected animals have been segregated or killed, as the 
case may be, and the stables disinfected, the remaining healthy ani- 
mals should be retested with tuberculin within a certain period of 
time, from three to six months after the first test, to make sure that 
no disease has been overlooked. Future repetitions must be recom- 
mended, according to our present knowledge, for some cases may have 
been missed by the tuberculin, or the disease germs may possibly be 
reintroduced by tuberculous human beings, or by tuberculous cats, 
dogs, ana other domesticated animals. 

All animals introduced into a herd must have been tested and found 
to be sound beforehand. This is such a self-evident proposition that it 
needs no comment. 

In the absence of the tuberculin test, or of organized official inspec- 
tion, the stock owner should carefully and promptly remove from his 
herd and have destroyed — 

(1) All animals which show emaciation, with coughing, and any sus- 
picious discharges from the nose. 1 

(2) Those animals with enlarged, prominent glands about the head 
(in front of the ears, under and behind the lower jaw), or enlarged 
glands in front of the shoulder, in the flank, and behind the udder, and 
all animals having swellings on any part of the body which discharge 
a yellowish matter and refuse to heal. 

(3) Animals with suspected tuberculosis of uterus and udder. 
Disinfection and other preventive measures. — It will probably require 

more or less time before the use of tuberculin will have become generally 
established. Hence, preventive measures of a general character must 
still be kept in view for some time to come. These measures partly 
suffer shipwreck from the fact that it is difficult without tuberculin to 
recognize even advanced disease during life. Still much can be done 
to reduce the amount of infection by following out certain general and 
specific suggestions which the renewed study of the disease has either 
originated or else placed on a more substantial basis. 



1 Now and then emaciation is due to other causes, such as the presence of foreign 
bodies in the chest, disease of the liver and kidneys, chronic broncho- pneumonia, 
etc. Animals affected with these diseases are of no permanent value, and their 
destruction is in the end an actual saving, since such maladies are usually incurable. 



326 YEARBOOK OF THE U. & DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

Perhaps the most important preliminary suggestion to be made is, 
that the owner of cattle should endeavor to familiarize himself as much 
as possible with the general nature of tuberculosis, its cause, the ways 
in which the virus may leave the body of the sick and enter that of the 
well, and, lastly, the ways in which it spreads within the body. He will, 
by the acquisition of such fundamental knowledge, lift himself above 
the plane where quackery and specifics abound, and understand pre- 
cisely what to expect after the disease has entered his herd, and how to 
meet the demands of public health. He should, moreover, make himself 
acquainted with the peculiar appearance of tuberculous growths in the 
body, and open every animal that dies, so that he may know to what 
extent his animals are dying of this malady. Wherever possible the 
services of the skilled veterinarian should be made use of. Sanitary 
precautions should begin with the removal of diseased and suspected 
animals, as stated above. This is the most essential requirement, for 
diseased animals are the only breeding places of the specific virus. 

After the removal of these, attention should be paid first of all to 
the stables. Here, during the long- confinement of the winter months, 
when ventilation is all but suppressed, we may look for the source of 
most of the inhalation diseases so common in tuberculous cattle. Even 
when only a few cases of tuberculosis have been found, the stables 
should be disinfected by removal of all dirt and the subsequent appli- 
cation of disinfectants. Since tubercle bacilli are more resistant than 
most other disease germs, the strength of the disinfecting solution 
must not be less than as given. The following substances may be used : 

(a) Corrosive sublimate (mercuric chloride), 1 ounce in about 8 gal- 
lons of water (one- tenth of 1 per cent). The water should be kept in 
wooden tubs or barrels and the sublimate added to it. The whole must 
be allowed to stand twenty-four hours, so as to give the sublimate an 
opportunity to become entirely dissolved. Since this solution is poison- 
ous, it should be kept well covered and guarded. It may be applied 
with a broom or mop and used freely in all parts of the stable. Since 
it loses its virtue in proportion to the amount of dirt present, all 
manure and other dirt should be first removed and the stables well 
cleaned before applying the disinfectant. After it has been applied, 
the stable should be kept vacant as long as possible. Before animals 
are allowed to return, it is best to flush those parts which the animals 
may reach with their tongues, to remove any remaining poison. 

(b) Chloride of lime, 5 ounces to a gallon of water (4 per cent). This 
should be applied in the same way. 

(e) The following disinfectant is very serviceable. It is not so dan- 
gerous as mercuric chloride, but is quite corrosive, and care should be 
taken to protect the eyes and hands from accidental splashing: 

Gallon. 

Crude carbolic acid ..- „ i 

Crude sulphuric acid i 



SUPPRESSION AND PREVENTION OF TUBERCULOSIS. 327 

These two substances should be mixed in tubs or glass vessels. The 
sulphuric acid is very slowly added to the carbolic acid. During the 
mixing a large amount of heat is developed. The disinfecting power 
of the mixture is heightened if the amount of heat is kept down by 
placing the tub or glass demijohn containing the carbolic acid in cold 
water while the sulphuric acid is being added. The resulting mix- 
ture is added to water in the ratio of 1 to 20. One gallon of mixed 
acids will furnish 20 gallons of a strongly disinfectant solution having 
a slightly milky appearance. 

(d) Whitewash is not in itself of sufficient strength to destroy tubercle 
bacilli, but by imprisoning and incrusting them on the walls of stables 
they are made harmless by prolonged drying. Whitewashing should 
be preceded by thorough cleaning. 

Particular attention should be paid to the sides and ceilings of 
stables. All dust and cobwebs should be periodically washed down. 
Those parts coming in contact with the heads of cattle, stanchions, 
halters, troughs, etc., should be frequently cleansed and disinfected, 
even when they have not been used by diseased cattle. 

The removal of virus from the stables should, furthermore, be pro- 
moted by the regular removal of manure and by abundant ventilation. 
Good air has the effect of diluting infected air, and thereby reducing 
the chance of inhaling dried, floating tubercle bacilli, or at least of 
reducing the number inhaled. It likewise improves the vigor of the 
confined animals, and hence increases the resistance to infection. 

Cattle should not be placed so that their heads are close together; 
each animal should have plenty of room 1 and occupy the same place in 
the stable at all times. These precautions will prevent the nasal, lung, 
or vaginal discharges from one animal striking the head or soiling the 
feed of another. It is true that it is impossible to prevent animals 
licking each other outside of the stable, but it should be remembered 
that prevention must begin with the removal of all cases which are 
suspected of discharging tubercle bacilli. Stables should, furthermore, 
be carefully protected from the expectorations of human beings affected 
with tuberculosis of the lungs. 

Cattle should be housed as little as possible. The pasture has the 
effect of greatly reducing the chances of infection by a more or less 
rapid destruction of the virus, as well as by increasing the vigor of the 
animals through muscular exertion in fresh air. To what extent animals 
may pick up the virus on fields it would be difficult to estimate. That 
it is perfectly possible can not be gainsaid. A tuberculous animal may 
soil the ground over which it passes, and other animals may take up 
the virus with the food soon after. 

It is not likely that the virus remains alive long enough on the ground 
to become dried and ready for inhalation. The action of sunlight, the 

} Each, cow should have at least 600 cubic feet of air space. 



328 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

alternate wetting and drying which goes on in nature, may be looked 
upon as destructive agents. Even if the tubercle bacilli became speedily 
dried, the great diluting effect of the open air would reduce to a mini- 
mum the chances of inhaling the virus. 

Among the other dangers deserving attention is the infection of food 
and water. Drinking troughs should be so arranged that the surface 
water is constantly flowing away. Discharges from the nose or mouth 
left floating on the surface may be drawn in by healthy cattle while 
drinking. Each person must in such cases use his own judgment and 
ingenuity to prevent infection, in accordance with the quantity of water 
at his disposal. 

To restrict the dissemination of the disease among young stock the 
safest plan is to bring skimmed milk and other dairy products to the 
boiling point before feeding them. If the cows are positively known 
to be healthy, this may be unnecessary, but where any doubt exists the 
heating should be resorted to. Such a precaution will, furthermore, 
reduce scouring among calves, which is probably due in a great meas- 
ure to bacteria in the food. 

In presenting the foregoing suggestions the writer has endeavored to 
keep in view two conditions : (1) That in which tuberculin is not within 
reach and only unusual watchfulness can be exercised in separating 
suspected animals from the healthy, and (2) that in which tuberculin 
is tried, but with the view that it is not wholly infallible and requires 
to be seconded with other precautionary measures. If tuberculin is 
infallible, most of the suggestions made fall to the ground as unneces- 
sary, unless the disease can be readily reintroduced by man or diseased 
animals of other species, a possibility of wholly unknown dimensions 
at present. 

The study of tuberculosis, though prosecuted for many years, still 
offers many problems of prevention to solve, especially those which 
pertain to the conditions underlying predisposition. Is the breed or 
descent of the animal of much importance, or is it the conditions 
under which each animal is compelled to live which determine the 
readiness with which the disease destroys the bodyl These are vital 
questions, and their answer must have an important modifying influ- 
ence on the future success of dairying and stock raising. As we are 
now entering upon an era of suppression of this disease, it should be 
borne in mind that radical measures are the best to begin with, and 
that after the disease has been weeded out of each herd by tuberculin 
one or more times such herds become, in a sense, an experiment in the 
prevention of this disease, with the element of contagion presumably 
completely eliminated. The future will then decide how much is to be 
feared from the lapses of tuberculin, from sources of the virus outside 
of the bovine species, and from heredity, breed, and environment as 
predisposing agents. 



SUPPRESSION AND PREVENTION OF TUBERCULOSIS. 32 £ 

BOVINE TUBERCULOSIS IN ITS RELATION TO THE PUBLIC HEALTH. 

The dilemma in which the demands of public health have put the 
owner of cattle, as well as the health officer, has already been stated. 
The following statements referring to this subject are based upon a 
careful study of the distribution of the disease in a large number of 
animals. It needs to be emphasized here that arguments deduced 
from the superficial examination of a carcass and the simple determi- 
nation of the presence or absence of tuberculosis are worth little or 
nothing in attempting to solve the problems presented by the sanitary 
side. Only a thorough survey of the entire distribution of the tuber- 
culous deposits in animals furnishes us with approximately correct 
data. 

The flesh of those infected cattle in which the disease is restricted to 
one or two primary foci must be regarded as entirely harmless and of 
full nutritive value. Even in advanced cases, which should always be 
rejected, the glands embedded in the muscular tissue are found infected 
only occasionally. 

The condition of the milk in different stages of the disease is a 
question of much greater importance, and demands the most careful 
consideration. We may, for convenience and clearness, typify three 
stages : 

(1) In the earlier stages of the disease, provided the udder is normal, 
the milk is free from tubercle bacilli. 

(2) In the more advanced stages, provided the udder is normal, the 
milk may or may not contain tubercle bacilli. If the disease has 
become generalized, the indications are that at some time or other 
tubercle bacilli may pass into the milk. This passage is revealed at 
the autopsy by disease of the glands of the udder. The indications 
are that this passage is largely temporary, perhaps lasting only a day 
before the tubercle bacilli are caught up and filtered out into the 
lymphatic system. The indications are, furthermore, that compara- 
tively few bacilli passed through the udder. The udder itself does not 
favor their development there, and the closest inspection fails to reveal 
any augmenting foci of disease. These statements are based on careful 
examinations of slaughtered cattle and the thorough testing of milk 
from advanced cases. 1 

(3) When the udder is affected in any stage of the disease, a most 
grave condition is presented. Tuberculosis of the udder in most cases 
comes on in the later stages, when the virus is distributed by the blood 
from some disintegrated earlier focus of disease. Primary tuberculosis 
of the udder, that is, infection from without, has not yet been established 
definitely, and is probably of very rare occurrence. When the disease 
has started in the udder itself, tubercle bacilli may be discharged in 

1 See Bulletins Nos. 3 and 7 of the Bureau of Animal Industry, United States. 
Department of Agriculture. 
1 a 94 13* 



330 YEARBOOK OP THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

the milk in largo numbers and for long periods of time. The smaller 
the herd, in such a case, the more dangerous the entire milk becomes, 
because of the concentration of the virus. 

Udder tuberculosis is thus a most serious danger, the importance of 
which can not be too strongly urged. Fortunately, it is rare. The writer 
has encountered among 200 infected animals only one case of udder dis- 
ease, and 16 others which, according to the post-mortem studies, may 
have shed at one time or another tubercle bacilli into the milk in small 
numbers, but which had no recognizable disease of the udder itself. 
The large percentage of udder tuberculosis reported by several writers 
lately is incompatible with all former statistics, and indicates either 
an unprecedented condition in certain localities or else an error in 
diagnosis. The stock owner, in the absence of proper dairy or other 
official inspection, is under serious moral responsibilities to remove 
from his herd those animals in which there is even a suspicion of udder 
tuberculosis. Any udder which is found to increase slowly in size with- 
out any indication of inflammatory processes, recognizable by the pres- 
ence of heat, pain, and redness, and which becomes very firm without 
showing at first any alteration in the appearance of the milk, should be 
regarded as infected, the cow promptly segregated, and the entire milk 
rejected until a diagnosis can be made by a veterinarian. 1 

In view of the fact that tuberculin does not discriminate between 
dangerous and harmless cases, the public-health problem as it presents 
itself in practice is simply this : What shall be done with all the cattle 
which give the tuberculin reaction, in order that we may catch and 
destroy the 10 per cent 2 of slightly and temporarily dangerous cases 
among them, or the 1 per cent 3 of serious cases? Some of the danger- 
ous cases are so far along in the disease that they are easily detected 
without the aid of tuberculin, but this is by no means true of the major- 
ity. The situation certainly demands a most rigid periodical inspection 
of all animals furnishing milk to consumers, the prompt removal of all 
suspicious cases, and, above all, a more thorough control of the dairy 
in the interests of public sanitation. 

1 The stock owner needs here to be reminded that the feeding of milk from a tuber- 
culous udder to calves and pigs is the most dangerous thing he can do in laying the 
foundation of lifelong tuberculosis in young animals. 

2 These figures may be too high or too low. The collection of further accurate sta- 
tistical evidence is needed. 



THE PASTEURIZATION AND STERILIZATION OP MILK. 

By E. A. DE Schweinitz, Ph. D., 
Biochemic Laboratory, Bureau of Animal Industry, XJ. S. Department of Agriculture. 

Of all the food and drinks of man there is perhaps none which is 
more important than perfectly pure, clean, and healthy milk, and to 
secure it should be the subject of earnest care. The fact, is well known 
that milk undergoes a number of chemical changes in its constituents 
some hours after milking. It becomes sour, owing to the decomposition 
of the milk sugar, the casein separates, and finally putrefactive decom- 
position begins. These changes are induced by the presence in milk of 
bacteria, which for the most part do not generate diseases, but which 
may be, and often are, accompanied by bacteria capable of causing 
disease that obtain access to the milk from the body of the animal, 
from the air, from the water that was used to wash the cans, from the 
hands, clothing, and person of the milker, and the like. Even when 
collected with precaution, the careless distribution of milk may result 
in its contamination with disease-producing bacteria. 

The responsibility of milk for the distribution of a large amount of 
tuberculosis is at present more thoroughly appreciated than heretofore. 
To milk is also attributed the spread of typhoid fever, cholera, diph- 
theria, and other diseases, not to mention the many troubles peculiar to 
children that are to be traced directly to an impure milk supply. The 
latter are especially frequent in the crowded tenement districts of cities, 
where, through ignorance and lack of cleanliness, young children are 
surrounded by the worst possible conditions. 

It is safe to assume that most of the ordinary bacteria found in milk 
gain access to it from the dirt of the udder, or some other portion of the 
animal, and when we remember that the feces are largely undigested 
food which is filled with an enormous number of bacteria, it is easy to 
see how easily milk becomes contaminated. The character of the bac- 
teria in milk is also influenced by the straw used for littering, depend- 
ing upon whether this is fresh and often changed, or whether it is 
already fermented and only occasionally changed. The dust from the 
earth and stalls will naturally also make a great difference in the purity 
of milk. < 

An idea of the amount of dirt and bacteria in milk can be obtained 
from the following figures: Eenk found an average of 0.015 gram of 
faeces in 1 liter of the milk sold in Halle, Germany ; in that of Berlin, 
0.010 gram to the liter, and of Munich, 0.009 gram to the liter (0.1386 
grain to the quart). The maximum contamination in the milk in Halle 

331 



332 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

was 0.3625 gram of feces to the liter. A good idea of the purity of 
milk may be had by ascertaining the number of bacteria it contains. 
This number has been found to vary from 10,000 to 100,000 per cubic 
centimeter immediately after milking, and increases enormously after 
standing for a few hours at the normal temperature. The first portion 
of the milking contains the largest number of bacteria per cubic centi- 
meter, the last portion often none at all. If kept on ice the germs do 
not multiply. The bacteria which produce lactic acid and those which 
produce butyric acid are most common. The latter, together with cer- 
tain spore-bearing bacilli present in the dust of the air, are the most 
difficult to contend against. It is apparent, of course, that some of this 
contamination can not be avoided. 

The importance of a method or methods of freeing milk from these 
minute forms of life which cause so much damage, or of rendering them 
harmless, is evident. Several methods have been adopted to secure 
this end. The three most important are the use of chemicals, pasteur- 
ization, and sterilization, all being employed with the view of destroy- 
ing the germs without injuring the properties, value, and healthfulness 
of the milk. 

PRESERVATION WITH CHEMICALS. 

Bicarbonate of soda is often used for this purpose j but, though this 
will neutralize the acidity, it rather favors than retards the increase of 
bacteria. Boric and salicylic acid are of some use in this connection, 
but both have been found to be injurious to health, even in small doses, 
if taken continuously. These and other chemical means are therefore 
neither satisfactory nor advisable. 

The cooling of milk is well understood, but the most advantageous 
method of preserving it is by pasteurization or sterilization. In pas- 
teurization the milk is warmed to 65° to 70° C. (155° to 160° F.), a tem- 
perature sufficiently high to kill the ordinary bacteria and pathogenic 
germs. There are a few germs, however, which can only be destroyed 
by heating the milk to the boiling point, the temperature of complete 
sterilization, and to these we will again refer under the head of sterili- 
zation. 

PASTEURIZATION OF MILK FOR CHILDREN. 

Dr. Koplik says, in an article to which we will again have occasion to 
refer, that in his experience in the city of New York he has seen children 
flourish amidst the most unfavorable surroundings when their food and 
milk supply was derived from his dispensary, where it was thoroughly 
pasteurized under proper conditions, while in the same districts other 
children which were left to the carelessness of the mother were sick 
and puny. 

In addition to pasteurization, milk may be specially adapted for feed- 
ing to children and invalids by the addition of albuminoids and milk 
sugar. This makes it more nutritious and constitutes the so-called rec- 



PASTEURIZATION AND STERILIZATION OF MILK. 



333 



tified milk. The simple pasteurization of milk is useful, provided the 
milk is immediately cooled and used within twenty-four hours. If not 
afterwards cooled the pasteurization seems to increase the liability to 
fermentation. In thorough sterilization the danger to be avoided is the 
coagulation of the albuminoids or burning of the milk. Some authori- 
ties claim that the sterilization makes the milk too indigestible, while 
others claim that the digestibility is not affected, provided the steriliza- 
tion is properly conducted and the milk is thoroughly stirred during 
the process. The latter process requires more care than the former. 

Pasteurization can be easily carried on by any housewife. A simple 
and easy method is the one described in a circular issued by this Bureau, 
and which is here again printed : 

The simplest plan is to take a tin pail and invert a perforated tin pie 
plate in the bottom, or have made for it a removable false bottom per- 
forated with holes and having legs half an inch high, to allow circula- 
tion of the water. The milk bottle is set on this false bottom, and suffi- 





Eig. 52. — Sterilizing apparatus used in the Bureau of Animal Induct: y. 

cient water is put into the pail to reach the level of the surface of the 
milk in the bottle. A hole may be punched in the cover of the pail, a 
cork inserted, and a chemical thermometer put through the cork, so that 
the bulb dips into the water. The temperature can thus be watched 
without removing the cover. If preferred, an ordinary dairy thermome- 
ter may be used, and the temperature tested from time to time by remov- 
ing the lid. This is very easily arranged, and is just as satisfactory as 
the patented apparatus sold for the same purpose. The accompanying 
illustrations show the form of apparatus described (fig. 52). 

PREPARATION OF MILK FOR INFANTS AND INVALIDS. 

In the New York Medical Journal, February 4, 1893, Dr. Koplik 
describes the method used by him for several years in the Good Samari- 
tan Dispensary in New York for the preparation of infants' food. The 
milk supply is derived from a reliable leading dairy and delivered in 
refrigerator tubs. This is a point of special importance to which we 



334 YEARBOOK OF THE XL S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

will again refer. After many experiments and a comparison of results 
obtained by others. Dr. Koplik lias found the most satisfactory tempera- 
ture for the sterilization to be 85° to 90° 0. At this temperature there 
is a slight deposit of casein upon the sides of the bottle. Above 90° 0. 



Oven, inside measure 

Z4'x2fxZ4" 
Capacity 350 bottles 



<fc&Fr3> 



Fig. 53.— The Koch oven— interior and exterior views. 



the milk presents a boiled appearance and flavor, and the butter rises 
and floats on the top. In the plan adopted by Dr. Koplik, bottles of 
different sizes are used, 2 and 4 to 5 ounces, just sufficient for one 
nursing, so that the return of the bottle insures a thorough steriliza- 
tion of the sample for a repeated 
dose. The bottles are first filled 
with a saturated solution of soda 
and allowed to soak for twelve 
hours, and then thoroughly washed 
with a brush, both outside and in- 
side, rinsed with pure water, and 
allowed to drain and dry. 
After this they are heated in a 
^ Koch oven (fig. 53) to a tempera- 
j, ture of 160° to 170° O. for forty 
minutes. They are then allowed to 
cool and are ready for filling with 
milk. The apparatus for steriliza- 
tion is made of stout block tin and 
divided into five compartments 
and a steam box. The compart- 
ments are furnished with perfo- 
rated bottoms and fit one on top 
of the other, forming a compact 
column (fig.o4) through which the 
no. 54.— Kopiik's pasteurizer. steam can permeate. Each com- 

partment will hold fifty large-sized bottles. A thermometer passes 
through the cover of the top compartment and dips into the milk, so 
that the temperature can be noted. A stout tin pipe runs the whole 




PASTEURIZATION AND STERILIZATION OF MILK. 335 

length, of the sterilizer and dips into the top of each compartment, 
in order to fill the compartment uniformly with steam. The bottles, 
filled with the desired quantity, are placed uncorked in each com- 
partment and covered with a cloth of clean flannel. When the 
milk has reached a temperature of 85° 0. the process is continued 
for half an hour. The bottles are then taken out and rapidly 
corked with sterile rubber corks. 1 The whole process is completed 
in an hour. The milk used is always carefully examined. It must 
have 12 to 14 per cent of cream, and when boiled should not coagulate. 
The coagulation indicates the beginning of fermentative changes. 
Sometimes milk which tastes sweet will turn almost solid on boiling, 
showing that advanced changes have taken place. The slight acidity 
which would admit of detection only by chemical means would be 
apparent on boiling by the curdling of the milk. A little experience 
will enable one to detect the difference between the coagulation due to 
acidity and that ordinarily present after sterilization of good milk. 
The milk is bottled from large glass percolating funnels, thus requiring 
very little handling. For sick infants the diluent for the milk, a 4 per 
cent solution of milk sugar, is furnished. Limewater, as supplied by 
the drug stores, may also be used. If barley water is used as a diluent, 
it should be very carefully prepared and the milk diluted by an expert. 
Leaving the barley water to be prepared by the ignorant, or using bar- 
ley water made from poor material, leaves open too many chances for 
infection. During two seasons Dr. Koplik states that 1,268 children 
were supplied with the milk from his laboratory; 729 infants received 
the milk for only one or two days, while 539 received it for from one 
week to five months. About 400 of the latter he thinks were really 
benefited by the use of the milk. 

' This apparatus could be adapted for sterilizing milk in larger bottles 
and in greater quantity. 

In Boston and !New York private laboratories have been established 
for the purpose of rectifying milk, as it is called. These laboratories 
supply pasteurized milk on physicians' certificates, or milk to which 
has been added peptone, sugar, or other material as the physician 
may direct. The bottles, about 8 ounces in capacity, after being thor- 
oughly cleansed, are plugged with cotton and then sterilized. They 
are then filled with the milk, pasteurized directly with dry steam in a 
rectangular box especially arranged for the purpose. After pasteuri- 
zation the bottles are packed in wooden cases lined with ice, so that 
the milk can be kept cool and shipped to any desired spot. This 
method is similar to the one recommended by the Bureau, and can also 
be readily conducted by any housewife, either with the use of the vessel 
described or an Arnold steamer. 

] The corks are of "black rubber, and are sterilized by boiling for an hour in the 
solution of soda, rinsing with water, and sterilizing with steam. When the corks 
become brittle they are rejected. 



336 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



Many different forms of apparatus for pasteurization in stoppered 
bottles have been reeoinraended in Europe, the simplest being the use 
of beer bottles with the ordinary patent stoppers. 

The sterilization or pasteurization of milk in bulk is a matter of great 
importance, to which much attention has been paid abroad, but com- 
paratively little in this country. A pasteurizing apparatus invented 
by Professor Fjord and used in all creameries in Denmark is described 
here (fig. 55). 

A copper cylinder, covered with tin, is fitted steam tight into a larger 
vessel, made of copper or galvanized iron and covered with wood to 
retard cooling. The steam is introduced through the opening at g 
and passes out through d d. The milk or cream enters at c and 
passes out at e. This exit tube has a pocket into which a thermome- 
ter can be placed, so that the temperature can be controlled. The 
agitator, a 7 is of wood or metal, connected to a shaft, so that it will 

make about 150 revolutions per minute. The 
temperature used varies between 160° and 
180° F. In some dairies in Denmark the 
sweet milk is pasteurized. In others the 
cream is sterilized and then cooled before 
being set aside to ferment. In nearly all 
cases the skimmed milk which was returned 
from the cooperative dairies to the producers 
was sterilized as it left the separators. In 
this way it would keep better, and when fed 
to calves all danger from infection with tuber- 
culosis would be avoided. If sweet milk is 
sterilized, the separator skims it cleaner, but 
the sterilization very slightly diminishes the 
amount of butter, as a little more fat is left 
in the buttermilk. On the other hand, the 
sterilization of cream before churning will 
give a more uniform and better butter. 
In the city of Posen, 1 Germany, a satisfactory method of supplying 
sterilized milk in quantity and cheaply has been adopted. After wash- 
ing the teats of the cows thoroughly, the animals are milked with care, 
the milk collected in metal vessels, centrifugalized twice, and placed in 
flasks of 100 to 400 grams capacity, respectively. Soxhletfs patent 
stoppers are used. 2 The milk is then placed in metal casks heated by 
steam, the steam having a temperature of 104° O. in winter and 104 J° 




Fig. 55.— Fjord's pasteurizing ap- 
paratus. 



'Hesse. Zeit. f. Hygiene, vol. 13, lift. 1, p. 42. 

2 Soxhlet ? s patent stopper consists of a rubber cap which fits over the top of the 
bottle and acts as a ventilator to relieve the inside pressure of the bottle, and pre- 
vents the outside air from entering the flasks. It is held in place by a metal cap 
which prevents it from slipping. The bottles are heated for thirty-five minutes in 
a water bath. After the flask is once opened it should never be used again without 
resterilization, as the removal of pressure loosens the cap. (Fig. 78, a, p. 355.) 



PASTEURIZATION AND STERILIZATION OF MILK. 



337 



in summer. A higher temperature causes coagulation of the casein 
and makes the milk indigestible for children. 

For sterilizing milk, in 1892, Ockonomie-Eath Grob, in Berlin, used 
flasks with patent beer stoppers, and this has since been recommended 
by others. 

In Dresden, milk is sterilized in large quantity in the following man- 
ner: The firm draws its supply from a large estate in the neighbor- 
hood. The animals that supply the milk have 
only dry fodder, and every attention is paid to 
the cleanliness of the stalls, apparatus, and 
hands of the milkers. The milk is cooled to a 
temperature of 10° to 12° 0., and reaches the 
creamery two or three hours after its collection. 
It is first freed from dirt by a specially con- 
structed centrifugal machine, then warmed to 
65° C. and collected in a vessel from which it is 
finally transferred to sterilized flasks with pat- 
ent stoppers, holding one- third liter. These 
flasks are then placed in a sterilizing case and 
submitted to the action of steam for one and 
They are then removed and quickly cooled to prevent burning. The 
milk prepared in this way can be readily used. During a year, out 
of 70,000 liter flasks that were sterilized and subsequently placed in 
an incubator for the purpose of testing the sterilization, only G3£ were 
found spoiled. 

As the milk would seldom be subjected to this temperature (that of 
an incubator), but would generally be used within a day or two after 
sterilization, it is not likely that a flask of spoiled milk would be 
obtained. 




Fig. 50. — German sterilizer 
stopper. 

three-quarters hours. 




Fig. 57.— German sterilizing flasks. 

One of the principal points to be desired in sterilizing milk is that it 
can be done in flasks or cans that in turn may be transported for a con- 
siderable distance without danger of the milk becoming contaminated. 
In order that this may be the case, the milk should be sterilized or 
pasteurized in flasks that admit of being tightly closed. An arrange- 
ment for this purpose, which is used in Germany and very highly recom- 
mended, consists of a rubber stopper with a central hole and side opening, 
and a nail- shaped glass rod with a side slit, as indicated in figure 56, 
and the whole sterilized in a closed box, as shown in figures 57 and 58. 



338 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OP AGRICULTURE. 

After heating for three-quarters of an hour, the flasks are opened by 
means of the parallelogram crank, so as to relieve the pressure, and 
then closed. After heating again, the flasks are carefully removed and 
the glass stopper forced into the cork, so as to entirely close the bottles. 
The taste of the milk is not at all changed, and side by side with fresh 
milk it is impossible to tell the difference. 

Pasteurization in the household, whether according to Soxhlet or the 
Bureau, is open to certain objections. In the first place, considerable 
time is required for keeping the vessels clean, which is one of the 
essentials, and this should be done by someone who appreciates the 

importance of the process. It re- 
quires more time than a housewife 
could conveniently afford, and if left 
to a servant, the probability is that 
the importance of the process will 
not be appreciated, and may conse- 
quently be carelessly carried out, 
or even, after a while, be entirely 
neglected. For this reason it would 
be better to have the milk reliably 
sterilized in bulk and so distributed. 
This should be done under the direct 
control of someone who understands 
the purport and importance of steril- 
-r, ro „ .,. ization and can make the necessary 

Fig. 58. — German sterilizer. v 

examinations of the milk, not only 
as to the proper fat contents, purity, etc., but also as to its freedom 
from germs after sterilization. 

PASTEURIZATION OF MILK IN BULK, IN SMALL FLASKS OR CANS, IN 

AMERICA. 

In addition to the preparation of milk for infant food as already 
described, a beneficent work has been undertaken in New York by Mr. 
I. Straus, for the purpose of supplying milk to the poor. The milk is 
prepared in a temporary laboratory on Third street, and is distributed 
in bottles from a number of different booths in the city. The milk in 
the cans is obtained from the Appleberg Hygienic Milk Company, of 
Dutchess County, TS. Y. In the plant of Mr. Straus on Third street 
the process of sterilization is similar to that described above, but it is 
here repeated. The bottles, of tough glass, G, 8, and 18 ounces capacity, 
are first boiled in borax water, thoroughly rinsed, and then sterilized in 
large Koch ovens. After sterilization they are filled with the milk and 
placed in copper holders (fig. 59). These are then placed in the steril- 
izers, which are the ordinary kitchen stove boilers (fig. 60). The boilers 
are filled with water, which can be heated either by steam or by a gas 
flame under the boiler. The cases are filled with water up to the 




PASTEURIZATION AND STERILIZATION OF MILK. 



339 



shoulder of the bottle. The water is heated and the bottles then placed 
in the boilers and allowed to remain for half an hour. At the end of 
this time the lid is carefully raised and gradually pushed around, so as 
to expose the mouths of only a few bottles at a time, and these are then 
quickly corked with solid black rubber stoppers which have been pre- 
viously sterilized by boiling in borax or soda solution. The bottles are 
then taken out, cooled on ice, and distributed. Instead of these boilers 
for sterilization, there is sometimes used a large oven with water bottom, 
which is heated by steam, and the bottles are placed on shelves above, 
so that they do not come directly in contact with the steam. For dilu- 
tion filtered water is used, and for further preparation barley water or 
limewater. 

The process is under the supervision of two physicians, who examine 
the milk used and see that proper precautions are adopted. The for- 



i* 




-i 



jMaZ&r 



Fig. 59.— Copper holders used in 
Straus's plant. 



Fig. GO. — Copper boiler used in Straus's plant. 



mulae used for diluting the milk, as taken from the printed slip of the 
company, are as follows : 

Formula 1. 

Sugar of milk ounces.. 12 

Limewater pint.. \ 

Filtered water up to gallon.. 1 

Milk do.... 1 

Formula 2. 

Milk gallon.. 1 

Barley water _ do 1 

White sugar ounces.. 10 

Table salt do i 



After being thoroughly mixed, the diluted milk is drawn into bottles, 
pasteurized as above, and sold for 1 cent per 6-ounce bottle. The bot- 
tles are returned and, after thorough cleansing, used again. 

The milk is obtained from cows which have been inspected and pro- 
nounced free from disease. The prices at which this milk is sold are 



340 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

not intended to bring any profit, but serve to partly defray the expenses 
of preparation. 

Prices. — Raw milk, 4 cents a quart, 2 cents a pint, 1 cent a glass; pure milk, steril- 
ized, 1 quart in four 8-ouuce bottles, 5 cents; pure- milk, 1 quart in two 16-ounce 
bottles, 2 cents; diluted sterilized milk (6-ounce bottles), 5 cents. 

Deposit required on bottles. — Eight-ounce bottles, 3 cents each; 6-ounce bottles, 3 
cents each ; 16-ounce bottles, 5 cents each. 

The prepared milk is guaranteed for twenty-four hours. It will, of 
course, keep longer, but this is the length of time that may be safely 
allowed, when the milk is given into so many different hands. 

The principal plant for the pasteurization of milk in large quantity 
and in bulk is conducted at Pawling, Dutchess County, IS". Y., by 
the Appleberg Hygienic Milk Company. 

Pawling is situated near the 



'AA 



J_ 



JL 




1 
1 

1 
1 

1 








//-------- ^.-~ 


.-_--.- --—//- \ 


/0y 


>Sy 






7~~*siecLm~C~oli 


/ 



center of one of the richest dairy 
counties of the State, so that the 
supply of milk is the best obtain- 
able. When the milk is received 
at the factory any mechanical 
impurity is removed by strain- 
ing and the whole is then aer- 
ated and cooled. 

The apparatus for pasteuriza- 
tion (fig. 61) is patented. It con- 
sists of a wooden box about 4 
feet square, with a hinged lid, 
and inside of the box is a coil of 
iron pipe to supply the heat. 
The milk is placed in rectangu- 
lar tin boxes of a capacity of 40 
quarts, covered with a perforated 
tin lid to permit the insertion of 
a thermometer by which to reg- 
ulate the temperature. These 
rectangular boxes closely fit inside the coil. The box is then closed 
and the steam turned on for twenty to thirty minutes, depending upon 
the milk and the season of the year. During the process the milk is 
kept thoroughly stirred. The temperature used varies from 160° to 
180° F. The milk so pasteurized is then drawn while hot into the ordi- 
nary sterilized milk jars, or fruit jars with a flat top. Instead of a rub- 
ber washer, one of special paper is used. The jars are filled with hot 
milk and then set in troughs of ice water to cool. The contraction of the 
milk upon cooling creates a vacuum in the jars, which are thus hermet- 
ically sealed by the outside air pressure. In addition to the bottled 
milk, this company also puts up sterilized milk in 40-quart cans. The 
top of the can is closed with a patent lever, something on the principle 



Fig. 61.— Appleberg's sterilizing box. 



PASTEURIZATION AND STERILIZATION OF MILK. 341 

of a beer-bottle stopper lever. As these cans are filled while hot, they 
are also hermetically sealed. At the bottom of the can is an opening 
for the insertion of a faucet, which can be kept closed by a sterilized 
cap. When the milk is to be used, the can is turned upon the side and 
the faucet, previously carefully sterilized, inserted. The milk can be 
safely used from the can if proper care in cleaning the faucet has been 
observed. This milk is on sale at some of the booths in lew York City, 
supplied by Straus. The milk, which the writer has had the opportu- 
nity of tasting at the factory, is very rich and most delicious, and with- 
out a particle of boiled or cooked flavor. As the cream and milk have 
been thoroughly mixed, it tastes more like pure cream. 

At Danby, K. Y,, there is also a plant for sterilizing milk in bulk, 
hot water being used instead of dry steam. The Appleberg method 
seems to give the most satisfactory results. 

In Boston, iu addition to the laboratory for sterilized milk, there is 
some work in the distribution of pasteurized milk from one of the church 
dispensaries. There is in that city a careful milk inspection, but no 
sterilized milk is sold in quantity, so far as I was able to learn from 
the milk inspector. In Brooklyn, also, there is a very careful chemical 
and veterinary milk inspection. The city is divided into districts, which 
are gone over carefully. It is required that the milk shall have 12 per 
cent solids and 3 per cent fat. In New York during the past summer 
less adulteration has been found than usual. In none of these cities, 
however, is especial attention paid to the milk supply with reference to 
city control of pasteurized or sterilized milk. 

EFFECT OF STERILIZATION ON DIGESTIBILITY. 

If the milk is heated to such a temperature that the albuminoids are 
coagulated, it loses its flavor and acquires a boiled taste, and is neither 
so digestible for children or adults, nor is it so attractive in appearance. 
When properly pasteurized or sterilized, however, the taste is not in 
any way impaired and it is quite as digestible as the raw milk. 

To insure a thoroughly healthy supply, all the milk should be under 
the control of the State and city boards of health. This should include 
an inspection of the animals themselves, of the stalls, feeding, water 
supply, methods of milking and saving of the milk. Not only should 
the animals be perfectly healthy, but the stalls should also be kept thor- 
oughly clean, well whitewashed, and from time to time disinfected by 
means of carbolic acid. The stalls should also be well ventilated and 
so situated that the sunlight will be admitted. Attention should be 
paid to the health of the attendants, and expectoration about the stalls 
should be prohibited. Only the best clean fodder should be used. In 
milking, care should be taken that the teats of the animals are clean, 
and the utmost neatness and cleanliness of hands and clothing should 
be observed on the part of the attendants about the stables. Instead of 
selecting particularly old and dirty clothing for the milking, only clean, 



342 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

washable overalls should be used, and these should be kept exclusively 
for that purpose. 

The water supply is often of as much importance as other precau- 
tions. There is no reason why the lower domestic animals should not 
be supplied with good water, and there are many reasons for believing 
that an impure supply is injurious. The necessity for pure water in 
the dairy is well illustrated by the following incident: In a certain 
dairy the utmost care was observed in cleaning and scalding the milk 
cans. However, just before the cans were filled, they would be rinsed 
with cold water from the well. This well was situated near the stalls, 
so that it received the drainings and washings from the manure, and 
while the well ordinarily, perhaps, was in good condition, it was at any 
time liable to contamination by typhoid fever and putrefactive bacteria. 
The simple rinsing of the cans was sufficient to destroy all the good 
effects of the previous care. 

A company in Copenhagen, Denmark, and one in Stockholm, Sweden, 
pay considerable attention to securing a good milk supply, thus to 
some extent replacing the boiling of milk. 

Although by the order of 1885 a person suffering from any dangerous 
disease, or who has recently been in contact with a person suffering 
from a dangerous disease, is prohibited from j)articipating in the pro- 
duction, distribution, or storage of milk, in country districts this law 
can be easily evaded. The regulations of the two companies above 
named require — 

(1) Veterinary control of all the animals on the farm and exclusion 
of the milk from unhealthy cows. 

(2) Cooling of the milk by ice to 41° F. at the farms. 

(3) Filtration of the whole milk through fine gravel. 

(4) Absolute cleanliness of all the bottles and cans used. 

The company has in its employ seven veterinarians, one of whom 
devotes his time to visiting the farms in rotation* Of course, where 
there are many animals it is difficult to inspect all at one visit, but each 
animal is examined carefully once a month. Special attention is given 
to the examination of the udder and adjacent glands. If a tuberculous 
eow is detected, it must be at once separated, or if the health of a cow 
appears bad, it must be withdrawn for a time* The farmer is bound 
to report any case of illness occurring in the interval of the veterina- 
rian's visit, and to withhold the milk until he arrives. Stall feeding 
is prohibited, except in winter. Infectious or contagious disease in the 
employees must be at once reported, and the milk supply they have 
handled kept back. The greatest cleanliness in milking must be 
observed, and the milk, after being strained, is at once cooled to 
41° F. by ice. 

In winter the food consists of rape-seed oil cake, hay and straw, and 
brewers 7 grain, while anything that might give the milk an unpleasant 
taste, such as turnips, is excluded. This care and precaution on the 



PASTEURIZATION AND STERILIZATION OF MILK. 



343 



part of the farmer is secured by the company agreeing to pay a pro- 
portionately larger price for the milk, and even paying for the milk if 
it is not used. The carefully collected milk is tasted and sampled from 
every cow, and then filtered through gravel in perforated tin trays (fig. 
62). In the lowest tray the gravel is the size of a split pea — in the 
highest, of a pin's head. Three thousand bottles are filled every even- 
ing, and the milk guaranteed for twenty-four hours. Cream may also 
be treated in the same way. Soda is used for cleaning the cans. 

In addition to this filtration, the milk may be pasteurized. This is 
done by placing the bottles in racks in a long trough filled with water. 
A coil of steam pipe heats this water to 75°, when a contact thermom- 
eter rings a bell, the signal for shutting off the steam. The milk is 
then allowed to cool to 60° C, then taken out and put on ice. The 
company has daily analyses made, and these are published monthly. 




-tf 



Fig. C2.— Milk filter. A, tank; JB, filter; 0, storage tank; 1,2,3, perforated metal trays to hold 
gravel; g g g, india-rubber rings to protect enamel; h h ft, galvanized rings; i, 5-ply filter cloth 
of close texture, surmounted by 1-ply of fine texture ; k k r pipe to carry off milk from the filter ; 
e, perforated pipe, so as to draw milk from every part of the tank to the bottling room. 

In Stockholm controlled and uncontrolled milk are sold. The com- 
pany has built two large cow sheds. The walls, floors, and troughs are 
cemented ^ the buildings well lighted and ventilated. The cows are 
kept in sheds throughout the year. A number of men are employed 
in continually cleaning the animals and removing the refuse. There is 
no odor about the stalls, as this is all absorbed by the peat. Before 
milking, the floor is swept perfectly clean, the milkmaids must wash 
their hands, wear special aprons, and carefully clean the udders. The 
cans are washed with boiling water and the milk strained through mus- 
lin and fine copper gauze, and then cooled. A veterinary surgeon lives 
on the place, and the cows are always sold after a year or two, so as to 
keep fresh milkers all the time. The finest and healthiest cows are 
reserved for children's milk. By isolating the calves of tuberculous 
animals and feeding them on boiled milk Professor Bang has succeeded 
in keeping them free from disease, and has carried out a number of 
experiments on large estates. He also emphasizes the fact that small 
herds are rarely tuberculous. 



344 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 
DIFFERENT FORMS OF APPARATUS. 

A great many different forms of apparatus for the pasteurization or 
sterilization of milk in bulk have been used abroad, and the descrip- 
tion and figures of some of these, partly reproduced from Weigmann's 
report, are here given. Many are unnecessarily complicated. The 
simpler apparatus gives equally satisfactory results. 

One of the first pasteurizers in bulk to be used was a continuous- 
working apparatus, and consisted of a double-walled copper cylinder, 




Fig. 63.— Thiel's pasteurizing apparatus. 

which could be heated by steam. The form now used is practically 
unchanged. The milk flows in at the top, is kept thoroughly stirred 
by means of a crank at the bottom, and flows out from the side, near the 
top, at a temperature of 70° to 80° 0. The stirring apparatus prevents 
the burning of the milk and also the separation of the casein. 

In 1886 Thiel recommended the following apparatus (fig. 63): An 
outer sheet-lead mantle, lined with wood, a; an inner tinned corrugated 
copper cylinder, &, with a lid, c 3 which fits tightly over both. The water 



PASTEURIZATION AND STERILIZATION OF MILK. 



345 



used for heating enters through Ji, and circulates, by means of a pipe, 
in the space between the outer and inner cylinder, p serving as an 
escape pipe. The milk flowing over 
the corrugated sides is heated and 
escapes through i and A; at a tem- 
perature which can be noted by 
a thermometer placed at ft. The 
milk reaches a temperature of 60° 
C, and its taste and appearance are 
good. Experiments have shown 
that milk treated in this apparatus 
will keep two or three days longer 
than that which has not been pas- 
teurized. 

Another apparatus, Hochmuth's, 
is a combination of a warming, 
pasteurizing, and cooling machine 
(figs. 64, 65, 66, and 67). This may 
be constructed so as to be placed 
either in a vertical or a horizontal 
position. Pasteurization is accom- 
plished by means of steam pipes, 
the steam circulating between the 
coils through which the milk flows. 
This apparatus, however, offers 
the objection that the milk is too 
easily burned on the coils and the 

apparatus is One difficult to keep FlG . 64._Hochmuth's pasteurizing apparatus. 

clean. 

Fjord's apparatus, already illustrated in figure 55, avoids these 
troubles. Some modified forms of this are seen in Ahlborn's appa- 
ratus (figs. 68 and 69). 




< <g £ 




Fig. G5.— Section of Hochmuth's pasteurizing apparatus. 

Another similar apparatus, made by the Bergedorfer Iron Works, 
shown in figure 70, differs from the others mainly in the way the milk 



546 YEARBOOK OF THE F. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



is introduced. The cold milk, in entering, is warmed by the volume 
of milk already pasteurized. 

The apparatus shown in figure 71, constructed by Dierks & Moll- 
man ? in Osnabruck, is intended especially to prevent the burning of 




Fig. 66. 



-Hochmuth's pasteurizing apparatus, with, parts arranged 
horizontally. 



the milk. It consists of an outer box, lined with wood. Within this 
is a cylinder provided with a removable top, and within this a second 
cylinder which leaves between the two but a small space. The milk 
is forced mechanically through the space between these cylinders, and 
at the same time is heated by the steam surrounding the outer cylinder. 

The burning of the milk is prevented 
by means of a stirrer provided with 
arms which make twenty-five to thirty 
revolutions per minute, and in every 
revolution they come in contact four 
times with each portion of the milk. 
In every minute each particle of milk 
is agitated one hundred and twenty 
times, thus entirely preventing the 
burning of the milk in contact with 
the cylinder and the deposition of 
albumin. 

Another more expensive apparatus, 
constructed by Lefeldt & Leutsch, in 
Schoningen, Germany, consists of a 
centrifugal which first frees the milk 
from impurities. As experiments 
have shown, it is really those bacteria 
which are ordinarily found in the dirt, 
particles of feces, hair, etc., which 

^^ most easily resist heating, partly 

no. 67.-Hochmuth's compound pasteurizing because they are mechanically prO- 
apparatus. tected by the dirt in which they are 
found and partly because spores are often present. The removal of 
these mechanical impurities aids the subsequent pasteurization. Flow- 
ing from the centrifugal basket, the milk passes- through a narrow 




PASTEURIZATION AND STERILIZATION OF MILK. 



347 



space about 1 inch in diameter, which, is heated from the outside by 
direct steam. This apparatus lias the advantage of being compact, 
utilizing the steam thoroughly, and preventing the milk from burning. 





Fig. 68.— Alilborn's pasteurizing ap- 
paratus. 



Fig. C9.— Ahlborn's pasteurizing 
apparatus— modified form. 



Five hundred liters (125 gallons) per hour can be pasteurized with this 
machine at a temperature of 70° to 75° 0. (fig. 72). 

The many forms of apparatus recommended for the continuous pas- 
teurization of milk indicate that there are always some difficulties, and 




Fig. 70.— Ahren's pasteurizing apparatus. 



that the results obtained are not satisfactory. The burning of the 
milk on the sides of the apparatus, and consequent uneven heating of 
the remainder, and the temperature used, 70° to 75° C, which ordi- 



348 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



narily will cause precipitation of some of the casein as well as impart 
to the milk a burned flavor, are objectionable. To avoid this, Bitter 
has constructed an apparatus which does not permit of a continuous 
pasteurization, as in the other described apparatus, but which allows 
of a longer heating of the milk. In the case of a number of bacteria, 
especially the tuberculosis bacillus, a temperature of 68° C. for fifteen 
minutes is sufficient to kill. For certainty, the milk should in all 
instances be exposed to this temperature for thirty-five minutes. Bitter 
found, further, that when the milk was heated to 68° for thirty-five 
minutes, and then cooled to a temperature of 15° 0., it would keep fifty 
to seventy hours longer than that which was not pasteurized. This 
temperature, when maintained for thirty-five minutes, appeared from 

his experiments, performed with 40 
liters of milk, to be sufficient for 
the full pasteurization of the milk. 
Unskimmed milk may be heated for 
fifteen minutes to 75° 0. without any 
coagulation or burning or any mate- 
rial change in the flavor taking place. 
This milk, when cooled to 16° C. and 
saved for sixty hours, did not keep 
any better than the milk heated for 
thirty minutes to 68° 0. 

It is of course easily understood 
that the milk keeps better after pas- 
teurization the more it has been 
cooled. To demonstrate the keeping 
properties under the conditions which 
would actually obtain in practice, 
Bitter exposed milk which had been 
heated to a temperature of 75° C, 
first to 14° 0. for ten hours, then to 
23° 0. for twenty-two hours, after- 
wards to 30° 0. for seven hours. 
The milk was still good and kept for 
five hours longer at 23° 0. The milk 
was consequently kept for forty-four hours at a temperature not at all 
calculated for its preservation. In practice, the milk, before it is sent 
out from the creamery, is cooled to 10° to 15° O. and then distributed 
from large cans of 40 liters capacity, and the quantity of the milk, there- 
fore, has considerable influence in keeping it at a low temperature. 
Milk that has been pasteurized at 75° for fifteen minutes, or 68° C. for 
35 minutes, and then cooled, will keep in the warmest summer for thirty 
hours. If the temperature of the air is lower, the milk will keep longer. 
Milk heated to 75° O. will keep at a temperature of 18° to 20° C. for 
sixty-six hours, and at 14° to 16° 0. for three days. This milk was 




Fig. 71.— Dierks & Mollman's pasteurizing 
apparatus. 



PASTEURIZATION AND STERILIZATION OF MILK. 



349 



iu perfect condition for sale; there was no coagulation or unnatural 
taste, ami its availability for the manufacture of butter was not in any 
way injured. 



^r 




Fig. 72.— Tasteurizing apparatus, constructed by Lei'eldt &. Leutsch. 

The apparatus which Bitter recommends for pasteurization is shown 
in figure 73. 

A tinned copper cylinder, with cap which fits tightly, serves as a 
receptacle for the milk. About 1 inch from the inner side of this 



350 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

vessel is a coil of tinned copper pipe which, runs to the bottom of the 
cylinder and then back to the top, the inner coil being narrower than 
the outer, and from the top of this second coil the pipe returns to the 
bottom of the cylinder. Through this long coil steam is passed. The 
milk is kept stirred by an arrangement of paddles which can be readily 
understood from figure 73. It is very important that the entire pasteur- 
izer and the cans shall be kept thoroughly cleaned. From this pas- 



STEAM 




Fig. 73.— Pasteurizing apparatus— after Bttier. 

teurizer the milk is allowed to pass through a cooler, as seen in figure 
74. This is always thoroughly cleansed and then exposed for a short 
time to the action of steam. If the hot milk is very quickly cooled, its 
keeping properties are increased, as any bacteria which might still be 
present are either killed or so weakened by the sudden change of 
temperature that a long time would be required before they could agaim 
multiply^ 



PASTEURIZATION AND STERILIZATION OP MILK, 351 

STERILIZATION OF MILK. 

As already noted, while the temperature of pasteurization, 65° to 70°, 
is sufficient to kill all disease-producing bacteria, there are a number of 
germs which are not affected by this temperature, especially the spores, 
and some which even multiply readily at 70° C. While these latter are 
not apt to be present in the milk, they may come from the water or dust 
of the air. The temperature necessary to totally destroy all of these is 
often over 100° C. (for example, Bacillus subtilis), and it must be main- 
tained for a considerable time. This temperature would necessarily 
injure the taste and appearance of the milk. In laboratory practice it 
is possible to obtain a thorough sterilization by an interrupted heating. 
If the milk is heated one to two hours at a time each day for five to six 




Fig. 74.— Milk cooler— by SchmkLfc, in Bretten. 



days consecutively at 75° 0., the destruction of spores, which in the 
meantime would have developed, can be accomplished. In practice, 
however^ this process would be too expensive and too troublesome. A 
modification of this process consists in heating the milk in closed flasks 
to a high temperature (above the boiling point of water). 

The thorough sterilization of milk is, therefore, not very practical, 
but one or two methods and apparatus may be described. In the Keu- 
hauss-Gronwald-Oehlmann sterilization apparatus (fig. 75) the milk is 
heated first to 85° to 90° 0., and then a second time to 102° O. The 
bottles must be well blown and annealed, free from alkali, and very 
carefully cleaned. This is accomplished by boiling with soda, then 
with water, and finally by sterilizing in large boxes at 100°. The bat- 



352 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

ties are closed with a patent stopper, like the beer-bottle stoppers, and 
these must be carefully sterilized before use, using only those with the 
best rubber rings. After sterilization the flasks are carefully filled 
with the milk, the hands being first very thoroughly washed and all 
antiseptic precautions observed. The milk is then heated for half an 
hour at 85° to 90° C, and the flasks are gradually cooled, being allowed 
to remain in the sterilizer. They are on the same day submitted to a 
second heating of 102° to 103° 0. The apparatus consists of a double- 
walled box, made of tinned copper plates. The lower portion, a, is fixed ; 
the top, by movable and counterbalanced by weights 5 the top fits over 
the lower basket steam tight; c is a thermometer, and d an escape steam 



1 c\a 




> 



Fig. 75.— Sterilizing apparatus, by Neuhauss-Gronwald-Oehlmann. 

valve which can be set at any desired pressure. The flasks are placed 
in special trays which can be easily moved, and between the rows of 
flasks are levers which serve to close the patent stoppers. The ther- 
mometer dips into one of the flasks and indicates the temperature of 
the milk. When the apparatus is closed, the steam, under pressure of 
1£ atmospheres, is allowed to enter slowly until the air is driven out- 
It is important that the apparatus shall not be entirely closed until the 
air is entirely driven out. When the temperature has reached 100° C, 
more steam is turned on, the pressure gauge having been set for 102° 
to 103° O. In a short time the flasks will have reached a temperature 
of 100° 0., and they are then kept at this temperature for thirty nun- 



PASTEURIZATION AND STERILIZATION OF MILK. 



353 



utes. A few minutes before the end of the sterilization the pressure 
valve is opened, thus permitting the milk in the flasks to boil up, and 
any gases which might still be present in the milk are driven out. The 
result is that the closed flasks of milk, when cold, no longer contain any 
air, as in the upper part of the flask there is a vacuum, consequently 
aerobic bacteria could not multiply. The flasks are now allowed to 
cool slowly to 50° to 60° 0., then placed in warm water to prevent 
cracking. Cold water is gradually allowed to mix with this, and the 
flasks are finally preserved on ice. The purer and fresher the condition 
of the milk, the more satisfactory are the results obtained. In this 
connection, if milk is to be used for thorough sterilization, special care 
should be taken to see that the milk is not unnecessarily exposed to 
contamination by such bacteria as are difficult to kill and are apt to get 
into the milk from dirt, old straw, and bedding. In addition, cans, 
bottles, and receptacles must all be kept perfectly clean. 




Fig. 76.— Milk-sterilizing apparatus— after Paul Ritter von flamm. 

In practice, it makes a difference whether the sterilization is con- 
ducted with heated water or with steam, whether the steam is mixed 
with air, is moist or dry. Although the process aboVe described is 
usually satisfactory, yet a complete sterilization does not always result. 
It has been found, too, that almost equally satisfactory results are 
secured by heating to 102o to 103° C. for three-fourths to one hour, 
without any previous sterilization. 

The Soxhlet apparatus, originally intended for household use in ster- 
ilizing milk, has been utilized, with slight modifications, for sterilizing 
the milk in quantity (fig. 76). This is intended for 94 flasks of 1 liter 
(1 quart) capacity, or, instead of the flasks, cans with patent air-tight 
covers may be used. The apparatus is simple in construction, a serves 
for the admission of steam, b for the admission of water, and e is the 
outlet tube. The bottle holder, e 7 is made of wood, and rests on metal 
bars. The holder is filled with water to g, and the flasks are filled with 

1 a 94 14 



354 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 

milk to hj and placed in the box. The stoppers are the ordinary beer- 
bottle stoppers, and are loosely placed in the mouths of the bottles. 
Steam is then turned on until the temperature, shown by the thermom- 
eter that passes through the cover of the whole box, reaches 110°. This 
requires about one hour, and the flasks are kept at this temperature 
for fifteen minutes. The milk fills the bottles entirely and a little runs 
out from the mouths. When the steam is turned off and cold water is 
introduced to reduce the temperature of the flasks to 50° 0., the con- 
traction of the milk draws the corks down tightly on the bottles, and 
the wire clamp can then be readily fastened. 




Pig. 77.— Bottling sterilizing apparatus. 

A number of creameries have begun the process of shipping steril- 
ized milk in cans of 10 to 12 liters capacity. An apparatus adapted 
to this purpose is shown in figure 77. The milk flows through a trough 
arranged in folds, so that a large surface is exposed to the action of the 
steam, and passes directly through sterile tubes into cans. 

In addition to the sterilizing apparatus already described, the following 
(fig. 78, b) may be used: An ordinary fruit jar may have an opening cut 
through the top of the cover, provided with a shoulder and lid that will 
screw down. Through this opening an agitating rod or wire may be 
passed to keep the milk thoroughly stirred up while it is being heated. 
This can then be removed after heating, and the opening is then closed 
while the flask is still hot ; or this opening may have a stiff cotton plug. 



PASTEURIZATION AND STERILIZATION OF MILK. 355 

Another arrangement which will answer the purpose for sterilizing 
milk in quantity may also be used. A double-walled rectangular box, 
made of copper or tin (fig. 79), may be arranged so that the milk can be 
heated to any desired temperature. This can be stirred during the proc- 





Fig. 78.— a, Soxhlet's patent sterilizing bottles and top; &, top for fruit jar for sterilization. 

ess and the milk at the same time sterilized. Any loss or change in 
the taste of the milk is detrimental when it is to be used for food. The 
thorough stirring of the mass keeps it evenly heated throughout, so 



1 





•Twri T-7.-V--- fryrfe^y . -.*-^ -.V?.*"^? , 




Interior. 



Fig. 79.— Sterilizing box. 



Exterior. 



that there will be no charring or scorching of any milk or any adhering 
to the sides of the vessel. A series of these rectangular boxes might 
be provided, connected with each other by pipes and stopcocks. From 
these sterilizers the milk may be filled into sterilized bottles, or into 



356 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

large sterile cans, which can be hermetically sealed. To save expense, 
the outside of this double- walled box might be made of wood, or, better, 
of sheet iron, and the whole then incased in a wooden box to retain the 
heat. 

The flasks or other vessels in which the milk is stored should, after 
cooling to about 60° 0., be placed in water and thoroughly cooled. 

The proper cooling of the milk and placing in clean bottles or cans is 
absolutely necessary for securing the full effect and purposes of pas- 
teurization or sterilization. 

The methods and apparatus which have been described are all adapted 
for the pasteurization or sterilization of milk. While some will appear 
too complicated and expensive to be adopted or copied, others will be 
found well suited, or modifications and improvements will easily sug- 
gest themselves. 

That a uniform and cleanly milk supply can be obtained only when 
the State or town undertakes official control and inspection of animals 
has already been indicated. Where this is lacking, the consumer and 
the public generally may protect themselves in a great measure from 
disease by adopting any of the methods above indicated, either in the 
household or in the creameries. For these processes to be successful, 
the utmost cleanliness of vessels and manipulation must be observed; 
the milk must be clean, well-strained and aerated, the pasteurization or 
sterilization systematically conducted, the milk filled into bottles and 
cans while hot, and these latter then cooled before distribution. The 
pasteurized or sterilized milk should be distributed in unbroken pack- 
ages only, and these should be no larger than would be used in twenty- 
four hours. If distributed in large vessels, these should be hermet- 
ically sealed to avoid all contamination. Probably the cheapest vessel, 
and the one most easily obtained for sterilization in small lots, is the 
ordinary patent- stoppered beer bottle; for handling in larger quanti- 
ties, milk cans with hermetically sealed tops. 

The apparatus for continuous sterilization does not give as satisfac- 
tory results as when an interrupted process is adop.ted. 

By the use of properly pasteurized or sterilized milk, therefore, not 
only should the spread of disease be lessened, but also the health of 
milk consumers in general should be improved. 

The use of pasteurized or sterilized milk prepared in bulk can, how- 
ever, only be carried out to the best advantage when it is undertaken 
with the object, not of making money by supplying a material which 
will barely pass inspection, but of furnishing an article collected and 
prepared with all possible precautions, where all means have been 
adopted to provide against mistakes or carelessness. 

The simpler forms of apparatus described can be easily and cheaply 
manufactured by any good tinner or coppersmith, and many slight mod- 
ifications and improvements will suggest themselves in practice. 



FOOD AND DIET. 

By W. O. Atwater, Ph. D., 
Professor of Chemistry in Wesleyan University, Director of Storrs (Conn.) Experiment 
Station, and Special Agent of the U. S. Department of Agriculture in charge of Inves- 
tigations of Food and Nutrition. 

"Half the struggle of life is a struggle for food." — Edward Atkinson. 

"The labor question, concretely stated, means the struggle for a higher standard 
of living." — Commissioner Carroll D. Wright. 

"I have come to the conclusion that more than half the disease which embitters 
the middle and latter part of life is due to avoidable errors in diet, * * * and 
that more mischief in the form of actual disease, of impaired vigor, and of shortened 
life accrues to civilized man * * * in England and throughout central Europe 
from erroneous habits of eating than from the habitual use of alcoholic drink, con- 
siderable as I know that evil to be." — Sir Henry Thompson. 

"If we care for men's souls most effectively, we must care for their bodies also." — 
Bishop B. S. Foster. 

What proportion of the cost of living might be saved by better econ- 
omy of food ; how far such economy would help the wage worker to the 
higher plane of living toward which he justly strives ; how dietary 
errors compare in harmfulness with the use of alcohol ; and to what 
extent the spread of the gospel and the perfection of its fruit are 
dependent upon the food supply — are questions hardly possible of exact 
solution in the light of our present knowledge. The foregoing state- 
ments are quoted, however, because they come with authority, and 
because, starting from the widely different standpoints of the econo- 
mist, the statistician, the physician, and the divine, the conclusions 
tally perfectly with those to which the study of the chemistry and 
economy of food seems to lead. 

With the progress of human knowledge and human experience we 
are at last coming to see that the human body needs the closest care. 
We are coming to realize that not merely our health, our strength, and 
our incomes, but our higher intellectual life, and even our morals, 
depend upon the care which we take of our bodies, and that among the 
things essential to health and wealth, to right thinking and right living, 
one, and that not the least important, is our diet. 

The power of a man to do work depends upon his nutrition. A well- 
fed horse can draw a heavy load. With less food he does less work. 
A well-fed man has strength of muscle and of brain, while a poorly 
nourished man has not. A man's nourishment is not the only factor 
of his producing power, but it is an important one. 

This subject concerns the laboring classes in many ways. Statistics 
as well as common observation bear emphatic testimony to the better 
condition of the American as compared with the European working- 

357 



358 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

man in respect to his supply of the necessaries and comforts of life, 
Nowhere is this superiority more striking than in the quality and quan- 
tity of his food. And the difference in the dietaries of the two is 
especially marked in the larger amount of potential energy, of capa- 
bility to yield muscular strength for work and to fulfill other uses in 
nutrition, which characterizes the food of the American. That the 
American workman, in many cases at least, turns out more work per 
day or per year than his European competitor is a familiar fact. That 
this superiority is due to more nutritious food as well as to better use 
of machinery and to greater intelligence is hardly to be questioned. 
But the better nourishment of the American wage worker is largely due 
to our virgin soil. With the growth of population and the increasing 
closeness of home and international competition his own diet can not 
be kept up to its present nutritive standard, nor can that of his poorer 
neighbor and his foreign brother be brought up nearer to that standard, 
without better knowledge and application of the laws of food economy. 

To the farmer also the subject is important. Materials for the food 
of man make up the larger part of our agricultural production and the 
largest item of our export abroad. Our food production is one-sided. 
It includes a relative excess of the fat of meat, of starch, and of sugar, 
the substances that serve the body for fuel to yield heat and muscular 
power, while the nitrogenous substances, those which make blood and 
muscle, bone and brain, are relatively deficient. This is unfortunate 
for the consumer, because it leads him to buy material which he does 
not need and makes his diet one-sided, and hence injurious to health 
and strength. It is unfortunate for the farmer also, because it de- 
creases the value of his product; and the very things which are needed 
to make his food product more valuable are the ones which will make 
it cheaper to produce. What is needed is more nitrogen in the soil 
for plant food, more nitrogen in plants to make better food for animals 
and man, and more nitrogen in the food of man. Better culture of 
the soil and better manuring will bring not only larger crops, but 
crops richer in nitrogen. The cultivation of more clover, alfalfa, vetch, 
cowpeas, peas, beans, and other leguminous crops which obtain nitro- 
gen from the air will help in the same direction. With more nitroge- 
nous material in his crops the farmer can make more meat, and meat with 
less excess of fat, and at less cost; he can produce milk, butter, and 
cheese more profitably, and at the same time he can be improving his 
land. The food for man which he thus produces will be better adapted 
to the actual needs of the community, much of the prevalent waste of 
material will be avoided, and both producer and consumer will receive 
the benefit. 

Most people pay very little attention to these matters. The result is 
great waste in the purchase and use of food, loss of money, and injury 
to health. The chief reason why people act as they do is found in a 
lack of information about food and nutrition, and in the widespread and 



FOOD AND DIET. 359 

unfortunate prejudice against economy in diet. The remedy for the 
evil will come only with the spread of knowledge of the subject. 

DEFINITION OF FOOD AND ECONOMY. 

The following statements will help to make clear the fundamental 
principles of the subject: 

(1) Food is that which, when taken into the body, builds up its 
tissues and keeps them in repair, or which is consumed in the body to 
yield energy in the form of heat to keep it warm and create strength 
for its work. 

(2) The most healthful food is that which is best fitted to the wants 
of the user. To be adapted to his wants, the food must supply the 
different nutritive ingredients, or nutrients, in the kinds and amounts 
needed by the body to build up its several parts, to repair them as they 
are consumed by constant use, and to yield energy in the form of heat 
and muscular power. The ingredients should also be supplied in forms 
which the person can easily digest and which will " agree" with him. 
If the nutrients are not supplied in the right proportions, or if they 
are not in easily digestible forms, or if they yield material which does 
not agree with the user, injury to health and strength will result. 

(3) The cheapest food is that which furnishes the most nutriment at 
the least cost. 

(4) The most economical food is that which is both most healthful 
and cheapest. 

THE ACTUAL NUTRIMENT OF FOOD AND ITS COST. 

A picture in a magazine has just struck my eye. It is a family scene 
in a humble home. The four children are sitting at the table with 
bowls of milk before them, while the mother holds in her hand a loaf 
of bread which she is cutting into slices for their dinner. The room is 
neat, but plain; the furniture is of the simplest kind, and the children's 
clothes are of ordinary material, with here and there a well-sewed patch. 
The mother's air is that of a busy housewife, her thought one of ten- 
der care for her family, but there is a trace of anxiety in the lines of 
her face which is in contrast with the careless eagerness of her little 
ones. Doubtless the father has taken his dinner with him to his daily 
work, by which, if he be an average bread winner, with health and 
industry, he may earn $500 per year. If he is not addicted to drink, 
the whole of this sum will go for the support of his family. It must 
pay for food, clothing, fuel, rent, and doctor's bills, leaving not a very 
large remainder for the extra comforts of the home, an occasional new 
carpet or piece of furniture, books, or a short excursion in summer, 
with perhaps a little for a life insurance or the savings bank or a timely 
help for a less fortunate neighbor. 

When the mother goes to the market to make her purchases, she is 
thinking of meat and flour and potatoes, what they cost, and how the 
folks at home will relish them. But in fact, though she does not realize 



360 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 



it, she is buying certain nutritive substances in the food — flesh formers 
and fuel ingredients, which she and her husband need to repair the 
wastes of their bodies and to give them strength for their daily toil, 
and which their children must have for healthy growth and work and 
play. Her real problem, though she does not understand it, is to get 
the most and the best nutriment for her money. She is accustomed to 
buy certain materials, but if, by wiser selection, she could get abundant 
nutriment at less cost, and thus save a little money for extra comforts 
for the family or to put by in the savings bank, it would be fortunate. 

The members of the family need, as essential for the day's diet, cer- 
tain amounts of protein to make blood and muscle, bone and brain, and 
corresponding quantities of fat, starch, sugar, and the like, to be con- 
sumed in their bodies, and thus to serve as fuel to keep them warm and 
to give them strength for work — a larger amount for the father, with 
his active muscular labor j somewhat less for the mother, with her 
smaller body and lighter work 5 and quantities for the children accord- 
ing to age, growth, and occupation. Of course they need other sub- 
stances, like mineral salts, which are contained in the food, and the 
water of both food and drink, and they want and will have things like 
salt and spice and tea and coffee, which gratify the palate and are more 
or less useful for nourishment. 

If this family live in a village or city in Massachusetts, about $300 
of their annual $500 will be expended for food. 1 Will it be expended 
wisely? 

Due regard for health, strength, and purse requires that food shall 
supply enough protein to build tissue and enough fats and carbo- 
hydrates for fuel, and that it shall not be needlessly expensive. The 
protein can be had in the lean of meat and fish, in eggs, in the casein 
(curd) of milk, in the gluten of flour, and in substances more or less 
like gluten in various forms of meal, potatoes, beans, peas, and the like. 

1 The smaller the income, the larger is the proportion used for food, as is illustrated 
by the following figures, summarized from those of Hon. Carroll D. Wright in the 
report of the Massachusetts bureau of statistics for 1884: 

Percentage of family income of xvorkingmen in Massachusetts expended for subsistence. 





Amount ex- 


Per cent 


Annual income. 


pended for 


expended 


. 


food. 


for food. 


$350 to $400 


$224 to $256 


64 


450 to 600 


284 to 378 


63 


600 to 750 


360 to 450 


60 


750 to 1,200 


420 to 672 


56 


Above 1,200 


612 


51 



In parts of the West and South, where food is very cheap, its cost in proportion to 
other expenses is less, and sometimes falls a little below half the income. In Europe, 
where incomes are smaller and food dearer, the cost of food makes a larger part of 
the whole expenditure. 

These statements apply less accurately to farmers than to the inhabitants of the 
larger towns ; but, although the farmer produces much of his food, yet, taking every- 
thing into account, the expense for nutriment is large even for him. 



FOOD AND DIET. 361 

Fats are supplied in the fat of meat and fish, in lard, in the fat of milk 7 
or in the butter made from it; it is also furnished, though in small 
amounts, in the oil of wheat, corn, potatoes, and other vegetable foods. 
Carbohydrates occur in great abundance in vegetable materials, as in 
the starch of grains and potatoes, and in sugar. The fats, sugars, and 
starches all serve for fuel, and we may measure their quantity by their 
fuel value, expressing this in heat units, or calories, 1 as they are com- 
monly called. In the food this woman buys, then, she has to deal with 
protein, or tissue formers, and with fuel values. 

If her husband is engaged at moderately hard muscular work, like 
that of a carpenter or mason or active day laborer, he should have in 
his day's food say 0.28 pound of protein and enough carbohydrates and 
fats so that the fuel value of the whole will be about 3,500 calories. 
The wife, if busy at work with her hands about the house or other- 
wise, will need perhaps eight- tenths as much. If the children are two 
boys of 13 and 8 and two girls of 10 and 5 years of age, they will need 
enough to make the wants of the whole family equivalent, let us say, 
to four men at moderately hard work. This would require 1.12 pounds 
of protein, and a fuel value of 14,000 calories. It could be supplied by 
various food mixtures — some dearer and some cheaper. If the cost- 
lier meats, oysters, or eggs at high prices are used, the diet will be an 
expensive one, but if the animal food is used in the forms of the less 
costly meats, in milk and cheese in not too large quantities, and if the 
bulk of the diet consists of such wholesome vegetable foods as wheat 
flour, corn meal, oatmeal, peas, beans, and potatoes when the last 
are not too dear, the cost will be very much less. Some specimens of 
food mixtures, with amounts of ingredients and costs, are given in the 
* Appendix (Human Poods, Table D). 

NUTRITIVE INGREDIENTS OF FOOD. 

The real problem before this woman when she goes to market is to 
obtain, at the least cost, protein, fats, and carbohydrates needed to meet 
the wants of her family. Flavor and appearance are things to look out 
for, of course. She may buy them in the food if she has the money and 
is willing to spend it, but they are costly. She may supply them by 
good cooking and tasteful serving, but this will take skill and care, and 
too many women in her circumstances lack the one and are averse to the 
other. Or she may ignore both flavor and appearance, and if her hus- 
band does not like the food she sets before him, and other things about 
the home are not attractive, he will very likely go to the "poor man's 
club," otherwise known as the saloon. 

The training of a well-ordered home or the cooking school will tell 
how to make savory dishes from inexpensive materials. A little of the 
chemistry of the subject will show how to select them. 

Table A (Human Foods, Appendix) gives the composition of speci- 

1 A calorie is the amount of heat required to raise a pound of water 4° F. 
1 a 94— 14* 



362 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

mens of common food materials. The composition of a smaller number 
is shown in figure 80 herewith. 

Thus a pound of sirloin of beef of medium fatness will furnish, say, 
0.15 pound of protein in the " lean" and 0.16 pound of fat. The fuel 
value of the protein added to that of the fat makes 970 calories in the 
pound of sirloin. A pound of wheat flour of average quality will contain 
about 0.11 pound of protein, in the form of gluten 5 0.01 pound of fat, 
which, if extracted from the flour, would be an oily substance; and 0.75 
pound of carbohydrates, of which nearly all would be starch. The fuel 
value of these nutrients in the pound of flour would be, according to 
Table A, 1,645 calories. 1 

JFood materials rich in protein are the most valuable for building the 
tissues of the body. A pound of cheese may have 0.28 pound of pro- 
tein, as much as a man at ordinary work needs for a day's sustenance, 
while a pound of milk would have only 0.04 and a pound of potatoes 
only 0.02 pound of protein. The materials which have the most of fats 
and carbohydrates have the highest fuel value. The fuel value of a 
pound of fat pork may reach 2,995 calories, while that of a pound of 
salt codfish would be only 315 calories. On the other hand, the nutri- 
tive material of the codfish will consist almost entirely of protein, of 
which the salt pork has very little. 

In general, the animal foods have the most of protein and fats, while 
the vegetable foods are rich in the carbohydrates, starchy and sugar. 
The lean meats and fish abound in protein. Cheese has so large a quan- 
tity of protein because it contains the casein of the milk. Among the 
vegetable foods, beans and peas have a high proportion of protein. 
The proportion in oatmeal is also large. In wheat it is moderate, and 
in corn meal it is rather small. The materials with the highest fuel 
value are those with the most fat, because the fuel value of the fat is, 
weight for weight, two and one-fourth times as great as that of either 
sugar, starch, or protein. Hence fat pork and butter lead the other 
materials in fuel value. The fat meats in general stand high in this 
respect. So also do the grains, flour, and meal, as they have large 
quantities of carbohydrates. Potatoes are quite low in the list in 
respect to fuel value as well as protein, principally because they are 
three-fourths water. For the same reason, milk, which is seven-eighths 
water, ranks low in respect to both protein and fuel value. 

It is important to remember that all these estimates apply to the 
food materials in the form in which we buy them, including both refuse, 
like the bones of meat, skins of potatoes, etc., and water. If we were 
to remove the bones and other refuse from the meats, fish, and other 
foods which contain them, and then remove the water from all the 
materials, and compare the actually nutritive substances of nutrients, 
their rank would, of course, be very different. Salt codfish, for instance, 

1 Detailed explanations of the composition of food materials, the ways they are 
used in the hody, and their nutritive values as compared with their cost, are given 
in Farmers' Bulletin No. 23 of the United States Department of Agriculture. 



FOOD AND DIET. 

F IG . 80.— COMPOSITION OF FOOD MATERIALS. 

Xutritive ingredients, refuse, and fuel value. 



363 



Nutrients. 



Non-nutrients. 



Protein. Pats. Carbo- Mineral 
hydrates, matters. 



"Water. Eefuse. 




Protein compounds, e. g., lean of meat, white of egg, casein (curd) of milk, and gluten of wheat, 
make muscle, blood, bone, etc. 

l CltS i I' § M J£* °H T^o^Z^l^T \ ^rro as fuel to yield heat and muscular power. 
Carbohydrates, o, g., starch and sugar, ) J A 




* Without bone. 



364 YEARBOOK OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

is a very economical food, because it furnishes protein in an easily 
digestible form, although, as we buy it, a pound will contain over eight- 
tenths of a pound of water and refuse. A pound of rice consists of 
about seven-eighths of a pound, and a pound of potatoes only one- 
fourth of a pound of nutritive materials, but in cooking the rice we 
mix water with it and thus make it not very different in composition 
from potatoes. By drying the potatoes we could get a material very 
similar in food value to rice. 

In Table 1 a number of the most common articles of food are grouped 
according to their quantities of protein and their fuel values. 

Table 1. — Classification of food materials by composition. 



Gradation by Amounts of Protein in 1 
Pound. 



Gradation by Fuel Values in 1 Pound, 



.32 to .21 pound protein. 

Canned corned beef; cheese. 
Beans, dry. 



VERY LARGE. 

4,220 to 1,700 calories. 

Butter; salt pork; cheese; smoked ham. 
Milk crackers; sugar; oatmeal. 



LARGE. 

.20 to .16 pound protein. 

Canned salmon ; beef, round; beef, sirloin 
salt codfish ; beef, chuck. 



1,700 to 1,200 calories. 



Pork, spare rib. 

Corn (maize) meal; wheat flour; rice; 
beans, dry; wheat bread. 



MEDIUM. 

.15 to .11 pound protein. 

Mutton, leg; pork, spare rib; beef, rib 
- eggs ; fresh codfish. 
Oatmeal ; wheat flour. 



1,200 to 700 calories. 

Canned corned beef; beef, rib ; beef, sirloin ; 
canned salmon; beef, chuck; mutton, leg; 
beef, round; eggs. 



SMALL. 

.10 to .06 pound protein. 700 to 800 calories. 

Smoked ham. Milk ; salt codfish. 

Wheat bread; milk crackers; corn (maize) Potatoes, 
meal; rice. 



VERY SMALL. 



.05 pound and less protein. 

Oysters; salt pork; milk; butter. 
Potatoes; sugar. 



300 calories and less. 
Oysters; fresh codfish. 



Before leaving the subject of the composition of food materials, a 
word of caution is in order. The figures in Table A in the Appendix 
represent the averages of the analyses now available. But different 
specimens of the same kind of food materials may vary widely in com- 
position. This is especially true of meats, because of the variations in 
the proportions of bone and of fat. 



CHEAP AND DEAR FOODS. 



To get at the actual cheapness or dearness of different food materials 
we must take into account both the composition and the price. Sup- 
pose, for instance, our would-be thrifty housewife, in buying food at the 



FOOD AND DIET. 365 

Fig. 81.— PECUNIARY ECONOMY OF FOOD. 
Amounts of actually nutritive ingredients obtained in different food materials for 10 cents. 

Protein. Fats. Carbohydrates. Fuel value. 



Protein compounds, e. g., lean of meat, white of egg, casein (curd) of milk, and gluten of wheat, 
make muscle, blood, bone, etc. 

SSS&fcSJ. °e f SMhSd "sugar! } -™ «• <-l <o ,-Md beat aud musclar power. 



Price 

per 

pound, 



Cents. 



Ten 
cents 
will 
buy- 



Pounds of nutrients and calories of fuel value in 10 cents' 
worth. 



2 Lbs. 



3 Lbs. 



4 Lbs. 



ZOOOCal. 4000Cal. 6Q00Cal. 8000Cal. 




366 YEARBOOK OF THE U S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

market for her family, wishes to obtain the largest amount of nutri- 
ment for her money. What kind shall she select ? To put it in another 
way, How much of tissue formers and fuel value can she obtain for a 
given sum — 10 cents, for instance — in beefsteak, flour, or potatoes, as she 
ordinarily buys them? 

If she spends her dime for beefsteak at 20 cents a pound, she gets 
half a pound, which supplies 0.08 pound of protein and 550 calories of 
energy; but if she invests the same money in flour at 2£ cents a pound, 
she has 4 pounds, with 0.44 pound of protein and 5,680 calories of 
energy. Table B (Human Foods, Appendix) shows the quantities of 
nutrients and energy in 10 cents' worth of each of a number of food 
materials at ordinary prices. Figure 81 illustrates the differences, and 
Table 2 herewith shows the gradation of a small number : 



Table 2. — Classification of food materials by cost of actual nutriment; i. e. } by amounts of 
protein and energy in the quantities bought for 10 cents at ordinary prices per pound. 



Gradation by Amounts op Protein in 10 
Cents' Worth at Prices Stated per 
Pound. 



Gradation by Fuel Values of 10 Cents' 
Worth at Prices Stated per Pound. 



very cheap. 



.75 to .26 pound protein. 

Salt codfish, G cents. 

Beans,